3 Acids and Bases Acids Sour taste Dissolve many metals Turn litmus paper red. Egs. Ace9c acid (vinegar), citric acid (lemons) Bases Bi>er taste, slippery feel Turn litmus paper blue. Egs. Drano, ammonia, caffeine
4 Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases Based on H + or OH - Produc9on in Water Acid: Substance that produces H + ions (protons) in aqueous solu9ons HCl (aq) à H + (aq) + Cl (aq) HNO 3 (aq) à H + (aq) + NO 3 (aq) Base: Substance that produces OH - (hydroxide) ions aqueous solu9ons NaOH (aq) à Na + (aq) + OH (aq) Defn is limited restricted to reac9ons in water only
5 Bronsted-Lowry Definition of Acids and Bases Based on Proton Transfer: Acids: Proton donors HCl à H + + Cl - Bases: Proton acceptors NH 3 + H + à NH 4 +
6 Bronsted-Lowry Acid An acid must have an acidic proton that can be donated. acidic proton
7 Bronsted-Lowry Base A base must have a lone pair to accept a proton. A base can be neutral or nega9vely charged.
8 Number of Acidic Protons on a Molecule An acid molecule can be monopro9c, dipro9c, or tripro9c (based on number of acidic protons).
9 Water Acts as Both Acid and Base (Amphoteric) Water can act as a base, accep9ng a proton from an acid à Forms hydronium ion H 3 O +. Water can act as an acid, dona9ng a proton to a base à Forms hydroxide ion OH -
10 The Proton in Water A H + ion in water is not isolated! A H + ion in water a>racts the nega9ve pole of water molecule so strongly that it forms a covalent bond to water. HCl (aq) + H 2 O(l) à H 3 O + (aq) + Cl (aq) hydronium ion (hydrated proton) *Also wri>en as: HCl (aq) à H + (aq) + Cl (aq)
11 Bronsted-Lowry Acid and Base Work Together An acid and base must always work together to transfer a proton! In aqueous solu9ons of acids or bases, water acts as the base or acid partner : HCl + H 2 O à Cl - + H 3 O + (HCl à Cl - + H + ) acid base NH 3 + H 2 O à NH OH - (NH 3 à NH OH - ) base acid
12 Acid-Base Reactions Don t Have to Involve Water A Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reac9on does not always occur in water. Ex Probs
13 List of Common Acids and Bases Strong Acids HCl hydrochloric acid HBr hydrobromic acid HI hydroiodic acid HNO 3 nitric acid H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid HClO 4 perchloric acid Common Weak Acids HC 2 H 3 O 2 or CH 3 COOH ace9c acid H 2 CO 3 carbonic acid Strong Bases: Metal Hydroxides of Group 1A ca9ons LiOH, NaOH, KOH, etc. and Heavier Group 2A ca9ons: Ca(OH) 2, Sr(OH) 2, Ba(OH) 2 Common Weak Base NH 3 ammonia
14 Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs
15 Conjugate Acid-Base Pair Conjugate acid-base pair: two substances whose formulas differ by only a hydrogen ion NH 3 and NH 4 + are a conjugate acid-base pair. H 2 O and OH are a conjugate acid-base pair.
16 Conjugate Acid-Base Pair H 2 SO 4 and HSO 4 are a conjugate acid-base pair. H 2 O and H 3 O + are a conjugate acid-base pair.
17 Conjugate Acid-Base Pair
18 Example Problems Which of the following represent conjugate acidbase pairs? a. HF, F - b. NH 4+, NH 3 c. HCl, H 2 O d. HClO 4, ClO 4 - e. HCl, ClO - f. H 2 PO 4-, HPO 4 2- g. HNO 3, NO 3 - Ex Probs
19 Reactions of Acids and Bases
20 Acid-Base Reaction: Neutralization Neutraliza9on: a reac9on in which an acid and base react quan9ta9vely with each other
21 Acid-Base Reaction: Acid + Strong Base When an acid and a strong base (metal hydroxide) react, they form water and a salt (ionic compound). HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) à H 2 O (l) + NaCl (aq) Net ionic eqn: H + (aq) + OH - (aq) à H 2 O (l)
22 Acid-Base Reaction: Gas-Forming When an acid and a bicarbonate (HCO 3 ) or carbonate (CO 3 2 ) react, water and gas are formed. HCl (aq) + KHCO 3 (aq) à KCl(aq) + [H 2 CO 3 (aq)] à KCl + H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g) H + (aq) + HCO 3 (aq) à [H 2 CO 3 (aq)] à H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g) 2HCl (aq) + K 2 CO 3 (aq) à2kcl(aq) + [H 2 CO 3 (aq)] à 2KCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g) 2H + (aq) + CO 3 2 (aq) à [H 2 CO 3 (aq)] à H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g)
23 Reaction of Acids with Metals (Redox Rxn) Acids dissolve many metals: Acids oxidize metals, causing metals to go into solu9on. 2HCl(aq) + Mg(s) à H 2 (g) + MgCl 2 (aq) acid metal H 2 gas salt H 2 SO 4 (aq) + Zn(s) à H 2 (g) + ZnSO 4 (aq) acid metal H 2 gas salt
24 Titration Titra9on: Determina9on of the concentra9on of a solu9on with an unknown concentra9on (analyte) by combining it with a standard solu9on of known concentra9on (9trant).
25 Acid-Base Titration Equivalence point: the point where enough 9trant has been added to react exactly with the analyte present mole H + = mole OH Indicator for acid-base 9tra9on: Compound whose color is different in acid than in base Endpoint: the point at which the indicator s signal is triggered (The endpoint may or may not come exactly at equivalence point).
27 Acid-Base Titration Acid-base 9tra9on problems are stoichiometry problems (solu9on stoichiometry). Ex Probs
28 Acid Strength
29 Acid Strength Strong acid: Completely ionized (dissociated). HCl(aq) H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Weak acid: Most of the acid molecules remain intact. CH 3 COOH(aq) equilibrium arrow H + (aq) + CH 3 COO - (aq)
30 Acid Strength
31 Strong Acid Solutions Strong acids ionize completely: HCl à H + + Cl - So: 0.01 M HCl à 0.01 M H M Cl M HCl à 0.5 M H M Cl - Weak acids do not ionize completely:
32 Acids as Electrolytes Electrolyte: a solu9on of free ions, conducts electricity Weak acid Weak electrolyte Strong acid Strong electrolyte
33 List of Common Acids and Bases Strong Acids HCl hydrochloric acid HBr hydrobromic acid HI hydroiodic acid HNO 3 nitric acid H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid HClO 4 perchloric acid Common Weak Acids HC 2 H 3 O 2 or CH 3 COOH ace9c acid H 2 CO 3 carbonic acid Strong Bases: Metal Hydroxides of Group 1A ca9ons LiOH, NaOH, KOH, etc. and Heavier Group 2A ca9ons: Ca(OH) 2, Sr(OH) 2, Ba(OH) 2 Common Weak Base NH 3 ammonia
34 Some Weak Acids and Weak Bases Ex Probs
35 Ion-Product Constant for Water
36 Water as an Acid and Base Water is amphoteric: can react as either an acid or base Water undergoes auto-ioniza9on: H 2 O(l) + H 2 O(l) à H 3 O + + OH - For pure water, 25 C: [H 3 O + ] = [OH ] = M Ion-product constant for water (K w ) K w = [H 3 O + ] [OH ] = at 25 C *True for pure water and all aqueous solu9ons!
37 Relationship between [H + ] and [OH - ] We can relate [H + ] and [OH - ] through K w : K w = [H + ][OH ] = 1.0 x for water and all aqueous solu9ons
38 Definitions: Neutral, Acidic, Basic Neutral solu9on: [H + ] = [OH ] Acidic solu9on: [H + ] > [OH ] Basic solu9on: [H + ] < [OH ] In each case, however, K w = [H + ][OH ] = for water and all aqueous solu9ons Ex Probs
39 ph and poh
40 The ph Scale ph = log[h + ] A compact way to represent solu9on acidity. eg. ph = - log (1.0 x 10-7 M) = 7
41 Logarithmic Function y = log x à 10 y = x ph = -log [H + ] -ph = log [H + ] à 10 -ph = [H + ] As [H + ] increases, ph decreases.
42 ph Range ph 7 [H + ] = [OH - ] Neutral ph < 7 [H + ] > [OH - ] Acidic ph > 7 [H + ] < [OH - ] Basic Lower the ph, more acidic the solu9on. Higher the ph, more basic the solu9on.
43 ph Range 10 -ph = [H + ] Every 9me ph drops by 1, there is 10x increase in [H + ].
44 Calculating ph and [H + ] To get ph from [H + ]: ph = -log [H + ] To get [H + ] from ph: ph = -log[h + ] -ph = log[h + ] Inverse log (-ph) = inverse log (log [H + ]) Inverse log (-ph) = [H + ] OR 10 -ph = [H + ] Ex Probs
45 poh ph = -log[h + ] poh = log[oh - ]
46 Calculating poh and [OH - ] To get poh from [OH - ]: ph = -log [OH - ] To get [OH - ] from poh: Inverse log (-poh) = [OH - ] OR 10 -poh = [OH - ] Ex Probs
47 Relationship Between ph and poh 1.0 x = [H + ][OH ] log 1.0 x = log[h + ] + log[oh ] = log[h + ] log[oh ] = log[h + ] + log[oh ] = ph + poh Ex Probs
48 Equations for ph Calculation Problems 1. ph = -log[h + ] (analogous for poh) 2. Inv log [-ph]= [H + ] (analogous for [OH ]) = [H + ][OH ] = ph + poh Ex probs
49 Determining ph in Laboratory
51 Buffers Buffer: a solu9on that contains both an acid and a base, thus resists ph change Buffers contain significant amounts of both a weak acid and its conjugate base. The weak acid neutralizes added base. The conjugate base neutralizes added acid. Eg. of buffer: CH 3 COOH and CH 3 COO - (CH 3 COO - comes from NaCH 3 COO)
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