Unit 9. Acids, Bases, & Salts Acid/Base Equilibrium

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1 Unit 9 Acids, Bases, & Salts Acid/Base Equilibrium

2 Properties of Acids sour or tart taste strong acids burn; weak acids feel similar to H 2 O acid solutions are electrolytes acids react with most metals to release H 2 acids cause indicators to change color Acids turn litmus red

3 Properties of Bases bases taste bitter basic solutions do not burn basic solutions feel smooth and slippery basic solutions are also electrolytes bases usually do not react with metals bases also cause indicators to change color Bases turn litmus blue

4 Three definitions Arrhenius Deals with H + and OH - Bronsted Lowry Deals with protons Lewis Deals with pairs of electrons

5 Arrhenius Definition Arrhenius defined an acid as a substance that ionizes in water to produce H + ions Ex. HCl Any of our acids with H + in the beginning Arrhenius defined a base as a substance that ionizes in water to produce OH - ions Ex. NaOH Any of the metal hydroxides

6 Bronsted Lowry Definition NH 3 is known to turn litmus blue, but it does not have hydroxide ion Needed a new definition Substances do not need to be in water A B/L acid is any substance that can donate a proton (H + ) A B/L base is any substance that can accept a proton (H + )

7 Conjugate pairs HC 2 H 3 O 2 + H 2 O C 2 H 3 O H 3 O + B/L acid B/L base conjugate base conjugate acid NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4+ + OH - B/L base B/L acid conjugate acid conjugate base

8 Amphoteric Substances Notice in the examples, that H 2 O can act as a B/L acid and as a B/L base. It is know as an amphoteric substance. Additional examples include HSO 3 - HCO 3 - H 2 PO 4 - HPO 4 2- These are the ions that result when polyprotic acids release H + ions one at a time. Notice that they can accept an H + or they can release an H +.

9 Lewis definition This is the most broad of the definitions A Lewis acid is an electron pair acceptor. A Lewis base is an electron pair donor. Example Lewis acid/base reaction.

10 Ion product constant for H 2 O Remember [H + ][OH - ] = 1.0 x = K w So if you know [H + ] you can find [OH - ] and vice versa Ex. If [H + ] = 9.3 x 10-4 M, what is [OH - ] (9.3 x 10-4 M)[OH - ] = 1.0 x [OH-] = 1.1 x M

11 ph or poh ph = -log[h + ] or poh = -log[oh - ] ph + poh = 14 Ex. What is the ph of a solution that contains 4.9 x 10-9 M OH -? Find poh first poh = -log (4.9 x 10-9 ) = poh 8.31 Since ph + poh = 14, ph = 5.69

12 What is the [H + ] of a solution that is ph4.82? ph = -log [H + ], rearranging for [H + ] [H+] = 10 -ph = = 1.5 x 10-5 M H + What is the [OH - ] of a solution that is ph8.56? If ph is 8.58, poh is 5.42 [OH - ] = 10 -poh = = 3.8 x 10-6 M OH -

13 You must understand that When [H + ] = [OH - ], the solution is neutral, and the ph = 7 When [H + ] > [OH - ], the solution is acidic, and the ph <7 When [H + ] < [OH - ], the solution is basic, and the ph > 7. Increasing ph means decreasing [H + ] fewer H + ions floating in solution.less acidic. Decreasing ph means increasing [H + ] more H + ions floating in solution.more acidic.

14 Calculate the number of moles of LiOH in 8.75 ml of.150 M LiOH solution. What is the ph? poh? Moles = M x L = (.150 M)( L) = moles LiOH poh = -log [OH - ] = - log.150 M = poh.824 ph = = ph13.2

15 1 Li O H g

16 1 H Cl g

17 Weak Acids

18 Weak Bases

19 Acid Equilibrium problems Things to know All of our acids will be monoprotic, that is, give off only one hydrogen ion. x will represent the amount of acid that dissociates. Therefore x also represents the [H + ] We will use ICE to determine concentrations for the K a expression We can use HA to represent the acid and A - to represent the conjugate base.

20 K a example ph = -log(.0019) = ph 2.72

21 Polyprotic acids Polyprotic acids are weak acids (except for H 2 SO 4 which is a strong acid). They release their H + ions one at a time. Each has its own K a Ex. H 3 PO 4 H 3 PO 4 H + + H 2 PO - 4 K a = 7.5 x 10-3 H 2 PO - 4 H + + HPO 2-4 K a = 6.2 x 10-8 HPO 2-4 H + + PO 3-4 K a = 4.8 x 10-13

22 K w revisited Water comes to equilibrium with its ions according to the following reaction H 2 O (l) H + (aq) + OH - (aq) K w = [H + ][OH - ] = 1.0 x K w = K a K b pk a + pk b = 14

23 Strong Acids/Bases Strong Acids HCl HBr HI HNO 3 HClO 4 Strong Bases LiOH NaOH KOH RbOH CsOH H 2 SO 4 Ba(OH) 2 Sr(OH) 2

24 Strong Acids/Base description Strong acids and bases completely dissociate in water, therefore no K a or K b The dissociations do not reverse. Oxoacids are acids that contain oxygen. The greater the number of oxygen atoms attached to the central atom in an oxoacid, the stronger the acid. That s because increasing the number of oxygen atoms that are attached to the central atom weakens the attraction that the central atom has for the H + ion.

25 Strong Acid/Base calculations Since these acids and bases completely dissociate in water, the final concentration of H + ions is the same as the original concentration. So you can always find the ph of a strong acid solution directly from its concentration. What is the ph of.20 M HCl? ph = -log(.20) =

26 Titration When an acid and a base are mixed, a neutralization reaction occurs. Acid + base salt + water Neutralizations reactions are generally performed by titration, where a base of known concentration is slowly added to an acid (or vice versa) The progress of a neutralization reaction can be shown in a titration curve. The equivalence point is the point in the titration when exactly enough base has been added to neutralize all the acid that was initially present. An indicator will be used to mark the equiv. pt.

27 Strong acid/strong base titration. Equivalence point at ph7

28 Notice the shape of the curve if a strong acid is added to a strong base The equivalence point is also ph7

29 Weak acid vs strong base The equivalence point is > ph7

30 Weak base vs strong acid Notice the equivalence point is < ph7

31 Which indicator to use? The indicator needs to change color close to the equivalence point.

32

33

34

35 ph of dissolved salts If a salt is composed of the conjugates of a strong base and a strong acid, its solution will be neutral. (NaCl) If a salt is composed of the conjugates of a weak base and a strong acid, its solutions will be acidic. (NH 4 Cl) If a salt is composed of the conjugates of a strong base and a weak acid, its solution will be basic. (NaC 2 H 3 O 2 ) If a salt is composed of the conjugates of a weak base and a weak acid, the ph of its solution will depend on the relative strengths of the conjugate acid and base of the specific ions in the salt. (NH 4 C 2 H 3 O 2 )

36 Anhydrides An acid anhydride is a substance that combines with water to form an acid. Generally nonmetal oxides. Ex. CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 A basic anhydride is a substance that combines with water to form a base. Generally metal oxides. Ex. Na 2 O + H 2 O 2NaOH

37 What to know for the test? Find ph from either [H + ] or [OH - ] Find [H + ] from ph or poh Find the # of grams of a base to make a solution of a certain ph Use titration info to find molar mass acid K a problems Find ph - find K a from ph Find concentrations Find % ionization

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