HA(s) + H 2 O(l) = H 3 O + (aq) + A (aq) b) NH 3 (g) + H 2 O(l) = NH 4 + (aq) + OH (aq) Acid no. H + type base no. OH type

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "HA(s) + H 2 O(l) = H 3 O + (aq) + A (aq) b) NH 3 (g) + H 2 O(l) = NH 4 + (aq) + OH (aq) Acid no. H + type base no. OH type"

Transcription

1 You are already familiar with some acid and base chemistry. According to the Arrhenius model, acids are substances that when dissolved in water ionize to yield hydrogen ion (H + ) and a negative ion. e.g. HCl(g) H + (aq) + Cl (aq) bases are substance that yields hydroxide ion (OH ) when dissolved in water. e.g. NaOH(s) Na + (aq) + OH (aq) A more encompassing model was one developed by two Swedish chemists, Bronsted and Lowry. According to this model: acid = a proton (H + ) donor base = a proton (H + ) acceptor In donating a proton an acid (HA) then becomes a base (A ). The base it becomes is termed its conjugate. What are the Bronsted Lowry conjugate acid base pairs in the following reaction? HA(s) + H 2 O(l) = H 3 O + (aq) + A (aq) The above reaction is also often represented in a more simple way: HA(s) = H + (aq) + A (aq) Keep in mind that a bare proton (i.e. an empty s orbital) is extremely reactive and in water will form a coordinate covalent bond (water contributes one of its lone pairs) resulting in a hydronium (H 3O + ) ion. H + + H 2O = H 3O + May 1 2:14 PM May 1 2:15 PM Nevertheless the symbols H + and H 3O + are used interchangeably. Problem 1: Identify the acid base conjugate pairs in the following reactions: b) NH 3 (g) + H 2 O(l) = NH 4 + (aq) + OH (aq) HCl(g) + H 2 O(l) = H 3 O + (aq) + Cl (aq) May 1 2:15 PM May 1 2:17 PM Note that in the above reactions water acted as a B L base in reaction (a) but then as a B L base in reaction (b). A substance which can act as either a B L acid (proton donor) or B L base (proton acceptor) is termed amphoteric (or amphiprotic). For example, HSO 4 Acids can have more than one hydrogen that ionizes and bases can more than one hydroxide group that dissociates. The following are examples: Acid no. H + type base no. OH type HCl 1 monoprotic KOH 1 monohydroxy H2SO4 2 diprotic Mg(OH)2 2 dihydroxy H3PO4 3 triprotic Al(OH)3 3 trihydroxy May 1 2:18 PM May 1 2:18 PM 1

2 Acid/Base Strength A strong acid is by definition an acid that ionizes virtually completely in water. For example, bubbling hydrogen chloride through water results in the following reaction: HCl(g) + H 2 O(l) = H 3 O + (aq) + Cl (aq) Problem 2: Calculate the hydronium ion (or hydrogen ion) concentration of a solution made by dissolving 3.65 g of hydrogen chloride in 1.00 liter of solution. Show the reaction of hydrogen chloride in water: initial % change equilibrium In the above reaction the HCl donates a proton (H + ) to water and water becomes a hydronium ion. Hence the HCl is a B L acid and water acts as a B L base. May 1 2:18 PM May 1 2:20 PM Since strong acids ionize completely we would expect them to be strong electrolytes. You should memorize the following strong acids and bases (you can assume all others are weak): strong acids strong bases hydrochloric lithium hydroxide nitric sodium hydroxide sulfuric potassium hydroxide perchloric calcium hydroxide Weak acids ionize only to a small extent. Let s consider the ionization of acetic acid in water: HC 2H 3O 2(aq) + H 2O(l) = H 3O + (aq) + C 2H 3O 2 (aq) initial change equilibrium Weak acids will thus be expected to be weak electrolytes. hydroiodic strontium hydroxide hydrobromic barium hydrpxide Apr 30 9:22 AM May 1 2:20 PM May 1 2:21 PM May 1 2:23 PM 2

3 Properties of Acids Solutions of acids are electrolytes. Acids react with active metals to produce hydrogen gas. For example, Zn(s) + HCl(aq) CIE: NIE: Acids react with bases to form a salt and water via a neutralization reaction. For example: HNO 3(aq) + KOH(aq) Nonmetallic oxides (acid anhydrides) react with water to form acids. For example: CO 2(g) + H 2O(l) Acids have a sour taste (i.e. lemon juice) Acids cause color changes in indicators. An indicator is a substance (generally a weak acid or base) that has a different color in the unionized and ionized form. Which form predominates depends on the hydrogen (hydronium) ion concentration. May 1 2:25 PM May 1 2:26 PM The Autoionization of Water Properties of Bases Solutions of bases are electrolytes. Bases cause color changes in indicators (see acids). Bases react with acids to form a salt and water via a neutralization reaction. Metallic oxides (basic anhydrides) react with water to form bases (metallic hydroxides). For example: CaO(s) + H 2O(l) Dilute solutions of bases have a slippery feeling. Recall water is an amphoteric substance it can donate a proton (acid) or accept a proton (base). In a pure sample of water, water autoionizes one water molecule donates a proton to another water molecule: H2O(l) + H2O(l) = Write the equilibrium expression for this reaction: (the Keq is called Kw) Kw = The numeric value of Kw at 25 o C = 1 X What does this value of Kw tell us about the extent of the reaction? Why does pure water not conduct electricity even though there are hydronium and hydroxide ions present? Calculate the molar concentrations of hydronium ion and hydroxide ion in a pure sample of water at 25 o C: How do the concentrations compare to each other? May 1 2:26 PM May 1 2:26 PM Now let s get quantitative! Suppose we had some hydrochloric acid to water. The hydrochloric acid will donate a proton to water to form hydronium ion, and thus the hydronium ion concentration will increase. Again the autoionization of water represents an equilibrium condition. What is the concentration of hydronium ion in water before the addition of any acid? H2O(l) + H2O(l) = H3O + (aq) + OH (aq) Use Le Chatelier s principle to predict what will happen if we add acid [H3O + ] to water: Suppose after addition of acid, the hydronium ion concentration is 1.0 X 10 3 M. By what magnitude did the concentration of hydronium ion change? What is the concentration of hydroxide ion in water before the addition of any acid? Use Le Chatelier s principle to predict what will happen if we add base [OH ] to water: H2O(l) + H2O(l) = H3O + (aq) + OH (aq) What will happen to the concentration of hydroxide ion after addition of acid to the water? By what magnitude did the concentration of hydroxide ion change? Calculate the new concentration of hydroxide ion after the addition of the acid: May 1 2:27 PM May 1 2:27 PM 3

4 Another problem: Calculate the concentration of hydronium ion in a solution after the addition of base results in a hydroxide ion concentration = 1.0 X 10 4 M. By what magnitude did the concentration of hydronium ion change? In pure water the following reaction occurs: H 2O(l) + H 2O(l) = or H 2O(l) = In any aqueous solution, the following is always true: K w = [H 3O + ][OH ] = 1 X ph Scale Chemists have come up with the idea of ph to avoid writing numbers with exponents when talking about the acidity (or basicity) of a solution. px = log[x] or Note: [H + ] = 10 ph for example, what is [H + ] if ph = 3? Note: ph + poh = 14 Note: Since ph is a logarithmic scale, a difference of 1 unit in ph corresponds to a factor of 10. ph = log[h + ] and poh = log[oh ] [H3O + ] ph [H3O + ] > [OH ] [H3O + ] = [OH ] [H3O + ] < [OH ] Problem 3 a) What is the ph of a solution whose hydronium ion concentration = 3.70 X 10 4 M b) Calculate the ph and hydroxide ion concentration of a solution whose hydronium ion concentration = 5.60 X 10 3 M c) Calculate the ph, poh, and hydronium ion concentration in a solution whose hydroxide ion concentration = 1.20 X 10 6 M. d) Determine the hydronium ion and hydroxide ion concentrations in a solution that has a ph = e) Determine the hydronium ion and hydroxide ion concentrations in a solution that has a ph = f) What is the difference in hydronium ion concentration between a solution having a ph = 2 and a solution having a ph = 6 May 1 2:29 PM May 1 2:30 PM 4

5 Problem 6. Calculate the hydronium ion, hydroxide ion, ph and poh of a solution of acetic acid that is 2.75% ionized. Problem 4. Calculate the ph of a 0.800M solution of nitrous acid that is 3.50% ionized. Problem 7. A 0.650M solution of a monoprotic acid (HA) has a ph = Determine its Ka. Problem 5. Calculate the ph of a 0.500M solution of ammonia that is 4.25% ionized. May 1 2:31 PM May 1 2:31 PM Neutralization and Hydrolysis Some terms: Titration a quantitative process in which a standard solution is used to determine the concentration of another solution. It involves adding a measured volume of standard acid or base to an acid or base of unknown molarity (neutralization) until the equivalence point is reached. The equivalence point can be determined by addition of an indicator whose endpoint is close to the equivalence point. Neutralization Problem 8: What is the molarity of a sodium hydroxide solution if it takes 25.0 ml of 0.50 M HCl to exactly neutralize 50 ml of the base? What will be the ph at equivalence? Reaction: May 1 2:32 PM May 1 2:36 PM Standard Solution one whose concentration is precisely known. Equivalence Point the ph at which the moles of acid = moles of base in a titration. At equivalence: moles acid = moles base Problem 9: What is the molarity of 50.0 ml a magnesium hydroxide solution if it takes 50.0 ml of a 1.0 M hydrofluoric acid solution to completely neutralize it. What will be the relative ph at equivalence? Reaction: so, M av ai a = M bv bi b where i = number of hydrogen ions in the acid or number of hydroxide ions in the base so, HCl i = 1 NaOH i =1 H2SO4 i = 2 Ca(OH)2 i = 2 H3PO4 i = 3 Al(OH)3 i = 3 Endpoint the ph at which the indicator changes color. Neutralization Reaction: acid + base salt + water Hydrolysis Reaction: salt + water acid + base Apr 30 9:23 AM May 1 2:37 PM 5

6 Indicators Indicators are weak acids or bases which have different colors in the ionized and unionized forms. Indicators do not change color instantaneously at a given ph. The color change is due to a changing proportion of the indicator molecules in the acid or base forms. For example, below ph 3.2 virtually all of methyl orange molecules have H + attached and are in the acid form (red). Above that ph the methyl orange molecules begin to donate protons to other bases in the solution, leaving methyl orange in the base form, which is yellow (ph 4.4 and above). Types of Titrations Strong acid & strong base solution neutral BTB, phenolpthalein Strong acid & weak base a hydrolysis reaction will methyl orange make equivalence point slightly acidic Weak acid & strong base a hydrolysis reaction will phenolpthalein make equivalence point slightly basic May 1 2:37 PM May 1 2:37 PM 2. Salts whose cation has neutral properties (i.e. Na +, K + ) and whose anion is the conjugate base of a weak acid will produce a basic solution. Example: NaC 2H 3O 2 Acid Base Properties of Salts Salts are ionic compounds. They dissociate in water and may exhibit acid base behavior. The key question in deciding whether a salt will act as an acidic, basic, or neutral species in solution is What are the acid base properties, and strengths, of each component of the salt? Salts that consist of the cations of strong bases and the anions of strong acids have no effect on [H + ]. The ions of these salts do not react with water; they have no acid base properties. Example: KCl 3. Salts in which the cation is the conjugate acid of a weak base will produce an acidic solution. Example: NH 4Cl May 1 2:38 PM Apr 30 9:24 AM 2. Salts that consist of the cations of a strong base and the anions of a weak acid will produce a basic solution. Example: NaC 2H 3O 2 3. Salts that consist of the cations of a weak base and the anions of a strong acid will producer an acidic solution Example: NH 4Cl May 10 1:29 PM Apr 30 9:24 AM 6

7 Acid Rain Acid rain is precipitation with an acidic ph (5.6 or lower). Most of the acid rain is produced as the result of the combustion of fossils fuels. We will consider three sources of acid rain. The reaction of a salt in water is called hydrolysis and is the opposite of neutralization. Show how the following salts hydrolyze in water and predict whether they will give acidic, basic, or neutral solutions: K2CO3 Combustion of fossil fuels yields water vapor and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide can then react with water vapor in the atmosphere to produce carbonic acid: CO 2(g) + H 2O(g) H 2CO 3(aq) The combustion of gasoline in car engines produces temperatures high enough to allow nitrogen to also undergo combustion: N 2(g) + O 2(g) NO 2(g) NaCl Na3PO4 The NO 2(g) then combines with water vapor in our atmosphere to produce nitrous and nitric acids: NO 2(g) + H 2O(g) HNO 2(aq)/HNO 3(aq) The combustion of coal containing sulfur impurities results in the production of sulfur dioxide gas: S(s) + O 2(g) SO 2(g) The sulfur dioxide gas then reacts with water vapor in our atmosphere to produce sulfurous/sulfuric acids: SO 2(g) + H 2O(g) H 2SO 3(aq)/H 2SO 4(aq) Lakes with limestone (CaCO 3) beds are able to withstand the effects of acid rain more so than those without because the limestone has a buffering effect of the acid: CaCO 3(s) + H 3O + (aq) Ca 2+ (aq) + H 2CO 3(aq) Landscapers typically will sprinkle lyme (CaO) on grass to counter the effects of acid rain: Apr 30 9:25 AM CaO(s) + H 3O + (aq) Ca 2+ (aq) + H 2O(l) May 1 2:38 PM May 1 2:39 PM May 1 2:42 PM Apr 30 9:25 AM 7

Unit Nine Notes N C U9

Unit Nine Notes N C U9 Unit Nine Notes N C U9 I. AcidBase Theories A. Arrhenius Acids and Bases 1. Acids contain hydronium ions (H O ) commonly referred to as hydrogen ions (H ) that dissociate in water a. Different acids release

More information

Definition of Acid. HCl + H 2 O H 3 O + + Cl

Definition of Acid. HCl + H 2 O H 3 O + + Cl Acids Definition of Acid Acids are substances that contain H + ions that ionize when dissolved in water. Arrhenius acid: a compound that increases the concentration of H + ions that are present when added

More information

Acids and Bases. Properties, Reactions, ph, and Titration

Acids and Bases. Properties, Reactions, ph, and Titration Acids and Bases Properties, Reactions, ph, and Titration C-19 2017 Properties of acids 1. Taste Sour (don t try this except with foods). 2. Are electrolytes (conduct electricity). Some are strong, some

More information

AREA 1: WATER. Chapter 6 ACIDS AND BASES. 6.1 Properties of acids and bases

AREA 1: WATER. Chapter 6 ACIDS AND BASES. 6.1 Properties of acids and bases AREA 1: WATER Chapter 6 ACIDS AND BASES 6.1 Properties of acids and bases Acids are: Sour May be corrosive Dissolve in water to produce an electrolyte, Turn blue litmus red Neutralised by bases. Bases

More information

Acids, Bases, & Neutralization Chapter 20 & 21 Assignment & Problem Set

Acids, Bases, & Neutralization Chapter 20 & 21 Assignment & Problem Set Acids, Bases, & Neutralization Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Acids, Bases, & Neutralization 2 Study Guide: Things You Must Know

More information

Definition of Acid. HCl + H 2 O H 3 O + + Cl

Definition of Acid. HCl + H 2 O H 3 O + + Cl Acids Definition of Acid Acids are substances that contain H + ions that ionize when dissolved in water. Arrhenius acid: a compound that increases the concentration of H + ions that are present when added

More information

Acids and Bases. Bases react with acids to form water and a salt. Bases do not commonly with metals.

Acids and Bases. Bases react with acids to form water and a salt. Bases do not commonly with metals. Acids and Bases Properties of Acids and Bases Acids taste. Lemon juice and, for example, are both aqueous solutions of acids. Acids conduct electricity; they are. Some are strong electrolytes, while others

More information

Name Date Class ACID-BASE THEORIES

Name Date Class ACID-BASE THEORIES 19.1 ACID-BASE THEORIES Section Review Objectives Define the properties of acids and bases Compare and contrast acids and bases as defined by the theories of Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, and Lewis Vocabulary

More information

Chem 30A. Ch 14. Acids and Bases

Chem 30A. Ch 14. Acids and Bases Chem 30A Ch 14. Acids and Bases Acids and Bases Acids and Bases Acids Sour taste Dissolve many metals Turn litmus paper red. Egs. Ace9c acid (vinegar), citric acid (lemons) Bases Bi>er taste, slippery

More information

Acids and Bases. Unit 10

Acids and Bases. Unit 10 Acids and Bases Unit 10 1 Properties of Acids and Bases Acids Bases Taste Sour Turns Litmus Dye Red Reacts with Metals to give H 2 (g) Taste Bitter Turns Litmus Dye Blue Do Not React with Metals Reacts

More information

Unit 10: Acids and Bases

Unit 10: Acids and Bases Unit 10: Acids and Bases PROPERTIES OF ACIDS & BASES Properties of an Acid: a Tastes sour substance which dissociates (ionizes, breaks apart in solution) in water to form hydrogen ions Turns blue litmus

More information

Chapters 15 & 16 ACIDS & BASES ph & Titrations

Chapters 15 & 16 ACIDS & BASES ph & Titrations PROPERTIES OF ACIDS Chapters 15 & 16 ACIDS & BASES ph & Titrations There are 5 main properties of acids: 1. sour taste 2. change the color of acidbase indicators 3. react with metals to produce H2 gas

More information

1 Chapter 19 Acids, Bases, and Salts

1 Chapter 19 Acids, Bases, and Salts 1 Chapter 19 Acids, Bases, and Salts ACID-BASE THEORIES Acids and bases are all around us and part of our everyday life (ex. bodily functions, vinegar, carbonated drinks, citrus fruits, car batteries,

More information

INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking Seventh Edition by Charles H. Corwin

INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking Seventh Edition by Charles H. Corwin Lecture INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking Seventh Edition by Charles H. Corwin Acids and Bases Properties of Acids An acid is any substance that releases hydrogen ions, H +, into water.

More information

Properties of Acids and Bases

Properties of Acids and Bases Chapter 15 Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases Properties of Acids and Bases Generally, an acid is a compound that releases hydrogen ions, H +, into water. Blue litmus is used to test for acids. Blue litmus

More information

UNIT #11: Acids and Bases ph and poh Neutralization Reactions Oxidation and Reduction

UNIT #11: Acids and Bases ph and poh Neutralization Reactions Oxidation and Reduction NAME: UNIT #11: Acids and Bases ph and poh Neutralization Reactions Oxidation and Reduction 1. SELF-IONIZATION OF WATER a) Water molecules collide, causing a very small number to ionize in a reversible

More information

Chemistry I Notes Unit 10: Acids and Bases

Chemistry I Notes Unit 10: Acids and Bases Chemistry I Notes Unit 10: Acids and Bases Acids 1. Sour taste. 2. Acids change the color of acid- base indicators (turn blue litmus red). 3. Some acids react with active metals and release hydrogen gas,

More information

Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry (continuation)

Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry (continuation) Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry (continuation) 1. Electrolytes and non-electrolytes 2. Determining Moles of Ions in Aqueous Solutions of Ionic Compounds 3. Acids and Bases 4. Acid Strength

More information

Acids and Bases Unit 11

Acids and Bases Unit 11 Mr. B s Chemistry Acids and Bases Unit 11 Name Block Let s start our discussion of acids and bases by defining some terms that are essential to the topics that follow. Arrhenius acids and bases are: acid

More information

Chemistry SAT II Review Page 1

Chemistry SAT II Review Page 1 Chemistry SAT II Review Page 1 Acids and Bases Properties of acids and bases are caused by ions 1. Hydronium ions (H 3 O + ) cause acid properties 2. Hydroxide ions (OH ) cause base properties Water -

More information

ACIDS AND BASES. HCl(g) = hydrogen chloride HCl(aq) = hydrochloric acid HCl(g) H + (aq) + Cl (aq) ARRHENIUS THEORY

ACIDS AND BASES. HCl(g) = hydrogen chloride HCl(aq) = hydrochloric acid HCl(g) H + (aq) + Cl (aq) ARRHENIUS THEORY ACIDS AND BASES A. CHARACTERISTICS OF ACIDS AND BASES 1. Acids and bases are both ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. Since acids and bases both form ionic solutions, their solutions conduct electricity

More information

Chapter 10. Acids, Bases, and Salts

Chapter 10. Acids, Bases, and Salts Chapter 10 Acids, Bases, and Salts Topics we ll be looking at in this chapter Arrhenius theory of acids and bases Bronsted-Lowry acid-base theory Mono-, di- and tri-protic acids Strengths of acids and

More information

Acid and Bases. Physical Properties. Chemical Properties. Indicators. Corrosive when concentrated. Corrosive when concentrated.

Acid and Bases. Physical Properties. Chemical Properties. Indicators. Corrosive when concentrated. Corrosive when concentrated. Physical Properties Acid and Bases Chemistry 30 Acids Corrosive when concentrated Have a sour taste Bases Corrosive when concentrated Have a bitter taste Often have a sharp odour Chemical Properties Indicators

More information

Notes: Acids and Bases

Notes: Acids and Bases Name Chemistry Pre-AP Notes: Acids and Bases Period I. Describing Acids and Bases A. Properties of Acids taste ph 7 Acids change color of an (e.g. blue litmus paper turns in the presence of an acid) React

More information

15 Acids, Bases, and Salts. Lemons and limes are examples of foods that contain acidic solutions.

15 Acids, Bases, and Salts. Lemons and limes are examples of foods that contain acidic solutions. 15 Acids, Bases, and Salts Lemons and limes are examples of foods that contain acidic solutions. Chapter Outline 15.1 Acids and Bases 15.2 Reactions of Acids and Bases 15.3 Salts 15.4 Electrolytes and

More information

ADVANCED PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY ACIDS, BASES, AND AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA

ADVANCED PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY ACIDS, BASES, AND AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA ADVANCED PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY ACIDS, BASES, AND AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA Acids- taste sour Bases(alkali)- taste bitter and feel slippery Arrhenius concept- acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution while

More information

Grace King High School Chemistry Test Review

Grace King High School Chemistry Test Review CHAPTER 19 Acids, Bases & Salts 1. ACIDS Grace King High School Chemistry Test Review UNITS 7 SOLUTIONS &ACIDS & BASES Arrhenius definition of Acid: Contain Hydrogen and produce Hydrogen ion (aka proton),

More information

What is an acid? What is a base?

What is an acid? What is a base? What is an acid? What is a base? Properties of an acid Sour taste Turns litmus paper red Conducts electric current Some acids are strong and some are weak Properties of a base Bitter taste Slippery to

More information

ACIDS, BASES, AND SALTS

ACIDS, BASES, AND SALTS ACIDS, BASES, AND SALTS Chapter Quiz Choose the best answer and write its letter on the line. 1. A solution in which the hydroxide-ion concentration is 1 10 2 is a. acidic. c. neutral. b. basic. d. none

More information

Indicator Color in acid (ph < 7) Color at ph = 7 Color in base (ph > 7) Phenolphthalein Bromothymol Blue Red Litmus Blue Litmus

Indicator Color in acid (ph < 7) Color at ph = 7 Color in base (ph > 7) Phenolphthalein Bromothymol Blue Red Litmus Blue Litmus Unit 9: Acids and Bases Notes Introduction and Review 1. Define Acid: 2. Name the following acids: HCl H2SO4 H2SO3 H2S 3. Bases usually contain 4. Name the following bases: NaOH Ca(OH)2 Cu(OH)2 NH4OH Properties

More information

Chapter 14. Objectives

Chapter 14. Objectives Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases Objectives List five general properties of aqueous acids and bases. Name common binary acids and oxyacids, given their chemical formulas. List five acids commonly

More information

Acids and bases, as we use them in the lab, are usually aqueous solutions. Ex: when we talk about hydrochloric acid, it is actually hydrogen chloride

Acids and bases, as we use them in the lab, are usually aqueous solutions. Ex: when we talk about hydrochloric acid, it is actually hydrogen chloride Acids and Bases Acids and bases, as we use them in the lab, are usually aqueous solutions. Ex: when we talk about hydrochloric acid, it is actually hydrogen chloride gas dissolved in water HCl (aq) Concentrated

More information

*KEY* * KEY * Mr. Dolgos Regents Chemistry. NOTE PACKET Unit 9: Acids, Bases, & Salts

*KEY* * KEY * Mr. Dolgos Regents Chemistry. NOTE PACKET Unit 9: Acids, Bases, & Salts *KEY* * KEY * Mr. Dolgos Regents Chemistry NOTE PACKET Unit 9: Acids, Bases, & Salts 1 *KEY* Unit 9: Acids, Bases, & Salts *KEY* Unit Vocabulary: Amphoteric Arrhenius acid Arrhenius base Bronsted-Lowry

More information

8.1 Theories of acids and bases

8.1 Theories of acids and bases 8. Acids and bases 8.1 Theories of acids and bases Sour-tasting substances (acids) have been known for thousands of years. Lavoisiers early theory: Acid= a compound of oxygen and a nonmetal. Arrhenius

More information

What is an acid? What is a base?

What is an acid? What is a base? What is an acid? What is a base? Properties of an acid Sour taste Turns litmus paper red Conducts electric current Some acids are strong and some are weak Properties of a base Bitter taste Slippery to

More information

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Page 1 of 20 Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria 16.1 Acids and Bases: A Brief Review Acids: taste sour and cause certain dyes to change color. Bases: taste bitter and feel soapy. Arrhenius concept o acids

More information

What are Acids and Bases? What are some common acids you know? What are some common bases you know? Where is it common to hear about ph balanced

What are Acids and Bases? What are some common acids you know? What are some common bases you know? Where is it common to hear about ph balanced What are Acids and Bases? What are some common acids you know? What are some common bases you know? Where is it common to hear about ph balanced materials? Historically, classified by their observable

More information

Acids And Bases. H + (aq) + Cl (aq) ARRHENIUS THEORY

Acids And Bases. H + (aq) + Cl (aq) ARRHENIUS THEORY Acids And Bases A. Characteristics of Acids and Bases 1. Acids and bases are both ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. Since acids and bases both form ionic solutions, their solutions conduct electricity

More information

[H + ] OH - Base contains more OH - than H + [OH - ] Neutral solutions contain equal amounts of OH - and H + Self-ionization of Water

[H + ] OH - Base contains more OH - than H + [OH - ] Neutral solutions contain equal amounts of OH - and H + Self-ionization of Water 19.1 Acids & Bases 1. Compare and contrast the properties of acids & bases. 2. Describe the self-ionization of water & the concept of K w. 3. Differentiate between the Arhennius & Bronsted-Lowry models

More information

Chapter 7 Acids and Bases

Chapter 7 Acids and Bases Chapter 7 Acids and Bases 7.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases 7.2 Acid Strength 7.3 The ph Scale 7.4 Calculating the ph of Strong Acid Solutions 7.5 Calculating the ph of Weak Acid Solutions 7.6 Bases 7.7

More information

CHEMISTRY Matter and Change

CHEMISTRY Matter and Change CHEMISTRY Matter and Change UNIT 18 Table Of Contents Section 18.1 Introduction to Acids and Bases Unit 18: Acids and Bases Section 18.2 Section 18.3 Section 18.4 Strengths of Acids and Bases Hydrogen

More information

Chapter 14 Acids and Bases

Chapter 14 Acids and Bases Chapter 14 Acids and Bases General Properties of Acids 1. An acid tastes sour - acidus = Latin, sour; acetum= Latin, vinegar 2. An acid turns indicator dye litmus from blue to red. 3. An acid reacts with

More information

Cu 2+ (aq) + 4NH 3(aq) = Cu(NH 3) 4 2+ (aq) I (aq) + I 2(aq) = I 3 (aq) Fe 3+ (aq) + 6H 2O(l) = Fe(H 2O) 6 3+ (aq) Strong acids

Cu 2+ (aq) + 4NH 3(aq) = Cu(NH 3) 4 2+ (aq) I (aq) + I 2(aq) = I 3 (aq) Fe 3+ (aq) + 6H 2O(l) = Fe(H 2O) 6 3+ (aq) Strong acids There are three definitions for acids and bases we will need to understand. Arrhenius Concept: an acid supplies H + to an aqueous solution. A base supplies OH to an aqueous solution. This is the oldest

More information

(Label the Conjugate Pairs) Water in the last example acted as a Bronsted-Lowry base, and here it is acting as an acid. or

(Label the Conjugate Pairs) Water in the last example acted as a Bronsted-Lowry base, and here it is acting as an acid. or Chapter 16 - Acid-Base Equilibria Arrhenius Definition produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution. produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. Limits to aqueous solutions. Only one kind of base. NH

More information

Acids and Bases. Acid. Acid Base 2016 OTHS. Acid Properties. A compound that produces H + ions when dissolved in water. Examples!

Acids and Bases. Acid. Acid Base 2016 OTHS. Acid Properties. A compound that produces H + ions when dissolved in water. Examples! Acids and Bases Acid A compound that produces H + ions when dissolved in water. Examples! Vinegar Acetic acid Lemon Juice Citric acid Sour Candy Malic acid (and others) Milk Lactic acid HCl(aq) Acid Properties

More information

Acids Bases and Salts Acid

Acids Bases and Salts Acid Acids Bases and Salts Acid ph less than 7.0 Sour taste Electrolyte Names of Acids Binary acids Contain only 2 elements Begin with hydro; end with ic Ternary acids Ex: H 2 S = hydrosulfuric Contain a polyatomic

More information

Aqueous solutions of acids have a sour Aqueous solutions of bases taste bitter

Aqueous solutions of acids have a sour Aqueous solutions of bases taste bitter Acid and Bases Exam Review Honors Chemistry 3 April 2012 Chapter 14- Acids and Bases Section 14.1- Acid and Base Properties List five general properties of aqueous acids and bases Properties of Acids Properties

More information

SCH4U Chapter 8 review

SCH4U Chapter 8 review Name: Class: Date: SCH4U Chapter 8 review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which statement does not describe a characteristic of acidic

More information

What is an acid? What is a base?

What is an acid? What is a base? What is an acid? What is a base? Properties of an acid Sour taste Turns litmus paper red Conducts electric current Some acids are strong and some are weak Properties of a base Bitter taste Slippery to

More information

Resources:

Resources: I. A/B General A. Definitions 1. Arrhenius 2. B-L 3. Lewis *H+=H3O+ B. Properties 1. Acid 2. Base II. ACIDS A. Types 1. Binary 2. Ternary 3. Acid Anhydride B. Protic 1. mono 2. di 3. tri C. Strengths 1.

More information

Acids and Bases. Feb 28 4:40 PM

Acids and Bases. Feb 28 4:40 PM Acids and Bases H O s O Cl H O O H H N H Na O H H Feb 28 4:40 PM Properties of Acids 1. Taste sour 2. Conduct electrical current 3. Liberate H 2 gas when reacted with a metal. 4. Cause certain dyes to

More information

Chapter 14 Properties of Acids and Bases

Chapter 14 Properties of Acids and Bases Section 14.1 Defining Acids and Bases Properties of acids and bases Chapter 14 Properties of Acids and Bases taste sour Acids taste bitter Bases conduct electricity no characteristic feel react with metals

More information

ACIDS AND BASES 4/19/15. 1) Given the reactions:

ACIDS AND BASES 4/19/15. 1) Given the reactions: NAME: ACIDS AND BASES 4/19/15 ROW PD 1) Given the reactions: (A) NH3(g) + H2O(l) NH4 + + OH (B) HCl + H2O (l) H3O + + Cl As shown in equations (A) and (B) and based on the Bronsted theory, water is an

More information

Contents and Concepts

Contents and Concepts Chapter 16 1 Learning Objectives Acid Base Concepts Arrhenius Concept of Acids and Base a. Define acid and base according to the Arrhenius concept. Brønsted Lowry Concept of Acids and Bases a. Define acid

More information

Chapter 16. Acid-Base Equilibria

Chapter 16. Acid-Base Equilibria Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Arrhenius Definition Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution. Bases produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. Limits to aqueous solutions. Only one kind of

More information

Principles of Reactivity: The Chemistry of Acids and Bases. Acids, Bases and Arrhenius

Principles of Reactivity: The Chemistry of Acids and Bases. Acids, Bases and Arrhenius Principles of Reactivity: The Chemistry of Acids and Bases **a lot of calculations in this chapter will be done on the chalkboard Do not rely on these notes for all the material** Acids, Bases and Arrhenius

More information

Unit 9. Acids, Bases, & Salts Acid/Base Equilibrium

Unit 9. Acids, Bases, & Salts Acid/Base Equilibrium Unit 9 Acids, Bases, & Salts Acid/Base Equilibrium Properties of Acids sour or tart taste strong acids burn; weak acids feel similar to H 2 O acid solutions are electrolytes acids react with most metals

More information

Honors Chemistry Study Guide for Acids and Bases. NH4 + (aq) + H2O(l) H3O + (aq) + NH3(aq) water. a)hno3. b) NH3

Honors Chemistry Study Guide for Acids and Bases. NH4 + (aq) + H2O(l) H3O + (aq) + NH3(aq) water. a)hno3. b) NH3 Honors Chemistry Study Guide for Acids and Bases 1. Calculate the ph, poh, and [H3O + ] for a solution that has a [OH - ] = 4.5 x 10-5? 2. An aqueous solution has a ph of 8.85. What are the [H + ], [OH

More information

Chapter 16: Acids and Bases I. Chem 102 Dr. Eloranta

Chapter 16: Acids and Bases I. Chem 102 Dr. Eloranta Chapter 16: Acids and Bases I Chem 102 Dr. Eloranta Acids and Bases Acids Sour taste (vinegar) Dissolve many metals Ability to neutralize bases Strong or Weak Bases Bitter taste (caffeine, poisons from

More information

Solutions, Acids, & Bases Unit 6 - IB Material

Solutions, Acids, & Bases Unit 6 - IB Material Solutions, Acids, & Bases Unit 6 - IB Material Essentials: Know, Understand, and Be Able To Distinguish between the terms solute, solvent, solution and concentration (g dm 3 and mol dm 3 ). Solve problems

More information

Unit 2 Acids and Bases

Unit 2 Acids and Bases Unit 2 Acids and Bases 1 Topics Properties / Operational Definitions Acid-Base Theories ph & poh calculations Equilibria (Kw, K a, K b ) Indicators Titrations STSE: Acids Around Us 2 Operational Definitions

More information

Chapter 10. Acids and Bases

Chapter 10. Acids and Bases Chapter 10 Acids and Bases 1 Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases Aqueous acidic solutions have the following properties: 1. They have a sour taste.. They change the colors of many indicators.

More information

Chapter 14 Acids and Bases

Chapter 14 Acids and Bases Properties of Acids and Bases Chapter 14 Acids and Bases Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927) First to develop a theory for acids and bases in aqueous solution Arrhenius Acids Compounds which dissolve (dissociate)

More information

Chapter 9: Acids, Bases, and Salts

Chapter 9: Acids, Bases, and Salts Chapter 9: Acids, Bases, and Salts 1 ARRHENIUS ACID An Arrhenius acid is any substance that provides hydrogen ions, H +, when dissolved in water. ARRHENIUS BASE An Arrhenius base is any substance that

More information

Electrolytes, Acids and Bases ) 3

Electrolytes, Acids and Bases ) 3 Chapter 15 Acid (Latin acidus - sour): sour taste; turns plant dye litmus red; dissolves metals producing H 2 gas. Substances that are neither acids nor bases were called neutral substances. Electrolytes,

More information

Chemistry 12 UNIT 4 ACIDS AND BASES

Chemistry 12 UNIT 4 ACIDS AND BASES Chemistry 12 UNIT 4 ACIDS AND BASES CHAPTER 9 and 10 Recall the definitions from Unit 3: Strong electrolyte Strong electrolytic solution Weak electrolyte Weak electrolytic solution Non - electrolyte Acids

More information

Duncan. UNIT 14 - Acids & Bases. COMMON ACIDS NOTES lactic acetic phosphoric NAMING ACIDS NOTES

Duncan. UNIT 14 - Acids & Bases. COMMON ACIDS NOTES lactic acetic phosphoric NAMING ACIDS NOTES COMMON ACIDS NOTES lactic acetic phosphoric citric malic PROPERTIES OF ACIDS 1. 1. PROPERTIES OF BASES 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5. NAMING ACIDS NOTES Binary acids (H + one element) 1. hydro- - HF 2. root of

More information

EXPERIMENT 11 Acids, Bases, and ph

EXPERIMENT 11 Acids, Bases, and ph EXPERIMENT 11 Acids, Bases, and ph INTRODUCTION The concept of acidity and alkalinity dates from ancient times. The word acid is derived from the Latin word acidus, meaning sour. A common acid, acetic

More information

CHEM 200/202. Professor Jing Gu Office: EIS-210. All s are to be sent to:

CHEM 200/202. Professor Jing Gu Office: EIS-210. All  s are to be sent to: CHEM 200/202 Professor Jing Gu Office: EIS-210 All emails are to be sent to: chem200@mail.sdsu.edu My office hours will be held in GMCS-212 on Monday from 9 am to 11 am or by appointment. ANNOUNCEMENTS

More information

SCHOOL YEAR CH- 13 IONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS AND COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES SUBJECT: CHEMISTRY GRADE : 11 TEST A

SCHOOL YEAR CH- 13 IONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS AND COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES SUBJECT: CHEMISTRY GRADE : 11 TEST A SCHOOL YEAR 2017-18 NAME: CH- 13 IONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS AND COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES SUBJECT: CHEMISTRY GRADE : 11 TEST A Choose the best answer from the options that follow each question. 1. A solute

More information

Advanced Placement Chemistry Chapters Syllabus

Advanced Placement Chemistry Chapters Syllabus As you work through the chapter, you should be able to: Advanced Placement Chemistry Chapters 14 16 Syllabus Chapter 14 Acids and Bases 1. Describe acid and bases using the Bronsted-Lowry, Arrhenius, and

More information

Unit 9: Acids, Bases, & Salts

Unit 9: Acids, Bases, & Salts STUDENT VERSION Unit 9: Acids, Bases, & Salts Unit Vocabulary: Arrhenius acid Arrhenius base Bronsted-Lowry acid Bronsted-Lowry base Electrolyte hydronium ion hydroxide ion indicator (acid/base) neutralization

More information

Chapter 16 - Acids and Bases

Chapter 16 - Acids and Bases Chapter 16 - Acids and Bases 16.1 Acids and Bases: The Brønsted Lowry Model 16.2 ph and the Autoionization of Water 16.3 Calculations Involving ph, K a and K b 16.4 Polyprotic Acids 16.1 Acids and Bases:

More information

Chapter 16. Acid-Base Equilibria

Chapter 16. Acid-Base Equilibria Chapter 16. Acid-Base Equilibria 16.1 Acids and Bases: A Brief Review Acids taste sour and cause certain dyes to change color. Bases taste bitter and feel soapy. Arrhenius concept of acids and bases: An

More information

10.1 Acids and Bases in Aqueous Solution

10.1 Acids and Bases in Aqueous Solution 10.1 Acids and Bases in Aqueous Solution Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases An acid is a substance that gives hydrogen ions, H +, when dissolved in water. In fact, H + reacts with water and produces

More information

Chapter 15 - Acids and Bases Fundamental Concepts

Chapter 15 - Acids and Bases Fundamental Concepts Chapter 15 - Acids and Bases Fundamental Concepts Acids and Bases: Basic Definitions Properties of Acids Sour Taste React with active metals (Al, Zn, Fe) to yield H 2 gas: Corrosive React with carbonates

More information

Acids - Bases in Water

Acids - Bases in Water more equilibrium Dr. Fred Omega Garces Chemistry, Miramar College 1 Acids-Bases Characteristics Acids (Properties) Taste Sour Dehydrate Substances Neutralizes bases Dissolves metals Examples: Juices: TJ,

More information

Acids, Bases and ph Chapter 19

Acids, Bases and ph Chapter 19 Acids, Bases and ph Chapter 19 Compounds That Become Acids When Dissolved in Water General Formula: HX H + X - monatomic or polyatomic anion Naming Acids (p. 250) Binary acids Hydro ic Acid HCl: Hydrochloric

More information

Ch 18 Acids and Bases Big Idea: Acids and Bases can be defined in terms of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions or in terms of electron pairs.

Ch 18 Acids and Bases Big Idea: Acids and Bases can be defined in terms of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions or in terms of electron pairs. Ch 18 Acids and Bases Big Idea: Acids and Bases can be defined in terms of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions or in terms of electron pairs. Ch 18 - Acids and Bases I CAN: 1) Compare properties of acids

More information

Mr. Storie 40S Chemistry Student Acid and bases Unit. Acids and Bases

Mr. Storie 40S Chemistry Student Acid and bases Unit. Acids and Bases Acids and Bases 1 UNIT 4: ACIDS & BASES OUTCOMES All important vocabulary is in Italics and bold. Outline the historical development of acid base theories. Include: Arrhenius, BronstedLowry, Lewis. Write

More information

Chapter Menu Chapter Menu

Chapter Menu Chapter Menu Chapter Menu Chapter Menu Section 18.1 Section 18.3 Section 18.4 Introduction to Acids and Bases Hydrogen Ions and ph Neutralization Section 18.1 Intro to Acids and Bases Objectives: Compare the Arrhenius,

More information

ACID BASE EQUILIBRIUM

ACID BASE EQUILIBRIUM ACID BASE EQUILIBRIUM Part one: Acid/Base Theories Learning Goals: to identify acids and bases and their conjugates according to Arrhenius and Bronstead Lowry Theories. to be able to identify amphoteric

More information

Introduction to Acids & Bases. Packet #26

Introduction to Acids & Bases. Packet #26 Introduction to Acids & Bases Packet #26 Review I Svante Arrhenius was the first person to recognize the essential nature of acids and bases. Review II Arrhenius postulated that: Acids produce hydrogen

More information

Objectives. Base Chemistry

Objectives. Base Chemistry May 09, 2014 Objectives AcidAcid Base Chemistry Base Chemistry Chapter 19 Properties of Acids Aqueous solutions of acids taste sour. Change the color of acid/base indicators Many will conduct electrical

More information

CH19 Bronsted-Lowry Definitions

CH19 Bronsted-Lowry Definitions CH19 Bronsted-Lowry Definitions 1 BRONSTED-LOWRY DEFINITIONS [Acids] An acid is a substance that can donate H + ions HCl hydrochloric acid HNO 3 nitric acid HOAc acetic acid H 3 0 + hydronium ion NH +

More information

-a base contains an OH group and ionizes in solutions to produce OH - ions: Neutralization: Hydrogen ions (H + ) in solution form

-a base contains an OH group and ionizes in solutions to produce OH - ions: Neutralization: Hydrogen ions (H + ) in solution form NOTES Acids, Bases & Salts Arrhenius Theory of Acids & Bases: an acid contains hydrogen and ionizes in solutions to produce H+ ions: a base contains an OH group and ionizes in solutions to produce OH ions:

More information

Notes: Unit 10 Acids and Bases

Notes: Unit 10 Acids and Bases Name: Regents Chemistry: Notes: Unit 10 Acids and Bases 1 Name: KEY IDEAS Behavior of many acids and bases can be explained by the Arrhenius theory. Arrhenius acid and bases are electrolytes. (3.1uu) An

More information

Notes: Unit 10 Acids and Bases

Notes: Unit 10 Acids and Bases Name: Regents Chemistry: Notes: Unit 10 Acids and Bases 1 Name: KEY IDEAS Behavior of many acids and bases can be explained by the Arrhenius theory. Arrhenius acid and bases are electrolytes. (3.1uu) An

More information

Part 01 - Assignment: Introduction to Acids &Bases

Part 01 - Assignment: Introduction to Acids &Bases Part 01 - Assignment: Introduction to Acids &Bases Classify the following acids are monoprotic, diprotic, or triprotic by writing M, D, or T, respectively. 1. HCl 2. HClO4 3. H3As 4. H2SO4 5. H2S 6. H3PO4

More information

Part One: Acid-Base Concepts. 1. Sour taste. (Examples: vinegar = acetic acid; lemons - citric acid) yellow

Part One: Acid-Base Concepts. 1. Sour taste. (Examples: vinegar = acetic acid; lemons - citric acid) yellow CHAPTER 15: ACIDS AND BASES Part One: Acid-Base Concepts A. Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids. 1. Sour taste. (Examples: vinegar = acetic acid; lemons - citric acid) 2. Change the colors of many

More information

Acids and Bases Unit 13

Acids and Bases Unit 13 Acids and Bases Unit 13 Chemistry of Acids and Bases 1. Watch video and complete worksheet Standard Deviants Teaching Systems: Chemistry: Module 05: Acids and Bases http://app.discoveryeducation.com/player/view/asset

More information

Chap 16 Chemical Equilibrium HSU FUYIN

Chap 16 Chemical Equilibrium HSU FUYIN Chap 16 Chemical Equilibrium HSU FUYIN 1 Definitions: Arrhenius & Brønsted Lowry acid and base Arrhenius theory: An acid is a substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydrogen

More information

Properties of Acids. Base Chemistry. Properties of Bases. Three Acid and Base Theories. 1) Arrhenius Theory. May 09, Naming Acids Review

Properties of Acids. Base Chemistry. Properties of Bases. Three Acid and Base Theories. 1) Arrhenius Theory. May 09, Naming Acids Review May 09, 2013 Properties of Acids AcidAcid Base Chemistry Base Chemistry Taste sour Are strong or weak electrolytes React with bases to form water and salts React with active metals to produce H2 Turn litmus

More information

Acid-base Chemistry. Unit 11.1: Into to acid base chemistry. Unit 11. Name:

Acid-base Chemistry. Unit 11.1: Into to acid base chemistry. Unit 11. Name: Name: Acid-base Chemistry Unit 11 ( F i ve cla s s peri o ds) Unit 11.1: Into to acid base chemistry 1) Self-ionization of water a) Water molecules collide and the extremely electronegative oxygen can

More information

CHAPTER 14 ACIDS AND BASES

CHAPTER 14 ACIDS AND BASES CHAPTER 14 ACIDS AND BASES Topics Definition of acids and bases Bronsted-Lowry Concept Dissociation constant of weak acids Acid strength Calculating ph for strong and weak acids and bases Polyprotic acids

More information

Chapter Test B. Chapter: Acids and Bases

Chapter Test B. Chapter: Acids and Bases Assessment Chapter Test B Chapter: Acids and Bases PART I In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. 1. Which of the

More information

Chapter 6. Acids, Bases, and Acid-Base Reactions

Chapter 6. Acids, Bases, and Acid-Base Reactions Chapter 6 Acids, Bases, and Acid-Base Reactions Chapter Map Arrhenius Acid Definition Anacid is a substance that generates hydronium ions, H 3 O + (often described as H + ), when added to water. An acidic

More information

The Chemistry of Acids and Bases

The Chemistry of Acids and Bases The Chemistry of Acids and Bases 1 Acid and Bases 4 Acid and Bases 2 Acids Have a sour taste. Vinegar is a solution of acetic acid. Citrus fruits contain citric acid. React with certain metals to produce

More information

UNIT 14 - Acids & Bases

UNIT 14 - Acids & Bases COMMON ACIDS NOTES lactic sour milk, sore muscles acetic vinegar phosphoric soft drinks citric citrus fruits malic apples PROPERTIES OF ACIDS PROPERTIES OF BASES 1. Taste sour 1. Taste bitter 2. react

More information