CH 15 Summary. Equilibrium is a balance between products and reactants

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "CH 15 Summary. Equilibrium is a balance between products and reactants"

Transcription

1 CH 15 Summary Equilibrium is a balance between products and reactants Use stoichiometry to determine reactant or product ratios, but NOT reactant to product ratios. Capital K is used to represent the equilibrium constant Products over reactants raised to their stoichiometric coefficients Calculated from balanced equation, subscript designates units used, K c, K p No units used in final written K Equlibrium Calculations and Reaction Quotients ICE tables used to manipulate initial and equilibrium concentrations. Factors influencing K Concentration of chemicals and temperature affect all equilibria T, P, V changes affect K p in gases Catalysis Effect of catalysts and inhibitors, reasons they are used. 1

2 2 Polyatomic Ions Memorize These! Ammonium NH + 4 Nitrate NO - 3 Hydronium H 3 O + Nitrite NO - 2 Acetate CH 3 COO - Phosphate PO 3-4 Carbonate CO 2-3 Cyanide CN - Permanganate MnO - 4 PerchlorateClO - 4 Hydroxide OH - Sulfate SO 2-4

3 3 Chapter 4: Solution Chemistry Molarity Conversions between moles and liters Dilutions Calculate concentration of diluted solution from a stock solution M 1 V 1 =M 2 V 2 Calculate mass of solid needed to make a solution Acid Base Titrations Identifying acids and bases Know properties of acids and bases Know list of specific acids both names and formulas Determine concentration of unknown solutions using titration

4 4 Common Acids to Memorize Strong Hydrochloric Acid: HCl Sulfuric Acid: H 2 SO 4 Nitric Acid: HNO 3 Perchloric Acid: HClO 4 Hydrobromic Acid: Hydroiodic Acid HBr HI Weak Carbonic Acid: H 2 CO 3 Phosphoric Acid: H 3 PO 4 Acetic Acid: CH 3 COOH Hydrofluoric Acid: HF

5 Chapter 16 Acids and Bases 5

6 Bronsted Acids and Bases Acid Compound that loses H + to a base Base Compound that gains H + from an acid SA WB CA CB WB WA CA CB Conjugate Acid-Base Pair Acid-Base pair exchanging the H+ Conjugate acid: Product with the extra H + Conjugate base: Product with 1 less H + ion than reactant 6

7 Carboxylic Acids: -COOH Weak organic acids: COOH group on molecule is acidic Creates resonance structure Stabilizes anion Never fully dissociate in water Will always be an equilibrium reaction 7

8 Reactivity of Weak Acid and Bases Strong Acids and Bases: Full dissociation Conjugate bases and acids form spectator ions Can use Chem 101 stoichiometry in calculations No original reactant or product left in solution Weak Acids and Bases: Partial dissociation Forms an equilibrium: K a or K b Acid/Base strength in aqueous solutions H 3 O + is the strongest acid OH - the strongest base Water acts as weak acid or base in the reaction 8

9 Acid-Base Properties of Water: Autoionization Water is slightly conductive due to the following reaction: 2H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + OH (aq) Process is called Autoionization Acid-Base Reaction between identical molecules 1 molecule acts as an acid, the other a base 9

10 Calculation of [H 3 O + ] and [OH ] in Water Treat as an equilibrium reaction at 25 C H 2 O(l) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + OH (aq) WB WA SA SB K w = [H 3 O + ][OH ] = Ion-Product constant K w is very small: Favors weaker acid-base pair (H 2 O) Make ICE table Products [H 3 O + ] [OH ] Initial 0 0 Change +x +x Equilibrium x x Solve for [H 3 O + ] and [OH - ] 1.0 x = [H 3 O + ][OH ] = [x][x] = x 2 x = [H 3 O + ] = [OH ] = M ph = 7 of pure water 10

11 ph Method of measuring acidity (p)ower of the (H)ydrogen ion Calculations ph = -log[h 3 O + ] [H 3 O + ] = 10 (-ph) poh = -log[oh-] [OH-] = 10 (-poh) K w = [H 3 O + ][OH - ] = 1x10-14 M pk w =ph + poh = 14 Effects in 1M Strong Acid (ph = 0) [H 3 O + ]= 1M then [OH - ]= 1x10-14 M Effects in 1M Strong Base (ph= 14) [OH - ]= 1M then [H 3 O + ]= 1x10-14 M 11

12 ph and poh Calculations Strong Acids and Bases 12

13 ph and poh Calculations poh: (p)ower of the (OH - ) ion = pH 1. Find ph and poh of an M HBr at 25 C. HBr (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + Br (aq) [H 3 O + ]= M ph = log[h 3 O + ] = log( ) = 2.30 poh = = Find ph and poh at 25 C of M NaOH NaOH(aq) Na + (aq) + OH (aq) [OH ] = M poh = -log[oh-]= 4.43 ph = poh = = 9.57 Significant Figures Sigfigs in concentration = sigfigs after decimal point in ph [H 3 O + ] = M ph =

14 Acidity Calculations: Strong Acids & Bases Calculate the H 3 O + and OH concentrations at 25 C of an aqueous 0.010M solution of nitric acid? Write reactions: HNO 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + NO 3 (aq) H 3 O + = M 2H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + OH (aq) H 3 O + = M [H 3 O + ] contributed by water is negligible [H 3 O + ] = ( ) = M [OH - ] =K w [H 3 O + ] = ( ) (0.010) = M Strong acid increases [H 3 O + ] and suppresses [OH - ] ph = -log[h 3 O + ] = -log[0.010m] =

15 Acidity Calculations for Dilute Solutions Calculate the H 3 O + (aq) + OH (aq) of a M solution of NaOH at 25 C? Write reactions: NaOH(aq) Na + (aq) + OH (aq) [OH ] = M 2H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + OH (aq) [OH ] = M [OH ] < M because of Le Chatelier s Principle Total concentrations: [OH ] = M (10%) NOT less than not negligible Must use an ICE table if solution less than 10-6 M 15

16 Strength of Acids and Bases 16

17 Strength of Acids and Bases Strong acids and bases are strong electrolytes Completely ionized in water, no original compound left Good conductors of electricity. Directional arrow ( ) indicates dissociation is complete Weak acids and bases are weak electrolytes Partial ionization in water, original compound remaining Poor conductors of electricity Double arrow ( ) indicates dissociation is incomplete Governed by an equilibrium constant, K a or K b 17

18 Strong vs. Weak Acids 18

19 Weak Acids and Bases If paired with group 1 cation, will be strong base Stronger acids will dominate over weaker acids HNO 2 (aq)+ CN - (aq) HCN (aq)+ NO 2- (aq) K>1 19

20 Weak Acids and K a 20

21 Weak Acids, K a and pk a ALWAYS write a reaction of weak acid HA in water: HA(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + A (aq) The equilibrium constant for this reaction is: H O A K = [ HA] + [ 3 ][ ] c = K a K a is the acid ionization constant. Quantitative measure of acid strength Large K a :Stronger acid pk a = -log K a 21

22 K a Values of Common Weak Acids 22

23 K a Calculations mole of HF is dissolved in 1.00 L of water at 25 C. The ph at equilibrium was found to be Calculate K a. HF(aq)+ H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + F (aq) Make table [HF] [H 3 O + ] [F - ] Initial Change -x +x +x Equilibrium x +x +x [ H3 + O ][ F [ HF] Find [H 3 O + ], [F - ] and [HF] [H 3 O + ] = 10 (-ph) = = 8.3 x 10-3 M = [F - ]=x [HF] = x = M=0.0917M=.092M Calculate K a K a = ] K a [ H O ][ F ] (8.3x10 ) 4 3 = = = 7.5x10 [ HF] [0.092] 23

24 Percent Ionization and K a Measure ph of weak acid of known initial concentration ph gives [H 3 O + ] at equilibrium. Get equilibrium concentrations from table Percent ionization (α) of a weak acid [ + H O ] [ A ] α = 3 x100% = 100% [ HA] [ HA] x Use stoichiometry of chemical equation to calculate equilibrium concentrations in K a 24

25 K a Calculations A M solution of HNO 2 is 19% ionized at equilibrium. Find K a. HNO 2 (aq)+ H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + NO 2 (aq) Make table [HNO 2 ] [H 3 O + ] [NO 2- ] Initial Change -x +x +x Equilibrium x +x +x Find [H 3 O + ], [NO 2- ] & [HNO 2 ] α = [ H 3O + ] x100% [ HA] 19% [ = [0.0100] X ] 3 X = 1.9x10 M Calculate K a K a [ H3O ][ NO2 ] (1.9x10 ) 4 = = [ HNO2 ] ( x10 ) = x 25

26 Determination of Relative Acidity from K a Which is the stronger acid, HF or HNO 2? HF pk a = log K a = log( ) = 3.12 HNO 2pKa = log K a = log( ) = 3.34 Stronger Acid Higher K a Smaller pk a HF stronger acid 26

27 Find the ph of a M Solution of Hypochlorous Acid [HClO] at 25 o C. ph range from strong acid to pure water Strong acid, ph = -log [0.010] = 2.0 Pure water = ph = -log [1.0 x 10-7 ] = 7.0 K a of hypochlorous acid = Look up in table, not a calculated number Not a strong acid: Incomplete dissociation must use equilibrium calculations Calculate H 3 O + from K a 27

28 Making Approximations in Equilibrium Calculations 28

29 Find the ph of a M Solution of Hypochlorous Acid [HClO] at 25 o C. HClO(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + ClO (aq) Initial Change x - +x +x Equilibrium x - x x Calculate H 3 O + from K a K a = 2.9x10 [ H3 8 + O ][ ClO [ HClO] X = [H 3 O + ] = [HClO] = ~ M ] [ x][ x] = [0.010 x] Calculate ph from [H 3 O + ] ph = -log [H 3 O + ] = -log ( ) = 4.77 Could have approximated! [HClO] eq = initial [HClO] 29

30 Estimating Equilibrium Concentrations Purpose: Simplify equilibrium concentration calculations Avoid the quadratic equation Procedure: Draw up your ICE table Ignore x in the initial acid concentration Solve for x with the ICE table Divide x by the initial acid concentration. If [x]/[ha] x 100< 5%, you can say that [HA] +x = [HA] If not, you cannot make this assumption The error in the number will be over 5% For previous problem estimate [HClO] at equilibrium [x]/[ha] = 1.7x10-5 /0.050 = 0.034% so approximate 30

31 Find the ph of a M Solution of Formic Acid Initial Data [HCHO 2 ] = given in problem [CHO 2- ] and [H 3 O + ]= 0 since you are adding nothing at start Initial HCHO 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l) CHO 2- (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) Change x - + x + x Equilibrium x - x x Look up K a in table and solve for x x =3.0x [ H3O ][ CHO2 ] Ka = 1.8x10 = = [ HCHO ] Calculate ph 2 [ x][ ] [0.050] 4 x x = [H 3 O + ] = M ph =

32 Calculate the ph of a M solution of acetic acid at 25 o C? pk a = 4.77 HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + C 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) Initial Change x - +x +x Equilibrium x - x x Convert pk a to K a pk a = 4.77 K a = = 1.7x10-5 With approximation K a + [ H3O ][C2H3O = [ HC H O ] X= 2.54 x ph = ] Solve for [x] with quadratic 5 [ x][ x] K a = 1.7x10 = 5 [3.8x10 x = [H 3 O + ]= Solve for ph ph = log[h 3 O + ] ph= log( ) = 4.74 x] 32

33 Polyprotic acids 33

34 Polyprotic acids Acids with more than one ionizable H atom 1. Treat first dissociation as monoprotic acids (1H + ) 2. Use successive acid ionization constants 1 for each ionized H atom Number sequentially K a1, K a2, K a3, Each equilibrium constant is less likely to affect ph than the one before it You may not need all of them to solve problems 34

35 35

36 Calculate the ph of a M sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid is a strong acid: Full dissociation of first H + H 2 SO 4 (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + HSO 4 (aq) M H 2 SO M H 3 O M HSO 4 Full dissociation of first H + only! Bisulfate ion, HSO 4- : Weak acid equilibrium with 2 nd H + HSO 4- (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + SO 4 2 (aq) K a = 1.1 x 10-2 for HSO 4- (aq) [HSO 4 ]= [ H 3 O + ]= M Estimate of ph Both H ionize ph = log( ) = 2.00 Ionization1 H ph = log(0.0050) =

37 Calculate the ph of a M sulfuric acid? HSO 4 (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + SO 2 4 (aq) Initial Change x -x + x + x Equilibrium x x x Solve for [H 3 O + ] using quadratic equation K a + 2 [ H 3O ][ SO = 1x10 = [ HSO ] [H 3 O + ] = x = = M Solve for ph ph = log[h 3 O + ] = log(0.0079) = ] [ x][ x] = [ x] x = M 37

38 What is the ph of 0.037M phosphoric acid? H 3 PO 4 has 3 ionizable hydrogen atoms H 3 PO 4 + H 2 O 3H 3 O + + 1PO 4 3- H 3 PO 4 : weak acid each ionization reaction is a separate problem use the results of previous steps Possible ph values All three H + donated, = log( ) = H ionized = log(0.037) = 1.43 H 2 PO 4- and HPO 4 2- have very small K a values ph primarily due to first ionization Lowest ph: log(0.037)= 1.43 not

39 Ionizable Hydrogens and K a: Set up ICE table for each step H 3 PO 4 (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + H 3 PO 4 =0.037M-0.013M=0.024M X=H 3 O + = H 2 PO 4 = 0.013M Need quadratic! H 2 PO 4- (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + H 3 O + = H 2 PO 4 = 0.013M X= HPO 4 2- = 6.3x10-8 M Used approximation HPO 4 2- (aq)+ H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + H 3 O + = 0.013M HPO 4 2- = 6.3x10-8 M PO 4 3 = 1.8x10-18 M K a K a K a = H 2 PO 4 (aq) [ H3 4 ] 3 = O ][H2PO [H PO ] 3 HPO 4 2- (aq) [ H3O ][HPO ] 4 8 = = [H PO ] PO 4 3 (aq) [ H3O ][PO ] 4 13 = = [HPO ] 39

40 H 3 PO 4 (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + H 2 PO 4 (aq) Initial Change x - + x + x Equilibrium x - + x x Approximate H 3 PO 4? [x]/[ha] = 0.016/.037 so no approximation Plug equilibrium concentrations into K a equation K a What is the ph of a M solution of phosphoric acid at 25 C? = [ H = 3 + O ][H2PO [H PO ] 3 40 x = Plug x back into table to get equilibrium concentrations [H 3 PO 4 ] = x = = 0.024M [H 3 O + ] = x = 0.013M use for second ionization [H 2 PO 4 ] = x = 0.013M use for second ionization 4 4 ] [ x][ x] = [0.037 x]

41 What is the ph of a M solution of phosphoric acid at 25 C? H 2 PO 4- (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + HPO 2-4 (aq) Initial Change x - + x +x Equilibrium x x x Plug equilibrium concentrations into K a equation (approximate) Solve for X with quadratic + 2 [ H3O ][HPO ] 8 K a = = = - [H PO ] 2 [0.013][ [0.013] Plug x back into table to get equilibrium concentrations 4 4 x 41 x = 6.3x10-8 [H 2 PO 4 ] = x10-8 = 0.013M [H 3 O + ] = x10-8 = 0.013M No change in ph!!! [HPO 2 4 ] = x = 6.3x10-8 use for next ionization ]

42 HPO 4 2- (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + 42 PO 4 3 (aq) Initial 6.3x Change x - + x + x Equilibrium 6.3x10-8 x x x [H 3 O + ] 3rd ionizationk a3 = < K a2 = 6.3x10-8 If second ionization didn t change ph, neither will 3 rd Use [H 3 O + ] from last ionization to calculate ph Calculate ph What is the ph of a M solution of phosphoric acid at 25 C? ph due only to first ionization ph = log( ) = 1.89 Original estimate was 1.43

43 Weak Bases and K b 43

44 Weak Bases Brønsted Lowry reaction for a weak base: B(aq) + H 2 O(l) HB + (aq) + OH (aq) + Equilibrium constant : [ HB ][OH ] K = = [B] K b is the base ionization constant. K b defines amount of dissociation On a log scale: pk b = log K b Strong bases: High[OH - ], low [H 3 O + ] Large K b & small pk b pk a + pk b = 14 3 Categories c K b Metal hydroxides, Most anions, & Organic amines 44

45 Metal Hydroxides Strong bases; Group 1A ex: NaOH, KOH Weak bases: Anything else withoh - ex: Ca(OH) 2 Ca 2+ Fe(OH) 3 Fe 3+ Dissociation affected by solubility Sparingly soluble salts Will act as weak bases (K b ) Use equilibrium chemistry (K sp ) Solubility Product Constant (next chapter.) 45

46 Anions Act as H + acceptors in water The negative charge attracts H + CO 3 2-, CH 3 COO -, etc. Exceptions: Anions of strong acids: 100% dissociation, no equilibrium established Cl, Br, I, ClO 4, NO 3, HSO 4 Anions with ionizable hydrogen ion Amphiprotic H 2 PO 4, etc. 46

47 Organic Amines General structure of R 3 N: R contains H,C,O, (main group atoms) Lone pair on nitrogen accepts H + R 3 N:(aq) + H 2 O(l) R 3 N H + (aq) + OH (aq) Conjugate acid: Ammonium ion, NH + 4 Common amines: CH 3 H 3 C N H 2 N CH 3 trimethylamine aniline 47

48 Common Weak Bases 48

49 Calculations Using K b 49

50 Relationship between K a & K b Base & water NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4+ + OH K b = 1.8X10-5 pk b = 4.74 Conjugate acid & water: NH 4+ + H 2 O H 3 O + + NH 3 K a = 5.6X10-10 pk a = 9.26 Add two reactions together: multiply K values Multiple equilibria (Ch. 15) 2H 2 O H 3 O + + OH K w =K a x K b = 1.00x10-14 pk a + pk b = (at 25 C) so pk w = = Only true for conjugate acid/base pairs in water! 50

51 Find the ph of a 0.10 M solution of ammonia at 25 o C. Reaction: NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) NH 4+ (aq) + OH (aq) Initial Change x - + x + x Equilibrium 0.10 x - x x Fill in K b expression K b = 1.8x10 5 = [ NH + 4 [ NH ][OH 3 ] ] = [ x][ x] [0.10] x = [OH - ] = 13. x10 3 M Approximate [NH 3 ] Solve for ph poh = log[ OH ] = log[1.3x10 ph = 14 poh = = ] =

52 Find the percent ionization of a 0.10 M solution of ammonia at 25 o C. Calculate % Ionization [OH - ] = 1.3 x 10-3 from previous problem % Ionization = [OH [ NH 3 ] ] x100% = 1.3x x100% = 1.3% 52

53 Molecular Structure and Strength of Acids 53

54 Measuring Acid Strength Strongest Acid: Weakest bond to acidic H 3 Criteria in order of importance Charge: High negative charge on anion: weaker acid Leaves stronger bond to any remaining hydrogens Structure: Larger anions will create longer, weaker H-X bonds Presence of oxoatoms increase electronegativity Electronegativity: High electronegativity of anion: stronger acid Withdraws electrons from acidic H stronger acid 54

55 Effect of Charge H 3 AsO 4 H 2 AsO 4 HAsO 4 2 Charge: HAsO 4 2 has highest negative charge Higher charge: weaker acid Harder to pull H away, stronger bond Acidity based on charge difference H 3 AsO 4 > H 2 AsO 4 > HAsO 4 2 Structure: No differences Electronegativity: No differences 55

56 Effect of Structure: Bond Length vs. Electronegativity for Binary acids Direct bond between H and electronegative atom Two competing forces Large Atomic radius Long bonds are weaker High Electronegativity High electronegativity pulls electrons to more electronegative atom; weakens bond Experimentally measured acid strength HI>HBr>HCl>>HF Bond length is dominating force 56

57 Oxoacids More double bonded oxygens: Stronger acid H 2 SO 4 H 2 SO 3 Two terminal oxo atoms More resonance stabilizes ion More e- withdrawal from O-H H is more positive: more acidic One terminal oxo atom Fewer resonance structures Less e- withdrawal from O-H H is less positive: less acidic 57

58 Charge: No difference Both neutral Effect of Electronegativity Structure: No difference in terminal oxo atoms 1 oxo atom each Electronegativity: S more electronegative than P H 2 SO 3 more acidic than H 3 PO 4 S more electronegative than Se H 2 SO 4 more acidic than H 2 SeO 4 58

59 Acid Strength Bond length vs Electronegativity Charge Difference Structure: Terminal O Electronegativity 59

60 Acid-Base Properties of Salts Hydrolysis 60

61 Hydrolysis of Ionic Salts Ionic salts dissolved in water affect ph NaNO 3 (s) + H 2 O(aq) Na + (aq) + NO 3- (aq) Undergo Hydrolysis Hydrolysis: Reaction of an ionic salt with water May change the ph of the solution Both cations and anions may undergo hydrolysis Not all ions hydrolyze Examine both ions to determine acid/base character 3 step process to predict acidity of a salt solution 1. Write the reaction that dissociates salt into its ions 2. Check the cation for acid hydrolysis: produce H + 3. Check the anion for base hydrolysis: produce OH - 61

62 Is NaCl (aq) Acidic, Basic or Neutral 1. Dissociate the salt into ions: NaCl(aq) Na + (aq) + Cl (aq) 2. Check the cation for hydrolysis: Na + (aq) + H 2 O(l) NaOH(aq) + H + (aq) No Hydrolysis: NaOH strong base, not acidic 3. Check the anion for hydrolysis: Cl (aq) + H 2 O(l) HCl (aq) + OH -(aq) No Hydrolysis: HCl is a strong acid, not basic If neither acidic or basic, solution is neutral 62

63 Is Na 2 CO 3 Acidic, Basic or Neutral 1. Dissociate the salt into ions: Na 2 CO 3 (aq) 2Na + (aq) + CO 3 2- (aq) 2. Check the cation for hydrolysis: Na + (aq) + H 2 O(l) NaOH(aq) + H + (aq) No Hydrolysis: NaOH would be a strong base No H + generated: Solution is not acidic 3. Check the anion for hydrolysis: CO 2-3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) HCO 3- (aq) + OH - (aq) Anion hydrolyzes: HCO 3- (aq) weak acid Some OH - is generated: Solution may be basic If not acidic but possibly basic, solution is basic 63

64 Is Fe(NO 3 ) 2 Acidic, Basic or Neutral? 1. Dissociate the salt into ions: Fe(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) Fe 2+ (aq) + 2NO 3 (aq) 2. Check the cation for hydrolysis: Fe 2+ (aq) + H 2 O(l) FeOH + (aq) + H + (aq) Reaction occurs: FeOH + is a weak base H + generated: Acidic solution 3. Check the anion for hydrolysis: NO 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) HNO 3 (aq) + OH - (aq) No OH- generated: Nitric is a strong acid, not basic Overall: the solution is acidic 64

65 Is ZnF 2 Acidic, Basic or Neutral 1. Dissociate the salt into ions: ZnF 2 (aq) Zn 2+ (aq) + 2F (aq) 2. Check the cation for hydrolysis: Zn 2+ (aq) + H 2 O(l) ZnOH + (aq) + H + (aq) Reaction Occurs: ZnOH + (aq) is a weak base H 3 O + generated: Acidic Solution 3. Check the anion for hydrolysis: F (aq) + H 2 O(l) HF (aq) + OH - (aq) Reaction Occurs: HF is a weak acid OH - is generated: Basic Solution Can t tell acidity : Both cation and anion hydrolyze Both H 3 O + (aq) and OH - (aq) possible 65

66 Is ZnF 2 Acidic, Basic or Neutral 1. Dissociate the salt into ions: ZnF 2 (aq) Zn 2+ (aq) + 2F (aq) 2. Cation Hydrolysis: K a based Zn 2+ (aq) + H 2 O(l) ZnOH + (aq) + H + (aq) 3. Anion Hydrolysis: K b based F (aq) + H 2 O(l) HF (aq) + OH - (aq) Can t tell acidity : Both cation and anion hydrolyze Both H + (aq) and OH - (aq) possible Higher K value determines acidity 66

67 Determine Acidity Look up K a s for both acids K a (Zn 2+ ) = for acid reaction K a (HF) = for base reaction Calculate K b for the anion reaction K b (F ) = K w /K a = / = Larger equilibrium constant wins K a (Zn 2+ )> K b (F ) > H + created > OH - created Cation hydrolysis dominates : Solution is acidic. 67

68 Find the ph of a solution with M CHOONa. First determine if acidic, basic or neutral Anion hydrolysis: CHOOH is a weak acid, so basic Need to use K b HCOO - (aq) + H 2 O(l) HCOOH(aq) + OH - (aq) Initial Change x - + x + x Equilibrium x - x x Initial Data [HCOO - ] = from problem [HCOOH] and [OH - ]= 0 Look up K a in table and calculate K b K b [ K = [ K w a ] ] 1.0x10 = 1.8x = 5.6x

69 Find the ph of a solution with M CHOONa. HCOO - (aq) + H 2 O(l) HCOOH(aq) + OH - (aq) Initial Change x - + x + x Equilibrium x - x x Solve for x [ OH ][ HCOOH ] [ x][ x] x 10 = = [ HCOO ] [0.05] x =[OH-]= 1.7x10-6 Calculate ph poh = -log[1.7x10-6 ] = 5.77 ph = 14-pOH =

70 Hydrolysis of Anions from Polyprotic Acids NaHCO 3, NaH 2 PO 4, NaHSO 4 Both acid and base hydrolysis occur Cation Hydrolysis: K a = 4.8x10-11 HCO 3- (aq) + 2H 2 O(l) CO 3 2- (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) Anion Hydrolysis: K b = 2.4x10-8 HCO 3- (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 2 CO 3 (aq) + OH (aq) K b = Kw/Ka = 1x10-14 /4.2x10-7 = 2.4x10-8 Compare equilibrium constants Larger K determines equilibrium reaction solution is basic 70

71 Hydrolysis of Complexed Metal Ions Metal Ions form complexes with water (hydrated) Pull electrons towards metal ion Polarize O-H bond in attached waters H+ ions dissociate from oxygen Al Cation hydrolysis only Al(H 2 O) 6 3+ (aq) + H 2 O(l) Al(OH)(H 2 O) 5 2+ (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) K a = 1.3x10-5 O H H 71

72 Lewis Acids and Bases BF 3 (g)+ NH 3 (g) F 3 B-NH 3 (g) Lewis Acid: Accepts a pair of electrons BF 3 No ionizable H Not bronsted acid Lewis Base: Donates a pair of electrons :NH 3 No H to accept Not bronsted base F F B F H N H H 72

HA(aq) H + (aq) + A (aq) We can write an equilibrium constant expression for this dissociation: [ ][ ]

HA(aq) H + (aq) + A (aq) We can write an equilibrium constant expression for this dissociation: [ ][ ] 16.6 Weak Acids Weak acids are only partially ionized in aqueous solution. There is a mixture of ions and un-ionized acid in solution. Therefore, weak acids are in equilibrium: Or: HA(aq) + H 2 O(l) H

More information

Chapter 14 Acids and Bases

Chapter 14 Acids and Bases Properties of Acids and Bases Chapter 14 Acids and Bases Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927) First to develop a theory for acids and bases in aqueous solution Arrhenius Acids Compounds which dissolve (dissociate)

More information

Weak acids are only partially ionized in aqueous solution: mixture of ions and un-ionized acid in solution.

Weak acids are only partially ionized in aqueous solution: mixture of ions and un-ionized acid in solution. 16.6 Weak Acids Weak acids are only partially ionized in aqueous solution: mixture of ions and un-ionized acid in solution. Therefore, weak acids are in equilibrium: HA(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + A

More information

Chapter 16. Acid-Base Equilibria

Chapter 16. Acid-Base Equilibria Chapter 16. Acid-Base Equilibria 16.1 Acids and Bases: A Brief Review Acids taste sour and cause certain dyes to change color. Bases taste bitter and feel soapy. Arrhenius concept of acids and bases: An

More information

Chap 16 Chemical Equilibrium HSU FUYIN

Chap 16 Chemical Equilibrium HSU FUYIN Chap 16 Chemical Equilibrium HSU FUYIN 1 Definitions: Arrhenius & Brønsted Lowry acid and base Arrhenius theory: An acid is a substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydrogen

More information

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Learning goals and key skills: Understand the nature of the hydrated proton, represented as either H + (aq) or H 3 O + (aq) Define and identify Arrhenuis acids and bases.

More information

Chapter 16 Acid Base Equilibria

Chapter 16 Acid Base Equilibria Chapter 16 Acid Base Equilibria 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Acid Base Equilibria 16.1 : A Brief Review 16.2 Brønsted Lowry 16.3 The Autoionization of Water 16.4 The ph Scale 16.5 Strong Balsamic Vinegar

More information

Acid/Base Definitions

Acid/Base Definitions Acids and Bases Acid/Base Definitions Arrhenius Model Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions Bases produce hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions Bronsted-Lowry Model Acids are proton donors Bases

More information

ADVANCED PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY ACIDS, BASES, AND AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA

ADVANCED PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY ACIDS, BASES, AND AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA ADVANCED PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY ACIDS, BASES, AND AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA Acids- taste sour Bases(alkali)- taste bitter and feel slippery Arrhenius concept- acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution while

More information

ACIDS AND BASES. HCl(g) = hydrogen chloride HCl(aq) = hydrochloric acid HCl(g) H + (aq) + Cl (aq) ARRHENIUS THEORY

ACIDS AND BASES. HCl(g) = hydrogen chloride HCl(aq) = hydrochloric acid HCl(g) H + (aq) + Cl (aq) ARRHENIUS THEORY ACIDS AND BASES A. CHARACTERISTICS OF ACIDS AND BASES 1. Acids and bases are both ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. Since acids and bases both form ionic solutions, their solutions conduct electricity

More information

(Label the Conjugate Pairs) Water in the last example acted as a Bronsted-Lowry base, and here it is acting as an acid. or

(Label the Conjugate Pairs) Water in the last example acted as a Bronsted-Lowry base, and here it is acting as an acid. or Chapter 16 - Acid-Base Equilibria Arrhenius Definition produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution. produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. Limits to aqueous solutions. Only one kind of base. NH

More information

Properties of Acids and Bases

Properties of Acids and Bases Chapter 15 Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases Properties of Acids and Bases Generally, an acid is a compound that releases hydrogen ions, H +, into water. Blue litmus is used to test for acids. Blue litmus

More information

AP Chemistry CHAPTER 16 STUDY GUIDE Acid-Base Equilibrium

AP Chemistry CHAPTER 16 STUDY GUIDE Acid-Base Equilibrium AP Chemistry CHAPTER 16 STUDY GUIDE AcidBase Equilibrium 16.1 Acids and Bases: A Brief Review Acids taste sour and cause certain dyes to change color. Bases taste bitter and feel soapy. Arrhenius concept

More information

Chapter 16. Acid-Base Equilibria

Chapter 16. Acid-Base Equilibria Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Arrhenius Definition Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution. Bases produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. Limits to aqueous solutions. Only one kind of

More information

Chem 1046 Lecture Notes Chapter 17

Chem 1046 Lecture Notes Chapter 17 Chem 1046 Lecture Notes Chapter 17 Updated 01-Oct-2012 The Chemistry of Acids and Bases These Notes are to SUPPLIMENT the Text, They do NOT Replace reading the Text Book Material. Additional material that

More information

Unit 6: ACIDS AND BASES

Unit 6: ACIDS AND BASES Unit 6: Acids and Bases Honour Chemistry Unit 6: ACIDS AND BASES Chapter 16: Acids and Bases 16.1: Brønsted Acids and Bases Physical and Chemical Properties of Acid and Base Acids Bases Taste Sour (Citric

More information

CHAPTER 14 ACIDS AND BASES

CHAPTER 14 ACIDS AND BASES CHAPTER 14 ACIDS AND BASES Topics Definition of acids and bases Bronsted-Lowry Concept Dissociation constant of weak acids Acid strength Calculating ph for strong and weak acids and bases Polyprotic acids

More information

Acids And Bases. H + (aq) + Cl (aq) ARRHENIUS THEORY

Acids And Bases. H + (aq) + Cl (aq) ARRHENIUS THEORY Acids And Bases A. Characteristics of Acids and Bases 1. Acids and bases are both ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. Since acids and bases both form ionic solutions, their solutions conduct electricity

More information

A) Arrhenius Acids produce H+ and bases produce OH not always used because it only IDs X OH as basic species

A) Arrhenius Acids produce H+ and bases produce OH not always used because it only IDs X OH as basic species 3 ACID AND BASE THEORIES: A) Arrhenius Acids produce H+ and bases produce OH not always used because it only IDs X OH as basic species B) Bronsted and Lowry Acid = H + donor > CB = formed after H + dissociates

More information

ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA. Chapter 16

ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA. Chapter 16 P a g e 1 Chapter 16 ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA Nature of Acids and Bases Before we formally define acids and bases, let s examine their properties. Properties of Acids Sour taste Ability to dissolve many metals

More information

Chemistry 102 Chapter 15 ACID-BASE CONCEPTS

Chemistry 102 Chapter 15 ACID-BASE CONCEPTS General Properties: ACID-BASE CONCEPTS ACIDS BASES Taste sour Bitter Change color of indicators Blue Litmus turns red no change Red Litmus no change turns blue Phenolphtalein Colorless turns pink Neutralization

More information

Chapter 16: Acid Base Equilibria Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Learning Standards & Objectives;

Chapter 16: Acid Base Equilibria Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Learning Standards & Objectives; Chapter 16: Acid Base Equilibria Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Learning Standards & Objectives; Chapter 16 AP16-1,2-01 AP16-1,2-02 AP16-1,2-03 AP16-3,4-01 AP16-3,4-02 AP16-5-01 AP16-6,7-01 AP16-6,7-02

More information

Acids & Bases. Strong Acids. Weak Acids. Strong Bases. Acetic Acid. Arrhenius Definition: Classic Definition of Acids and Bases.

Acids & Bases. Strong Acids. Weak Acids. Strong Bases. Acetic Acid. Arrhenius Definition: Classic Definition of Acids and Bases. Arrhenius Definition: Classic Definition of Acids and Bases Acid: A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concetration, [H ], (also thought of as hydronium ion, H O ) when dissolved in water. Acids

More information

Chem12 Acids : Exam Questions M.C.-100

Chem12 Acids : Exam Questions M.C.-100 Chem12 Acids : Exam Questions M.C.-100 1) Given : HPO 4 2- (aq) + NH 4 + (aq) H 2 PO 4 - (aq) + NH 3 (aq), the strongest acid in the above equation is : a) NH 4 + b) HPO 4 2- c) NH 3 d) H 2 PO 4-2)

More information

Chapter 16. Dr Ayman Nafady

Chapter 16. Dr Ayman Nafady Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay, Jr., Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 16 Dr Ayman Nafady John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Some Definitions

More information

Lecture Presentation. Chapter 16. Acid Base Equilibria. John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Presentation. Chapter 16. Acid Base Equilibria. John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Presentation Chapter 16 Acid Base Equilibria John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Some Definitions Arrhenius An acid is a substance that, when dissolved in water, increases

More information

Cu 2+ (aq) + 4NH 3(aq) = Cu(NH 3) 4 2+ (aq) I (aq) + I 2(aq) = I 3 (aq) Fe 3+ (aq) + 6H 2O(l) = Fe(H 2O) 6 3+ (aq) Strong acids

Cu 2+ (aq) + 4NH 3(aq) = Cu(NH 3) 4 2+ (aq) I (aq) + I 2(aq) = I 3 (aq) Fe 3+ (aq) + 6H 2O(l) = Fe(H 2O) 6 3+ (aq) Strong acids There are three definitions for acids and bases we will need to understand. Arrhenius Concept: an acid supplies H + to an aqueous solution. A base supplies OH to an aqueous solution. This is the oldest

More information

General Chemistry II CHM 1046 E Exam 2

General Chemistry II CHM 1046 E Exam 2 General Chemistry II CHM 1046 E Exam 2 Dr. Shanbhag Name: 1. The formation of ammonia from elemental nitrogen and hydrogen is an exothermic process. N 2 (g) + 3 H 2 (g) 2 NH 3 (g) H= -92.2 kj Which of

More information

Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases

Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases Slide 1 Chapter 14 Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases Slide 2 Acid Base Concepts 01 Arrhenius Acid: A substance which dissociates to form hydrogen ions (H + ) in solution. HA(aq) H + (aq) + A (aq) Arrhenius

More information

Contents and Concepts

Contents and Concepts Chapter 16 1 Learning Objectives Acid Base Concepts Arrhenius Concept of Acids and Base a. Define acid and base according to the Arrhenius concept. Brønsted Lowry Concept of Acids and Bases a. Define acid

More information

Unit 2 Acids and Bases

Unit 2 Acids and Bases Unit 2 Acids and Bases 1 Topics Properties / Operational Definitions Acid-Base Theories ph & poh calculations Equilibria (Kw, K a, K b ) Indicators Titrations STSE: Acids Around Us 2 Operational Definitions

More information

Acids and Bases. A strong base is a substance that completely ionizes in aqueous solutions to give a cation and a hydroxide ion.

Acids and Bases. A strong base is a substance that completely ionizes in aqueous solutions to give a cation and a hydroxide ion. Acid-Base Theories Arrhenius Acids and Bases (1884) Acids and Bases An acid is a substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydrogen ions. A base is a substance that, when

More information

NATURE OF ACIDS & BASES

NATURE OF ACIDS & BASES General Properties: NATURE OF ACIDS & BASES ACIDS BASES Taste sour Bitter Change color of indicators Blue Litmus turns red no change Red Litmus no change turns blue Phenolphtalein Colorless turns pink

More information

Acid / Base Properties of Salts

Acid / Base Properties of Salts Acid / Base Properties of Salts n Soluble ionic salts produce may produce neutral, acidic, or basic solutions depending on the acidbase properties of the individual ions. n Consider the salt sodium nitrate,

More information

Mr. Storie 40S Chemistry Student Acid and bases Unit. Acids and Bases

Mr. Storie 40S Chemistry Student Acid and bases Unit. Acids and Bases Acids and Bases 1 UNIT 4: ACIDS & BASES OUTCOMES All important vocabulary is in Italics and bold. Outline the historical development of acid base theories. Include: Arrhenius, BronstedLowry, Lewis. Write

More information

Proton Transfer Acids - Base. Dr. Fred Omega Garces Chemistry 201. Miramar College

Proton Transfer Acids - Base. Dr. Fred Omega Garces Chemistry 201. Miramar College 16.2 Acids Base Proton Transfer Dr. Fred Omega Garces Chemistry 201 Miramar College Important Notes: K a when H 3 O + is produced, K b when OH is produced 1 Acids Bases; Proton Transfer BrønstedLowry AcidsBases

More information

1. Strengths of Acids and Bases 2. K a, K b 3. Ionization of Water 4. Relative Strengths of Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases

1. Strengths of Acids and Bases 2. K a, K b 3. Ionization of Water 4. Relative Strengths of Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Chemistry 12 Acid-Base Equilibrium II Name: Date: Block: 1. Strengths of Acids and Bases 2. K a, K b 3. Ionization of Water 4. Relative Strengths of Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Strengths of Acids and

More information

Chapter 16 Acids and Bases. Chapter 16 Acids and Bases

Chapter 16 Acids and Bases. Chapter 16 Acids and Bases . Chapter 16 Acids and Bases 1 Some Definitions Arrhenius Acid: Substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydrogen ions. Base: Substance that, when dissolved in water, increases

More information

Section 32 Acids and Bases. Copyright (c) 2011 by Michael A. Janusa, PhD. All rights reserved.

Section 32 Acids and Bases. Copyright (c) 2011 by Michael A. Janusa, PhD. All rights reserved. Section 32 Acids and Bases 1 Copyright (c) 2011 by Michael A. Janusa, PhD. All rights reserved. Acid-Base Concepts Acids and bases are among the most familiar and important of all chemical compounds. You

More information

Chapter 14 Acid- Base Equilibria Study Guide

Chapter 14 Acid- Base Equilibria Study Guide Chapter 14 Acid- Base Equilibria Study Guide This chapter will illustrate the chemistry of acid- base reactions and equilibria, and provide you with tools for quantifying the concentrations of acids and

More information

Prof. Zvi C. Koren

Prof. Zvi C. Koren Acids & Bases 1 Prof. Zvi C. Koren 20.07.2010 Definitions Arrhenius Acid releases H + in water: HCl(aq) H + + Cl - Base releases OH - in water: NaOH(aq) Na + + OH - Brønsted-Lowry (don t need water) Acid

More information

AP Chapter 15 & 16: Acid-Base Equilibria Name

AP Chapter 15 & 16: Acid-Base Equilibria Name AP Chapter 15 & 16: Acid-Base Equilibria Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. AP Chapter 15 & 16: Acid-Base Equilibria 2 Warm-Ups (Show

More information

CHAPTER 14 THE CHEMISTRY OF ACIDS AND BASES

CHAPTER 14 THE CHEMISTRY OF ACIDS AND BASES CHAPTER 14 THE CHEMISTRY OF ACIDS AND BASES "ACID"--Latin word acidus, meaning sour. (lemon) "ALKALI"--Arabic word for the ashes that come from burning certain plants; water solutions feel slippery and

More information

Chapter 16. Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay, Jr., and Bruce E. Bursten

Chapter 16. Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay, Jr., and Bruce E. Bursten Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay, Jr., Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 16 John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Some Definitions Arrhenius

More information

Chapter 14. Objectives

Chapter 14. Objectives Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases Objectives List five general properties of aqueous acids and bases. Name common binary acids and oxyacids, given their chemical formulas. List five acids commonly

More information

Chapter 17 Acids and Bases

Chapter 17 Acids and Bases Chapter 17 Acids and Bases - we are all familiar with 'acids' - depicted on television as burning liquids - from foods (i.e. vinegar) - taste "sour" or "tart' - less familiar with 'bases' - taste "bitter"

More information

Chemistry: The Central Science. Chapter 16: Acid-Base Equilibria. 16.1: Acids and Bases: A Brief Review

Chemistry: The Central Science. Chapter 16: Acid-Base Equilibria. 16.1: Acids and Bases: A Brief Review Chemistry: The Central Science Chapter 16: Acid-Base Equilibria 16.1: Acids and Bases: A Brief Review Acids have a sour taste and cause certain dyes to change color Base have a bitter taste and feel slippery

More information

CHAPTER 13: ACIDS & BASES. Section Arrhenius Acid & Bases Svante Arrhenius, Swedish chemist ( ).

CHAPTER 13: ACIDS & BASES. Section Arrhenius Acid & Bases Svante Arrhenius, Swedish chemist ( ). CHAPTER 13: ACIDS & BASES Section 13.1 Arrhenius Acid & Bases Svante Arrhenius, Swedish chemist (1839-1927). He understood that aqueous solutions of acids and bases conduct electricity (they are electrolytes).

More information

Chemistry 400 Homework #3, Chapter 16: Acid-Base Equilibria

Chemistry 400 Homework #3, Chapter 16: Acid-Base Equilibria Chemistry 400 Homework #3, Chapter 16: Acid-Base Equilibria I. Multiple Choice (for those with an asterisk, you must show work) These multiple choice (MC) are not "Google-proof", but they were so good

More information

Chem 105 Tuesday March 8, Chapter 17. Acids and Bases

Chem 105 Tuesday March 8, Chapter 17. Acids and Bases Chem 105 Tuesday March 8, 2011 Chapter 17. Acids and Bases 1) Define Brønsted Acid and Brønsted Base 2) Proton (H + ) transfer reactions: conjugate acid-base pairs 3) Water and other amphiprotic substances

More information

11/14/10. Properties of Acids! CHAPTER 15 Acids and Bases. Table 18.1

11/14/10. Properties of Acids! CHAPTER 15 Acids and Bases. Table 18.1 11/14/10 CHAPTER 15 Acids and Bases 15-1 Properties of Acids! Sour taste React with active metals i.e., Al, Zn, Fe, but not Cu, Ag, or Au 2 Al + 6 HCl 2 AlCl3 + 3 H2 corrosive React with carbonates, producing

More information

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Page 1 of 20 Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria 16.1 Acids and Bases: A Brief Review Acids: taste sour and cause certain dyes to change color. Bases: taste bitter and feel soapy. Arrhenius concept o acids

More information

IB Chemistry ABS Introduction An acid was initially considered a substance that would produce H + ions in water.

IB Chemistry ABS Introduction An acid was initially considered a substance that would produce H + ions in water. IB Chemistry ABS Introduction An acid was initially considered a substance that would produce H + ions in water. The Brønsted-Lowry definition of an acid is a species that can donate an H + ion to any

More information

is considered acid 1, identify the other three terms as acid 2, base 1, and base 2 to indicate the conjugate acid-base pairs.

is considered acid 1, identify the other three terms as acid 2, base 1, and base 2 to indicate the conjugate acid-base pairs. 18.1 Introduction to Acids and Bases 1. Name the following compounds as acids: a. H2SO4 d. HClO4 b. H2SO3 e. HCN c. H2S 2. Which (if any) of the acids mentioned in item 1 are binary acids? 3. Write formulas

More information

Acids and Bases Unit 11

Acids and Bases Unit 11 Mr. B s Chemistry Acids and Bases Unit 11 Name Block Let s start our discussion of acids and bases by defining some terms that are essential to the topics that follow. Arrhenius acids and bases are: acid

More information

Principles of Reactivity: The Chemistry of Acids and Bases. Acids, Bases and Arrhenius

Principles of Reactivity: The Chemistry of Acids and Bases. Acids, Bases and Arrhenius Principles of Reactivity: The Chemistry of Acids and Bases **a lot of calculations in this chapter will be done on the chalkboard Do not rely on these notes for all the material** Acids, Bases and Arrhenius

More information

Guide to Chapter 15. Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases. Review Chapter 4, Section 2 on how ionic substances dissociate in water.

Guide to Chapter 15. Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases. Review Chapter 4, Section 2 on how ionic substances dissociate in water. Guide to Chapter 15. Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases We will spend five lecture days on this chapter. During the first two class meetings we will introduce acids and bases and some of the theories

More information

The Chemistry of Acids and Bases

The Chemistry of Acids and Bases The Chemistry of 1 Acids and Bases 2 Acid and Bases 3 Acid and Bases 4 Acid and Bases 5 Strong and Weak Acids/Bases Generally divide acids and bases into STRONG or WEAK ones. STRONG ACID: HNO 3 (aq) +

More information

Acid-Base Equilibria

Acid-Base Equilibria Acid-Base Equilibria 1. Classify each of the following species as an acid, a base, or amphoteric in aqueous solution: (a) H 2 O; (b) CH 3 CH 2 ; (c) PO 4 3 ; (d) C 6 H 5 NH 3 2. Write the proton transfer

More information

Dynamic equilibrium: rate of evaporation = rate of condensation II. In a closed system a solid obtains a dynamic equilibrium with its dissolved state

Dynamic equilibrium: rate of evaporation = rate of condensation II. In a closed system a solid obtains a dynamic equilibrium with its dissolved state CHEMISTRY 111 LECTURE EXAM III Material PART 1 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM Chapter 14 I Dynamic Equilibrium I. In a closed system a liquid obtains a dynamic equilibrium with its vapor state Dynamic equilibrium:

More information

Chpt 16: Acids and Bases

Chpt 16: Acids and Bases Chpt 16 Acids and Bases Defining Acids Arrhenius: Acid: Substances when dissolved in water increase the concentration of H+. Base: Substances when dissolved in water increase the concentration of OH- Brønsted-Lowry:

More information

Acid-Base Chemistry. There are a couple of ways to define acids and bases Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases. Lewis acids and bases

Acid-Base Chemistry. There are a couple of ways to define acids and bases Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases. Lewis acids and bases Acid-Base Chemistry There are a couple of ways to define acids and bases Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases Acid: H + ion donor Base: H + ion acceptor Lewis acids and bases Acid: electron pair acceptor Base:

More information

Unit Nine Notes N C U9

Unit Nine Notes N C U9 Unit Nine Notes N C U9 I. AcidBase Theories A. Arrhenius Acids and Bases 1. Acids contain hydronium ions (H O ) commonly referred to as hydrogen ions (H ) that dissociate in water a. Different acids release

More information

Aqueous Equilibria, Part 1 AP Chemistry Lecture Outline

Aqueous Equilibria, Part 1 AP Chemistry Lecture Outline Aqueous Equilibria, Part 1 AP Chemistry Lecture Outline Name: Acids and Bases Arrhenius...acids increase the when dissolved in H 2 O....bases increase the when dissolved in H 2 O. e.g., HCl and NaOH Bronsted-Lowry

More information

Chapter 14: Acids and Bases

Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Chapter 14: Acids and Bases 14.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases Bronsted-Lowry Acid-Base Systems Bronsted acid: proton donor Bronsted base: proton acceptor Bronsted acid base reaction: proton transfer from

More information

ACID BASE EQUILIBRIUM

ACID BASE EQUILIBRIUM ACID BASE EQUILIBRIUM Part one: Acid/Base Theories Learning Goals: to identify acids and bases and their conjugates according to Arrhenius and Bronstead Lowry Theories. to be able to identify amphoteric

More information

Name Date Class ACID-BASE THEORIES

Name Date Class ACID-BASE THEORIES 19.1 ACID-BASE THEORIES Section Review Objectives Define the properties of acids and bases Compare and contrast acids and bases as defined by the theories of Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, and Lewis Vocabulary

More information

In the Brønsted-Lowry system, a Brønsted-Lowry acid is a species that donates H + and a Brønsted-Lowry base is a species that accepts H +.

In the Brønsted-Lowry system, a Brønsted-Lowry acid is a species that donates H + and a Brønsted-Lowry base is a species that accepts H +. 16.1 Acids and Bases: A Brief Review Arrhenius concept of acids and bases: an acid increases [H + ] and a base increases [OH ]. 16.2 BrønstedLowry Acids and Bases In the BrønstedLowry system, a BrønstedLowry

More information

CHAPTER 14: ACIDS AND BASES

CHAPTER 14: ACIDS AND BASES CHAPTER 14: ACIDS AND BASES Arrhenius Acids and Bases There are a few definitions of acids and bases, some are somewhat narrow and others are much broader. Arrhenius Acids dissociate when dissolved in

More information

Acids and Bases. Chapter 15. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Acids and Bases. Chapter 15. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Acids and Bases Chapter 15 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Acids Have a sour taste. Vinegar owes its taste to acetic acid. Citrus fruits contain

More information

Lecture 10. Professor Hicks Inorganic Chemistry II (CHE152) Scale of [H 3 O + ] (or you could say [H + ]) concentration

Lecture 10. Professor Hicks Inorganic Chemistry II (CHE152) Scale of [H 3 O + ] (or you could say [H + ]) concentration Lecture 10 Professor Hicks Inorganic Chemistry II (CHE152) ph Scale of [H 3 O + ] (or you could say [H + ]) concentration More convenient than scientific notation ph = log [H 3 O + ] still not sure? take

More information

Chapter 14. Acids and Bases

Chapter 14. Acids and Bases Chapter 14 Acids and Bases Section 14.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases Models of Acids and Bases Arrhenius: Acids produce H + ions in solution, bases produce OH - ions. Brønsted Lowry: Acids are proton

More information

Acids and Bases. Chapter 15. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Acids and Bases. Chapter 15. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Acids and Bases Chapter 15 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Acids Have a sour taste. Vinegar owes its taste to acetic acid. Citrus fruits contain

More information

Chapter 10. Acids, Bases, and Salts

Chapter 10. Acids, Bases, and Salts Chapter 10 Acids, Bases, and Salts Topics we ll be looking at in this chapter Arrhenius theory of acids and bases Bronsted-Lowry acid-base theory Mono-, di- and tri-protic acids Strengths of acids and

More information

Acids and Bases. Properties, Reactions, ph, and Titration

Acids and Bases. Properties, Reactions, ph, and Titration Acids and Bases Properties, Reactions, ph, and Titration C-19 2017 Properties of acids 1. Taste Sour (don t try this except with foods). 2. Are electrolytes (conduct electricity). Some are strong, some

More information

Reactions in Aqueous Solutions I: Acids, Bases & Salts

Reactions in Aqueous Solutions I: Acids, Bases & Salts 10 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions I: Acids, Bases & Salts CHAPTER GOALS 1. Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases 2. The Arrhenius Theory 3. The Hydronium Ion (Hydrated Hydrogen Ion) 4. The

More information

Chapter 6 Acids and Bases

Chapter 6 Acids and Bases Chapter 6 Acids and Bases Introduction Brønsted acid-base reactions are proton transfer reactions. Acids donate protons to bases. In the process, the acid is converted into its conjugate base and the base

More information

Ch 16: Acids and Bases

Ch 16: Acids and Bases Ch 16: Acids and Bases A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 1 Homework: Read Chapter 16 Work out sample/practice exercises in the sections, Chapter problems: 39, 41, 49, 63, 67, 83, 91, 95, 99, 107,

More information

Unit 4a Acids, Bases, and Salts Theory

Unit 4a Acids, Bases, and Salts Theory Unit 4a Acids, Bases, and Salts Theory Chemistry 12 Arrhenius Theory of Acids and Bases The first theory that was proposed to explain the actions of acids and bases was by Svante Arrhenius. It is still

More information

Name AP CHEM / / Chapter 14 Outline Acids and Bases

Name AP CHEM / / Chapter 14 Outline Acids and Bases Name AP CHEM / / Chapter 14 Outline Acids and Bases The Nature of Acids and Bases Svante Arrhenius was the first to recognize the nature of acids and bases. He postulated that acids produce hydrogen ions(h

More information

Acid-Base Chemistry. Brønsted-Lowry Acids & Bases. Conjugate Acids & Bases. Conjugate Acids & Bases 7/6/12

Acid-Base Chemistry. Brønsted-Lowry Acids & Bases. Conjugate Acids & Bases. Conjugate Acids & Bases 7/6/12 AcidBase Chemistry BrønstedLowry Acids & Bases n There are a couple of ways to define acids and bases n BrønstedLowry acids and bases n Acid: H + ion donor n Base: H + ion acceptor n Lewis acids and bases

More information

Acids and Bases. Slide 1 / 208. Slide 2 / 208. Slide 3 / 208. Table of Contents: Acids and Bases

Acids and Bases. Slide 1 / 208. Slide 2 / 208. Slide 3 / 208. Table of Contents: Acids and Bases Slide 1 / 208 Slide 2 / 208 Acids and Bases Table of Contents: Acids and Bases Click on the topic to go to that section Slide 3 / 208 Properties of Acids and Bases Conjugate Acid and Base Pairs Amphoteric

More information

EXAM 2 PRACTICE KEY. Leaders: Deborah Course: CHEM 178

EXAM 2 PRACTICE KEY. Leaders: Deborah Course: CHEM 178 Leaders: Deborah Course: CHEM 178 EXAM 2 PRACTICE KEY Instructor: Bonaccorsi/Vela Date: 3/6/18 Make sure you (also) know: Acid-base definitions Arrhenius Bronsted-Lowry Lewis Autoionization process of

More information

Acids, Bases and Salts

Acids, Bases and Salts (Hebden Unit 4 page 109 182) 182) We will cover the following topics: 1. Definition of Acids and Bases 2. Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases 2 1 Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases An acid is a substance

More information

ACIDS AND BASES CONTINUED

ACIDS AND BASES CONTINUED ACIDS AND BASES CONTINUED WHAT HAPPENS WHEN AN ACID DISSOLVED IN WATER? Water acts as a Brønsted Lowry base and abstracts a proton (H+) from the acid. As a result, the conjugate base of the acid and a

More information

Acids and bases, as we use them in the lab, are usually aqueous solutions. Ex: when we talk about hydrochloric acid, it is actually hydrogen chloride

Acids and bases, as we use them in the lab, are usually aqueous solutions. Ex: when we talk about hydrochloric acid, it is actually hydrogen chloride Acids and Bases Acids and bases, as we use them in the lab, are usually aqueous solutions. Ex: when we talk about hydrochloric acid, it is actually hydrogen chloride gas dissolved in water HCl (aq) Concentrated

More information

Chapter 16 - Acids and Bases

Chapter 16 - Acids and Bases Chapter 16 - Acids and Bases 16.1 Acids and Bases: The Brønsted Lowry Model 16.2 ph and the Autoionization of Water 16.3 Calculations Involving ph, K a and K b 16.4 Polyprotic Acids 16.1 Acids and Bases:

More information

CHEM Dr. Babb s Sections Exam #3 Review Sheet

CHEM Dr. Babb s Sections Exam #3 Review Sheet CHEM 116 Dr. Babb s Sections Exam #3 Review Sheet Acid/Base Theories and Conjugate AcidBase Pairs 111. Define the following terms: Arrhenius acid, Arrhenius base, Lewis acid, Lewis base, BronstedLowry

More information

Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry (continuation)

Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry (continuation) Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry (continuation) 1. Electrolytes and non-electrolytes 2. Determining Moles of Ions in Aqueous Solutions of Ionic Compounds 3. Acids and Bases 4. Acid Strength

More information

Chapter 14: Acids and Bases

Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Properties of Acids and Bases What is an acid? Some examples of common items containing acids: Vinegar contains acetic acid; lemons and citrus fruits contain citric acid; many

More information

Acid and Bases. Physical Properties. Chemical Properties. Indicators. Corrosive when concentrated. Corrosive when concentrated.

Acid and Bases. Physical Properties. Chemical Properties. Indicators. Corrosive when concentrated. Corrosive when concentrated. Physical Properties Acid and Bases Chemistry 30 Acids Corrosive when concentrated Have a sour taste Bases Corrosive when concentrated Have a bitter taste Often have a sharp odour Chemical Properties Indicators

More information

Advanced Chemistry Practice Problems

Advanced Chemistry Practice Problems Finding ph 1. Question: Determine the ph for each of the given solutions. a. 0.150 M HNO3 b. 0.150 M CH3COOH, a = 1.8 10-5 c. 0.150 M CHOOH, a = 3.5 10-4 Answer: The method to determine the ph of a solution

More information

Acid-Base Equilibria. 1.NH 4 Cl 2.NaCl 3.KC 2 H 3 O 2 4.NaNO 2. Solutions of a Weak Acid or Base

Acid-Base Equilibria. 1.NH 4 Cl 2.NaCl 3.KC 2 H 3 O 2 4.NaNO 2. Solutions of a Weak Acid or Base Acid-Base Equilibria 1 Will the following salts be acidic, basic or neutral in aqueous solution? 1.NH 4 Cl.NaCl.KC H O 4.NaNO A = acidic B = basic C = neutral Solutions of a Weak Acid or Base The simplest

More information

Chem 106 Thursday, March 10, Chapter 17 Acids and Bases

Chem 106 Thursday, March 10, Chapter 17 Acids and Bases Chem 106 Thursday, March 10, 2011 Chapter 17 Acids and Bases K a and acid strength Acid + base reactions: Four types (s +s, s + w, w + s, and w + w) Determining K from concentrations and ph ph of aqueous

More information

Duncan. UNIT 14 - Acids & Bases. COMMON ACIDS NOTES lactic acetic phosphoric NAMING ACIDS NOTES

Duncan. UNIT 14 - Acids & Bases. COMMON ACIDS NOTES lactic acetic phosphoric NAMING ACIDS NOTES COMMON ACIDS NOTES lactic acetic phosphoric citric malic PROPERTIES OF ACIDS 1. 1. PROPERTIES OF BASES 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5. NAMING ACIDS NOTES Binary acids (H + one element) 1. hydro- - HF 2. root of

More information

Chapter 15. Properties of Acids. Structure of Acids 7/3/08. Acid and Bases

Chapter 15. Properties of Acids. Structure of Acids 7/3/08. Acid and Bases Chapter 15 Acid and Bases Properties of Acids! Sour taste! React with active metals! React with carbonates, producing CO 2! Change color of vegetable dyes!blue litmus turns red! React with bases to form

More information

Chapter 7 Acids and Bases

Chapter 7 Acids and Bases Chapter 7 Acids and Bases 7.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases 7.2 Acid Strength 7.3 The ph Scale 7.4 Calculating the ph of Strong Acid Solutions 7.5 Calculating the ph of Weak Acid Solutions 7.6 Bases 7.7

More information

The Arrhenius Definition of Acids & Bases

The Arrhenius Definition of Acids & Bases ACIDS & BASES The Arrhenius Definition of Acids & Bases An acid produces the hydrogen ion in water. A base produces the hydroxide ion in water. Brønsted Lowry Acids & Bases Brønsted acids are proton donors.

More information

The Chemistry of Acids and Bases Separately Chapter 14 Part I

The Chemistry of Acids and Bases Separately Chapter 14 Part I Page III-14a-1 / Chapter Fourteen Part I Lecture Notes The Chemistry of Acids and Bases Separately Chapter 14 Part I Strong and Weak Acids/Bases Generally divide acids and bases into STRONG or WEAK categories.

More information

Acid-Base Chemistry & Organic Compounds. Chapter 2

Acid-Base Chemistry & Organic Compounds. Chapter 2 Acid-Base Chemistry & Organic Compounds Chapter 2 Brønsted Lowry Acids & Bases! Brønsted-Lowry Acid: Proton (H + ) Donor! Brønsted-Lowry Base: Proton (H + ) Acceptor! General reaction: HA + B: A - + BH

More information