1 Ch 16: Acids and Bases A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 1 Homework: Read Chapter 16 Work out sample/practice exercises in the sections, Chapter problems: 39, 41, 49, 63, 67, 83, 91, 95, 99, 107, 111, 115, 117, 123, 139 Check for the MasteringChemistry.com assignment and complete before due date Acids, Bases, Salts: Acids, bases and salts are very important and perform many essential functions. Digestive juices (0.1 M HCl; needed to kill bacteria, break down food and activate enzymes) ph buffers; Households and Industrial uses Drain cleaner (NaOH) fertilizer (NH 4 NO 3 ) Car battery acid (40% H 2 SO 4 ) Table salt as a food preservative or for flavor (NaCl) Example 1: Come up with more common acids, bases, or salts and their uses.
2 A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 2 A few common acids, their uses and relative strength: A few common bases, their uses and relative strength:
3 A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 3 Review Electrolytes and Double Displacement Reactions: Electrolytes: Nonelectrolyte: A molecule or substance that remains whole in aqueous solutions, it cannot split apart. Examples: any insoluble solid, gas (CO 2, O 2, SO 2 ), and molecules (sugar, CH 4, H 2 O) Weak Electrolyte: An ionic substance that will partially ionize into its separate ions in aqueous solution. Examples: Weak acids (HF, HC 2 H 3 O 2 ) and Weak bases (NH 4 OH, CH 3 NH 2 ), and slightly soluble solids (PbCl 2 ). Partial ionization is an equilibrium reaction in which the reactant is favored, K<1 ; HF (aq) H +1 (aq) + F (aq). Strong Electrolyte: An ionic substance that completely dissociates into its ions in aqueous solution. Examples: Strong Acids (HCl), Strong Bases (NaOH), Soluble Salts (KBr); K>>1; HCl (aq) H +1 (aq) +Cl (aq). Titration: Reacting a solution of unknown concentration with a known (standard) concentration, stopping the titration when an indicator (phenolphthalein) changes color. Example 2: Write the dissociation reactions in the solvent water for the following substances. Strong electrolytes will have ( ), weak electrolytes have ( ), and nonelectrolytes are no reaction (NR). FeCl 3 (aq) HNO 3 (aq) Sr(OH) 2 (aq) CH 3 OH (aq) HF(aq)
4 A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 4 Double Displacement Reactions: Double Displacement reactions have two ionic reactants. Reactants will exchange ions in making products AB + CD AD + CB A reaction occurs if a nonelectrolyte (Solid, Liquid (H 2 O), Gas), or Weak Electrolyte is formed as one or more of the products. If all the reactants and the products are strong electrolytes, then no reaction takes place. Review the Solubility Rules. a) Whole or Molecular equation 2 AgNO 3 (aq) + CaCl 2 (aq) Ca(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2 AgCl (s) b) Total Ionic Equation with Spectator Ions 2 Ag +1 (aq) + 2 NO3 (aq) + Ca +2 (aq) +2 Cl (aq) c) Net Ionic Reaction Ag +1 (aq) + Cl (aq) AgCl (s) Ca +2 (aq) + 2 NO3 (aq) + 2 AgCl (s) Example 3: For the Double Displacement reactions, write the whole, total ionic (circling the spectator ions) and net ionic equations given the reactants. Identify the type of reaction as Precipitation, Neutralization, or No Reaction. a) HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) b) NH 4 OH, same as NH3 (aq) + H 2 S (aq) c) Al(NO 3 ) 3 (aq) + KCl (aq) d) K 2 S (aq) + Zn(ClO 3 ) 2 (aq)
5 A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 5 Review Acids, Bases and Salts : Acids: Properties: Taste Sour Reacts with active metals to liberate H 2 : Zn (s) + 2 HCl(aq) H 2 (g)+ ZnCl 2 (aq) Reacts with carbonates to liberate CO 2 : CaCO 3 (s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g) React with bases to form ionic salts (neutralize): NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) Conduct electrical current Certain dyes change color with acids (litmus-red) Acids ionize in water to increase the H +1 ion concentration Nomenclature: a) Binary acids, those anions ending in ide: Hydro root ic acid; (HCl), Hydrochloric Acid; (H 2 S), hydrosulfuric acid b) Ternary oxyacids: if anion ends with ate, root ic acid; (HNO 3 ), nitric acid, if anion ends with ite, root ous acid, (HNO 2 ), nitrous acid Bases (also known as alkalis): Properties: Taste bitter Slimy to the touch Conducts electricity Certain dyes change color with bases (litmus-blue) React with acids to form ionic salts (neutralize): Ionize in water to increase the OH ion concentration Nomenclature: metal name + hydroxide; (NaOH), Sodium Hydroxide; or common name (NH 3 ), ammonia, organic bases with N are amines, (CH 3 NH 2 ), methyl amine Salts: The ionic substances not readily identified as an acid or base, some are very soluble, others only slightly soluble in water. Nomenclature: cation name + anion name; (CuCl 2 ) copper (II) chloride, (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4, ammonium sulfate, (NaCl), sodium chloride.
6 A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 6 Example 4: Fill in the Table with names or formulas. Name Formula Hydrosulfuric acid Ethyl amine Potassium fluoride MgHCO 3 H 2 C 2 O 4 Ba(OH) 2 Acids and Bases Defined : Arrhenius Definition (1884): Most limited definition requires water. Acid: Substance that will increase the H +1 ion concentration in an aqueous solution. (HF) Base: Substance that will increase the OH ion concentration in an aqueous solution. (KOH) Neutralization is the combination of an acid with a base to form water and a salt. Bronsted Lowry Definitions (1923): broader definition, more base possibilities Acid: Donates one H +1 ion. (HA), NH 4 +1 Base: Accepts one H +1 ion. (A ), NH 3 Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs: These are different by only a single H +1. The acid has one more H +1 compared to the base in a conjugate pair. NH 4 +1 is the conjugate acid for NH 3 the conjugate base. HF is the conjugate acid for F the conjugate base. Amphiprotic Substance: One that can both accept and donate H +1 and can be either acid or base dependent on the environment. H 2 O can accept H +1 and become H 3 O +1 or donate H +1 and become OH. HCO 3 is also amphiprotic.
7 A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 7 Amphoteric Substance is another term used. Although all amphiprotic species must be amphoteric, not all amphoteric substances are amphiprotic. Amphoteric substances are able to react with an acid or a base. For example, the amphoteric metal oxide, ZnO, contains no hydrogen and cannot donate a proton. ZnO acts as a Lewis acid or Lewis base which accepts or donates electron pairs. Amphoteric ZnO reacts with both acids and with bases: In acid: ZnO + 2H + Zn 2+ + H 2 O In base: ZnO + H 2 O + 2OH - [Zn(OH) 4 ] 2- Example 5: a) Write the formulas for the conjugate bases given the acids: Acid NH 4 +1 HF HNO 2 H 2 SO 3 H 2 O Conjugate base b) Write the formulas for the conjugate acids given the bases: Base C 2 H 3 O 2 (CH 3 ) 2 NH ClO SO 3-2 H 2 O Conjugate acid c) Which of the species in (a) and (b) above are amphiprotic?
8 A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 8 Lewis Definitions: This definition does not require water or aqueous reactions. Acid: Accepts a share of a nonbonding electron pair. (BH 3 ) Base: Donates a share of a nonbonding electron pair. (NH 3 ) Generally results in a covalent bond forming, the product is called an adduct Example 6: Identify the Lewis acid and base for the reactants below. a) (CH 3 ) 3 N + BF 3 (CH 3 ) 3 NBF 3 b) FeBr 3 + Br FeBr 4 c) Zn NH 3 Zn(NH 3 ) 4 +2 d) SO 2 + H 2 O H 2 SO 3
9 A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 9 Structure of Acids: Binary acids have the hydrogen attached to a nonmetal atom: HF Oxy acids or ternary acids have the hydrogen attached to an oxygen atom: Carboxylic acids have COOH group the hydrogen attached to the COO group is acidic: *ADD THE LONE PAIR ELECTRONS TO THE PICTURES OF SULFURIC ACID, NITRIC ACID AND CARBOXYLIC ACID GROUP. Structure of Bases: Most ionic bases contain OH ions Some contain CO 3-2 ions Molecular bases contain structures that would like to add an H +1 ion, mostly NH 3 and amine groups. Relative strengths: A stronger acid will have a weaker conjugate base and vice versa. Strong acids have a negligible conjugate base. Stronger bases have weaker conjugate acids. Reactions always favor having a greater amount of the weaker acid and base at equilibrium.
10 A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 10 Example 7: a) Which acid (HI or HF) has the weaker conjugate base? b) Which base (C 2 H 3 O 2 or OH ) has a weaker conjugate acid?
11 A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 11 Autoionization of Water: Pure water will ionize just slightly; it is generally considered a nonelectrolyte since the amount it ionizes is so small. K w = 1.0 x 10 4 at 25 C for the reaction H 2 O (l) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O +1 (aq) + OH (aq) The hydronium ion (H 3 O +1 ) is often written as a proton in water, H +1 (aq), even though the H +1 is so reactive it cannot exist alone in water. H +1 is chemically bonded to one or more water molecules in an aqueous solution connected by hydrogen bonding. H(H 2 O) n +1 H 2 O (l) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O +1 (aq) + OH (aq) or H 2 O (l) H +1 (aq) + OH (aq); K w = [H +1 ][OH ] Temperature: As the temperature changes, so will K w 0 C K w = 1.1 x C K w = 1.0 x C K w = 2.5 x C K w = 9.6 x 10 4 ph Scale: ph is a value that helps in determining the acidity of a solution. ph can be determined using ph meter, ph paper, or indicators (intense colored organic dyes that change color at different ph values). ph = -log[h +1 ] [H +1 ] = 10 -ph K w = 1.0 x 10 4 = [H +1 ][OH ] at 25 C poh = -log[oh ] [OH ] = 10 -poh pk w = -log[k w ] pk w = ph + poh = 14 at 25 C Acid has a ph < 7 Neutral has ph = 7 Base has a ph > 7 px = -log[x], pk a = -logk a, pk b = -logk b ; K a = 10 -Ka, K b = 10 -Kb
12 A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 12 Significant Figures and Logs: When you take the log of a number written in scientific notation, the digit(s) before the decimal point come from the exponent on 10, and the digits after the decimal point come from the decimal part of the number log(2.0 x 10 6 ) = log(10 6 ) + log(2.0) = = Because the part of the scientific notation number that determines the significant figures is the decimal part, the sig figs are the digits after the decimal point. Example 8: Given that the ph of a solution is 4.88, solve for the [H +1 ], [OH ], and poh using appropriate significant digits. Strong Acids and Bases: Strong Acids: HCl, HBr, HI, HNO 3, HClO 4, HClO 3, H 2 SO 4 Strong Soluble Bases: LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH, FrOH, Ca(OH) 2, Sr(OH) 2, Ba(OH) 2, Ra(OH) 2 Strong Acids and Strong Bases dissociate into ions nearly completely, so the dissociation reaction equilibrium constant K is very, very large.
13 A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 13 Example 9: Calculate the concentration of hydrogen and hydroxide ions, and the ph and poh. a) M HCl; [H +1 ] = [Acid] for monoprotic strong acids. b) M Ba(OH) 2 ; [OH ] = (number OH )x[base] for strong soluble bases Equilibrium Involving Weak Acids: Weak acids are much more common and numerous compared to strong acids. Weak acids (WA or HA) only will partially ionize. We use the equilibrium constant, K a, in which K a <1, the smaller the K a, the weaker the acid. The book appendix has K a values. The weak acid equilibrium reaction is generally of the form HA H +1 + A or HA + H 2 O H 3 O +1 + A Approximation in Calculations: When using RICE you may avoid the quadratic equation if x is added or subtracted from a relatively large number compared to the value of K a. The addition or subtraction of the x can be considered negligible when K a is 1000 times smaller than the concentration. Approximation values can be used if K a is between 100 to 1000 times smaller than the concentrations.
14 A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 14
15 A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 15 Example 10: In M solution, a weak monoprotic acid (HA) is 5.00% ionized. Calculate using the RICE equation the equilibrium concentrations, ph and K a. Example 11: The ph of a M solution of a monoprotic acid (HA) is Using RICE, calculate K a. Example 12: Calculate the equilibrium concentrations and ph for the following solutions. (a) M HC 2 H 3 O 2 (b) M HCN
16 A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 16 Equilibrium Involving Weak Bases: Weak soluble bases are generally going to be amines, ammonia, and conjugate base ions of acids. Weak bases (B or A ) need to have water as an additional reactant to provide the H +1 and only will partially ionize. We use the equilibrium constant, K b, in which K b <1, the smaller the K b, the weaker the base. Appendix D has K values The weak base equilibrium reaction is generally of the form B + H 2 O BH +1 + OH Or A + H 2 O HA + OH every anion can potentially act as a base and accept an H +1. Example 13: Calculate the % ionization, poh, ph and the equilibrium concentrations in 0.15 M NH 3 (aq). K b = 1.8 x 10-5
17 A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 17 Example 14: The ph is for a NH 3 (aq) solution. Calculate the Molarity of NH 3. Polyprotic Acid Equilibria: Ionization of polyprotic acids occur stepwise. K a is different for each step, decreasing as each H +1 is lost (K a1 > K a2 > K a3 ). Generally, the difference in K a values is enough so that the second ionization does not happen to a large extent except for extremely dilute solutions, the [H +1 ] can be assumed to come from the first step alone. [A -2 ] = K a2 as long as the second ionization is negligible.
18 A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 18 Example 15: Calculate the concentrations of all species in 0.25 M H 2 SO 4 solution. Given: K a1 >>1 (assume complete ionization), K a2 = 1.2 x 10-2 Example 16: Calculate the concentrations of all species in 0.40 M H 3 AsO 4 solution. Given: K a1 = 5.5 x 10-3, K a2 = 1.7 x 10-7, K a1 = 5.1 x 10 2
19 A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 19 Relating Ka and Kb for Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs: K a HF H +1 + F K a = 3.5 x 10-4 K b F + H 2 O HF + OH K b =? K w H 2 O H +1 + OH K w = 1.0 x 10 4 K w = K a x K b Example 17: Demonstrate how K w = K a x K b and calculate the K b value for F Salt Solutions (Acid-Base Properties): Salts are ionic compounds with cation and anion that may be conjugates of a base and acid. The reaction Acid + Base Water + Soluble Salt has several General Categories forming soluble salts: SA + SB soluble neutral salt + water WA + SB soluble basic salt + water SA + WB soluble acidic salt + water WA + WB salt of unknown acidity + water The reaction Acid + Base Water + Salt Can be reversed to create the reaction for the hydrolysis of a salt Salt + Water Acid + Base Writing the whole, total ionic equation and net ionic equations: Balance all atoms and charges SA, SB and SS (Soluble salts) are written as charged ions WA, WB, gases, solids, liquids are written whole Include phases
20 A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 20 Example 18: Write the whole, total ionic, and net ionic reactions for the hydrolysis of the following salts. Identify spectator ions. Predict acidity of the salt, (Is it neutral, acidic or basic) a) CaBr 2 b) NaNO 2 c) NH 4 NO 3 d) NH 4 C 2 H 3 O 2 e) CH 3 NH 2 F Example 19: Calculate [OH ], ph, % hydrolysis for 0.10 M NaClO solution found in Clorox bleach. K a of HClO = 3.5 x 10-8
21 A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 21 Example 20: Write the whole, total and net ionic hydrolysis reactions for NH 4 Br. Calculate [H +1 ], ph, % hydrolysis for 0.20 M NH 4 Br solution. Look up the appropriate equilibrium constant you will require in the calculations. Hydrated Metal Cations can act as Weak Acids: Alkali metal and alkaline earth metal cations are ph neutral, negligible counter-ions of strong bases. They do not act as weak acids. Small highly charged metals can coordinate with water and release H +1 ion from water to reduce the charge. Cu(H 2 O) 6 +2 (aq) H +1 (aq) + Cu(H 2 O) 5 (OH) +1 (aq) K a = 3 x 10-8 Smaller metals with higher positive charges more acidic Acid Strength: The stronger an acid is at donating H +1, the weaker the conjugate base is at accepting H +1 Cation makes a stronger acid than neutral molecule which is more acidic than anion H 3 O +1 > H 2 O > OH or NH 4 + > NH 3 > NH 2 Larger K a = stronger acid
22 A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 22 Chemical Structure Influences the Acid/Base Strength: BinaryAcids: Bond Strength (Greatest factor in same vertical column), weaker bond (larger anion) more acidic Bond strengths: HF >> HCl > HBr > HI Electronegativity difference: (factor when comparing anions in the same period, horizontal row) greater difference more acidic. H 2 S is a weaker acid than HCl F ion (special case) causes an increased ordering in water molecules creating the unfavorable lowering of entropy. This helps to explain why HF is a weak acid. Ternary Oxyacids: Electronegativity of Center Atom, higher electronegativity more acidic H 2 SO 4 > H 2 SeO 4 > H 2 TeO 4 Oxidation State of Center, Larger oxidation number (more oxygens) more acidic. HClO 4 > HClO 3 > HClO 2 > HClO Carboxylic Acids: The ability for the conjugate base to have resonance structures will stabilize the base and it is more likely to have the hydrogen ion lost. R-COOH Polyprotic Acids: The fewer H +1 a species has, the weaker the acid becomes. H 3 PO 4 is a stronger acid than H 2 PO 4 and both are stronger than the HPO 4-2 acid since each successive K a gets much smaller. Example 21: Explain the following observations: a) H 3 PO 4 is a stronger acid than H 3 AsO 4 b) H 2 SO 3 is a stronger acid than HSO 3 Acid Rain: Over 85% of U.S. fuel is from fossil fuels producing CO 2, SO 2, and NO 2 which are linked to acid rain and damages to ecosystems and structures. Natural processes as volcanoes also add to it. Nonmetal oxides and water create acids.
23 A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 23 More Practice: 1. Give the conjugate base of the following Bronsted-Lowry acids a) NH 4 +1 b) H 2 PO 4 c) HC 7 H 5 O 2 2. Give the conjugate acid of the following Bronsted-Lowry bases a) CN b) H 2 PO 4 c) C 2 H 5 NH 2 3. Designate the Bronsted-Lowry acid and base on the reactant side of each equation and the conjugate acid and base on the product side: (all aqueous) a) NH CN HCN + NH 3 b) (CH 3 ) 3 N + H 2 O (l) (CH 3 ) 3 NH +1 + OH c) HCHO 2 + PO 4-3 CHO 2 + HPO The hydrogen oxalate ion, HC 2 O 4, is amphiprotic. Write the balanced chemical equation showing how it acts as an acid and how it acts as a base in water. 5. Which of the following is the stronger acid, HBrO or HBr? 6. Which is the stronger base, F or Cl? 7. Calculate [H +1 ], ph and poh for the following and determine if acidic or basic a) [OH - ] = M b) 2.5 x 10-2 M HCl c) solution where 100x[H + ] =[OH - ] 8. By what factor does [H + ] change for a ph change of a) 2.00 units, b) 0.50 units? 9. Predict the products of the following acid-base reactions, and also predict whether the reactants or the products are preferred when at equilibrium. a) NH 3 (aq) + HBr (aq) b) HCO 3 (aq) + F (aq) c) H 2 O (l) + NO 3 (aq) 10. The average ph of normal arterial blood is 7.40 at body temperature (37 C), at which K w = 2.4 x Calculate [H +1 ], [OH ] and poh for this temperature. 11. A M solution of lactic acid (HC 3 H 5 O 3 ) has a ph of Calculate K a. 12. A M solution of chloroacetic acid is 11.0% ionized. Solve for the equilibrium concentrations of its ions and the K a.
24 A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e Saccharin (HNC 7 H 4 SO 3 ) has a pk a of 2.32 at 25 C. Solve for the ph of a M solution of saccharin. 14. Phosphoric acid is triprotic (H 3 PO 4 ). Calculate the ph and equilibrium concentrations involved in phosphoric acid for a M solution. Given: K a1 =7.5 x 10-3, K a2 = 6.2 x 10-8, K a3 = 4.2 x Calculate the ph of M ethylamine (C 2 H 5 NH 2 ), K b = 6.4 x Ephedrine (C 10 H 15 ON) is used in nasal sprays as a decongestant. A M solution has a ph of Solve for the equilibrium concentrations and K b. 17. Predict wheter the following aqueous salts will be acidic, basic, or neutral a) NH 4 Br b) NaC 2 H 3 O 2 c) KClO An unknown salt is either NaOCl or NaF. When moles of the salt is dissolved in L the ph of the solution is What is the salt?
25 A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 25 Answers: 1) -2 a) NH 3 b) HPO 4 c) C 7 H 5 O 2 2) +1 a) HCN b) H 3 PO 4 c) C 2 H 5 NH 3 3) +1 a) NH 4 + CN HCN + NH 3 acid base acid base b) (CH 3 ) 3 N + H 2 O (l) (CH 3 ) 3 NH +1 + OH base acid acid base -3-2 c) HCHO 2 + PO 4 CHO 2 + HPO 4 acid base base acid 4) -2 Acid: HC 2 O 4 + H 2 O C 2 O 4 + H 3 O +1 Base: HC 2 O 4 + H 2 O H 2 C 2 O 4 + OH 5) HBr 6) F 7) a) [H +1 ]= 2.5 x 10 1, ph = 10.60, poh = 3.40 b) [H +1 ]= 2.5 x 10-2, ph = 1.60, poh = c) [H +1 ]= 1.0 x 10-8, ph = 8.00, poh = ) a) 100x b) 3.16x 9) +1 a) Products: NH 3 (aq) + HBr (aq) NH 4 (aq) + Br (aq) b) Reactants: HCO 3 (aq) + F (aq) CO -2 3 (aq) + HF (aq) c) Reactants: H 2 O (l) + NO 3 (aq) OH (aq) + HNO 3 (aq) 10) [H +1 ]= 4.0 x 10-8, [OH - ] = 6.0 x 10-7, poh = ) K a = 1.4 x ) [H +1 ] = [ClCH 2 COO ] = M, [ClCH 2 COOH] = M, K a = 1.4 x ) [H +1 ]= 2.0 x 10-2, ph = ) [H 3 PO 4 ] = M, [H +1 ]= M, [H 2 PO 4 ] = M, [HPO -2 4 ] = 6.2 x 10-8, -3 [PO 4 ] = 3x10-20, [OH - ] = 3.7 x 10 3, ph= ) ph = ) [OH ] = [C 10 H 15 ONH +1 ] = M, [C 10 H 15 ON] = 0.033M, K a = 1.4 x ) a) acid, b) base, c) neutral 18) NaF
Chapter 15 Acid and Bases Properties of Acids! Sour taste! React with active metals! React with carbonates, producing CO 2! Change color of vegetable dyes!blue litmus turns red! React with bases to form
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Periodic Table Name Academic Chemistry Acids & Bases Notes Unit #14 Test Date: 20 cincochem.pbworks.com Acid Base cincochem.pbworks.com Notes Find ph To go from [H 3 O + ] to ph EXAMPLE: [H 3 O + ] = 3.23
(Hebden Unit 4 page 109 182) 182) We will cover the following topics: 1. Definition of Acids and Bases 2. Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases 2 1 Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases An acid is a substance
You are already familiar with some acid and base chemistry. According to the Arrhenius model, acids are substances that when dissolved in water ionize to yield hydrogen ion (H + ) and a negative ion. e.g.
16.1 Acids and Bases: A Brief Review Arrhenius concept of acids and bases: an acid increases [H + ] and a base increases [OH ]. 16.2 BrønstedLowry Acids and Bases In the BrønstedLowry system, a BrønstedLowry
Acids Definition of Acid Acids are substances that contain H + ions that ionize when dissolved in water. Arrhenius acid: a compound that increases the concentration of H + ions that are present when added
Acids And Bases A. Characteristics of Acids and Bases 1. Acids and bases are both ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. Since acids and bases both form ionic solutions, their solutions conduct electricity
1 Chapter 16 exercise Q1. Practice exercise page 671 Write the formula for the conjugate acid of the following, HSO 3, F, PO 4 3 and CO. HSO 3 H H 2 SO 4 F H HF PO 4 3 H HPO 4 2 CO H HCO Q2. Practice exercise
Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry (continuation) 1. Electrolytes and non-electrolytes 2. Determining Moles of Ions in Aqueous Solutions of Ionic Compounds 3. Acids and Bases 4. Acid Strength
Chem 1046 Lecture Notes Chapter 17 Updated 01-Oct-2012 The Chemistry of Acids and Bases These Notes are to SUPPLIMENT the Text, They do NOT Replace reading the Text Book Material. Additional material that
Properties of Acids and Bases Chapter 14 Acids and Bases Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927) First to develop a theory for acids and bases in aqueous solution Arrhenius Acids Compounds which dissolve (dissociate)
CHAPTER 14 THE CHEMISTRY OF ACIDS AND BASES "ACID"--Latin word acidus, meaning sour. (lemon) "ALKALI"--Arabic word for the ashes that come from burning certain plants; water solutions feel slippery and
Acids and Bases Properties of Acids and Bases Acids taste. Lemon juice and, for example, are both aqueous solutions of acids. Acids conduct electricity; they are. Some are strong electrolytes, while others
Chemistry: The Central Science Chapter 16: Acid-Base Equilibria 16.1: Acids and Bases: A Brief Review Acids have a sour taste and cause certain dyes to change color Base have a bitter taste and feel slippery
Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay, Jr., Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 16 Dr Ayman Nafady John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Some Definitions
Principles of Reactivity: The Chemistry of Acids and Bases **a lot of calculations in this chapter will be done on the chalkboard Do not rely on these notes for all the material** Acids, Bases and Arrhenius
Chapter 16 - Acids and Bases 16.1 Acids and Bases: The Brønsted Lowry Model 16.2 ph and the Autoionization of Water 16.3 Calculations Involving ph, K a and K b 16.4 Polyprotic Acids 16.1 Acids and Bases:
Unit 10: Acids and Bases PROPERTIES OF ACIDS & BASES Properties of an Acid: a Tastes sour substance which dissociates (ionizes, breaks apart in solution) in water to form hydrogen ions Turns blue litmus
Acid / Base Properties of Salts n Soluble ionic salts produce may produce neutral, acidic, or basic solutions depending on the acidbase properties of the individual ions. n Consider the salt sodium nitrate,
There are three definitions for acids and bases we will need to understand. Arrhenius Concept: an acid supplies H + to an aqueous solution. A base supplies OH to an aqueous solution. This is the oldest
Chapter 7 Acids and Bases 7.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases 7.2 Acid Strength 7.3 The ph Scale 7.4 Calculating the ph of Strong Acid Solutions 7.5 Calculating the ph of Weak Acid Solutions 7.6 Bases 7.7
AP Chemistry CHAPTER 17- Buffers and Ksp 17.1 The Common Ion Effect The dissociation of a weak electrolyte is decreased by the addition of a strong electrolyte that has an ion in common with the weak electrolyte.
Unit 4a Acids, Bases, and Salts Theory Chemistry 12 Arrhenius Theory of Acids and Bases The first theory that was proposed to explain the actions of acids and bases was by Svante Arrhenius. It is still
NAME: UNIT #11: Acids and Bases ph and poh Neutralization Reactions Oxidation and Reduction 1. SELF-IONIZATION OF WATER a) Water molecules collide, causing a very small number to ionize in a reversible
Unit 6: Acids and Bases Honour Chemistry Unit 6: ACIDS AND BASES Chapter 16: Acids and Bases 16.1: Brønsted Acids and Bases Physical and Chemical Properties of Acid and Base Acids Bases Taste Sour (Citric
CHAPTER 19 Acids, Bases & Salts 1. ACIDS Grace King High School Chemistry Test Review UNITS 7 SOLUTIONS &ACIDS & BASES Arrhenius definition of Acid: Contain Hydrogen and produce Hydrogen ion (aka proton),
Chem 105 Tuesday March 8, 2011 Chapter 17. Acids and Bases 1) Define Brønsted Acid and Brønsted Base 2) Proton (H + ) transfer reactions: conjugate acid-base pairs 3) Water and other amphiprotic substances
Chapter 15 - Acids and Bases Fundamental Concepts Acids and Bases: Basic Definitions Properties of Acids Sour Taste React with active metals (Al, Zn, Fe) to yield H 2 gas: Corrosive React with carbonates
Brønsted-Lowry Acid-Base Model William L Masterton Cecile N. Hurley Edward J. Neth cengage.com/chemistry/masterton Chapter 13 Acids and Bases Brønsted-Lowry Johannes Brønsted (1879-1947) Thomas Lowry (1874-1936)
Acid and Bases Exam Review Honors Chemistry 3 April 2012 Chapter 14- Acids and Bases Section 14.1- Acid and Base Properties List five general properties of aqueous acids and bases Properties of Acids Properties
William L Masterton Cecile N. Hurley http://academic.cengage.com/chemistry/masterton Chapter 13 Acids and Bases Edward J. Neth University of Connecticut Outline 1. Brønsted-Lowry acid-base model 2. The
Chapter 14: Acids and Bases 14.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases Bronsted-Lowry Acid-Base Systems Bronsted acid: proton donor Bronsted base: proton acceptor Bronsted acid base reaction: proton transfer from
Name Chemistry Pre-AP Notes: Acids and Bases Period I. Describing Acids and Bases A. Properties of Acids taste ph 7 Acids change color of an (e.g. blue litmus paper turns in the presence of an acid) React
Chapter 10 - Acids & Bases 10.1-Acids & Bases: Definitions Arrhenius Definitions Acids: substances that produce hydrogen ions when dissolved in H 2 O Common Strong Acids: Common Weak acids: Organic carboxylic
Acid-Base Equilibria 1. Classify each of the following species as an acid, a base, or amphoteric in aqueous solution: (a) H 2 O; (b) CH 3 CH 2 ; (c) PO 4 3 ; (d) C 6 H 5 NH 3 2. Write the proton transfer
Lecture Presentation Chapter 16 Acid Base Equilibria John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Some Definitions Arrhenius An acid is a substance that, when dissolved in water, increases
Aqueous Equilibria, Part 1 AP Chemistry Lecture Outline Name: Acids and Bases Arrhenius...acids increase the when dissolved in H 2 O....bases increase the when dissolved in H 2 O. e.g., HCl and NaOH Bronsted-Lowry
Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Properties of Acids and Bases What is an acid? Some examples of common items containing acids: Vinegar contains acetic acid; lemons and citrus fruits contain citric acid; many
Lecture 10 Professor Hicks Inorganic Chemistry II (CHE152) ph Scale of [H 3 O + ] (or you could say [H + ]) concentration More convenient than scientific notation ph = log [H 3 O + ] still not sure? take
As you work through the chapter, you should be able to: Advanced Placement Chemistry Chapters 14 16 Syllabus Chapter 14 Acids and Bases 1. Describe acid and bases using the Bronsted-Lowry, Arrhenius, and
Acids Definition of Acid Acids are substances that contain H + ions that ionize when dissolved in water. Arrhenius acid: a compound that increases the concentration of H + ions that are present when added
Slide 1 Chapter 14 Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases Slide 2 Acid Base Concepts 01 Arrhenius Acid: A substance which dissociates to form hydrogen ions (H + ) in solution. HA(aq) H + (aq) + A (aq) Arrhenius
Honors Chemistry Name Acids and Bases Review Worksheet II Date / / Period Solute Name of Solute Molar Mass grams mole Molarity moles L Normality [H 3 O +1 ] [OH ] ph poh Acidic or Basic 1. HCl Hydrochloric
Name AP CHEM / / Chapter 14 Outline Acids and Bases The Nature of Acids and Bases Svante Arrhenius was the first to recognize the nature of acids and bases. He postulated that acids produce hydrogen ions(h