Chapters 15 & 16 ACIDS & BASES ph & Titrations

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1 PROPERTIES OF ACIDS Chapters 15 & 16 ACIDS & BASES ph & Titrations There are 5 main properties of acids: 1. sour taste 2. change the color of acidbase indicators 3. react with metals to produce H2 gas 4. react with bases to form salts and H2O 5. conduct electric current PROPERTIES OF BASES There are 5 main properties of bases: 1. bitter taste 2. change the color of acidbase indicators 3. feel slippery 4. react with acids to form salts and H2O 5. conduct electric current ACID-BASE SYSTEMS There are several different ways to classify a substance as either an acid or a base. We will focus only on 3 particular systems: Arrhenius Bronsted-Lowry (or Bronsted) Lewis

2 ARRHENIUS ACIDS & BASES BRONSTED-LOWRY ACIDS & BASES Proposed by Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius in 1884 Main focus: production of ions in solution Acid: increases the [H + ] Base: increases the [OH - ] This is the most commonly used system. Developed by Danish chemist J.N. Bronsted and English chemistry T.M. Lowry in 1923 Main focus: ability of a species to accept or donate protons, H + Acid: H + donor Base: H + acceptor BRONSTED (CONT D) In a Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reaction, protons are transferred from one reactant (the acid) to the other (the base). Acids can be classified based on their ability to donate protons. BRONSTED (CONT D) Some compounds, like water, can act as either a Bronsted-Lowry acid or as a Bronsted-Lowry base. These compounds are called amphoteric. Monoprotic acids only give 1 proton per molecule. Diprotic acids can give 2 protons per molecule. Triprotic acids can give 3 protons per molecule.

3 LEWIS ACIDS & BASES How do we name acids? For OXYACIDS Developed by Gilbert Newton Lewis, an American chemist, in 1923 Main focus: role of electron pairs Acid: electron pair acceptor Base: electron pair donor Most broad definition What we -ate was -ic, but it s -ite with -ous. nitrate = nitric nitrite = nitrous sulfate = sulfuric WRITING FORMULAS FOR OXYACIDS NAMING OXYACIDS For the following formulas, provide the corresponding acid name: From the following acid names, provide the corresponding formula: 1. HNO3 1. phosphorous acid 2. H2SO4 2. nitrous acid 3. H2CO3 3. chlorous acid 4. HClO4 4. hypochlorous acid 5. H2SO3 5. acetic acid

4 NAMINIG BINARY ACIDS NAMING BINARY ACIDS For BINARY ACIDS Use hydro- + root + -ic acid HCl = hydrochloric acid From the following formulas, provide the corresponding name of the acid. 1. HCN 2. HBr 3. HI 4. HF 5. H2S ACID-BASE NEUTRALIZATION ACID-BASE NEUTRALIZATION In most cases of acid-base neutralization, a strong acid (an acid that undergoes 100% dissociation) and a strong base (a base that undergoes 100% dissociation) react to form a salt (an ionic compound composed of a cation from a base and an anion from an acid) and water. HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) NaCl (aq) + H2O (l) In a neutralization, hydronium ions (H3O+) and hydroxide ions (OH-) react to form water molecules.

5 ACID-BASE NEUTRALIZATION SAMPLE PROBLEMS Complete and balance the equations for the following acid-base reactions: H2CO3 + Sr(OH)2 HClO4 + NaOH HBr + Ba(OH)2 NaHCO3 + H2SO4 SELF-IONIZATION OF WATER Since water is amphoteric, water has the ability to selfionize by transferring a single proton. This is a reversible reaction that creates a hydronium ion (H 3 O + ) and a hydroxide ion (OH - ). We can find the concentration of both ionic species by using the following expression: K w = [H 3 O + ][OH - ]. K w = ionization constant of water = 1.0 x M 2 (at 25ºC) Using K w, we can also find the [H 3 O + ] or [OH - ]. CALCULATING [H 3 O + ] AND [OH - ] Sample Calculation1 Sample Calculation 2 A 1.0 x 10-4 M solution of HNO3 has been prepared for a lab experiment. a) Calculate the [H3O + ] of this solution. b) Calculate the [OH - ] of this solution. Determine the hydronium and hydroxide ion concentrations in a solution that is 1 x 10-4 M HCl.

6 Sample Calculation 3 Sample Calculation 4 What is the hydronium and hydroxide ion concentrations in a solution that is 1 x 10-3 M H2SO4? Determine the hydronium and hydroxide ion concentrations in a solution that is 3.0 x 10-2 M NaOH. ph SCALE ph SCALE (cont d) Range: 0-14 (0 = most acidic, 14 = most basic) ph = -log [H3O + ] There s also a poh. poh = -log [OH - ] ph + poh = 14

7 ph CALCULATIONS ph CALCULATIONS 2 What is the ph of a 1.0 x 10-3 M NaOH? Determine the ph of a 1 x 10-6 M HCl solution. ph CALCULATIONS 3 ph CALCULATIONS 4 Find the ph of a 1.0 x 10-2 M KOH solution. Determine the ph of a solution with a hydronium ion concentration of 2.5 x 10-2 M.

8 ph CALCULATIONS 5 ph CALCULATIONS 6 Determine the [H3O + ] of an aqueous solution that has a ph of 4.0. What are the concentrations of the hydronium ion and hydroxide ion of a solution with a ph of 9.0? ph CALCULATIONS 7 TITRATIONS The ph of a solution is measured and determined to be a) What is the hydronium ion concentration? b) What is the hydroxide ion concentration? c) Is the solution acidic or basic? Involve an acid-base neutralization reaction Controlled addition and measurement of the amount of a solution of known concentration required to completely react with a measured amount of a solution of unknown concentration

9 HOW DO YOU DETERMINE THE CONCENTRATION? Doing a titration involves the following 4 steps: 1. Start with a balanced equation for the neutralization and find the equivalent amounts of the acid and base. 2. Determine the number of moles of acid (or base) based on the known solution. 3. Determine the number of moles of solute of the unknown solution used. TITRATIONS 1 In a titration 27.4 ml of M Ba(OH)2 is added to a 20.0 ml sample of HCl solution of unknown concentration until the equivalence point is reached. What is the molarity of the acid solution? 4. Determine the molarity of the unknown. TITRATIONS 2 TITRATIONS 3 A 15.5 ml sample of M KOH solution required 21.2 ml of acetic acid solution in a titration experiment. Calculate the molarity of the acetic acid solution. By titration, 17.6 ml of H2SO4 neutralized 27.4 ml of M LiOH solution. What was the molarity of the acid solution?

10 TITRATIONS 4 TITRATIONS 5 If 20 ml of 0.01 M HCl is required to neutralize 30 ml of a NaOH solution, determine the molarity of the NaOH solution. Suppose that 20 ml of 0.01 M Ca(OH)2 is required to neutralize 12 ml of HCl solution. What is the molarity of the acid solution?

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