11/15/11. Chapter 16. HA(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + A (aq) acid base conjugate conjugate

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1 Chapter 16 Table of Contents Chapter Buffered Solutions Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 2 Models of Arrhenius: Acids produce H + ions in solution, bases produce OH ions. Brønsted Lowry: Acids are proton (H + ) donors, bases are proton acceptors. HCl + H 2 O Cl + H 3 O + acid base Acid in Water HA(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + A (aq) acid base conjugate conjugate acid base Conjugate base is everything that remains of the acid molecule after a proton is lost. Conjugate acid is formed when the proton is transferred to the base. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 3 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 4 Which of the following represent conjugate acid base pairs? Water acts as a base accepting a proton from the acid. Forms hydronium ion (H 3 O + ). a) HCl, HNO 3 b) H 3 O +, OH c) H 2 SO 4, SO 4 2 d) HCN, CN Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 5 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 6 1

2 Strong Acid Completely ionized or completely dissociated Weak Acid Most of the acid molecules remain intact. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 7 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 8 Behavior of Acids of Different Strengths in Aqueous Solution A strong acid contains a relatively weak conjugate base. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 9 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 10 Ways to Describe Common Strong Acids Sulfuric acid, H 2 SO 4 Hydrochloric acid, HCl Nitric acid, HNO 3 Perchloric acid, HClO 4 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 11 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 12 2

3 Oxyacid acidic proton is attached to an oxygen atom Organic acid have a carbon atom backbone and commonly contain the carboxyl group: Consider a 1.0 M solution of HCl. Typically a weak acid Order the following from strongest to weakest base and explain: H 2 O(l) A (aq) (from weak acid HA) Cl (aq) Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 13 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 14 Let s Think About It How good is Cl (aq) as a base? Is A (aq) a good base? Acetic acid (HC 2 H 3 O 2 ) and HCN are both weak acids. Acetic acid is a stronger acid than HCN. The bases from strongest to weakest are: A, H 2 O, Cl Arrange these bases from weakest to strongest and explain your answer: H 2 O Cl CN C 2 H 3 O 2 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 15 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 16 Let s Think About It H 2 O(l) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + OH (aq) acid base conjugate conjugate acid base At 25 C, K w = 1.0 x The bases from weakest to strongest are: Cl, H 2 O, C 2 H 3 O 2, CN Water is amphoteric: Behaves either as an acid or as a base. At 25 C: K w = [H + ][OH ] = No matter what the solution contains, the product of [H + ] and [OH ] must always equal at 25 C. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 17 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 18 3

4 Three Possible Situations [H + ] = [OH ]; neutral solution [H + ] > [OH ]; acidic solution [H + ] < [OH ]; basic solution In each case, however, K w = [H + ][OH ] = In an acidic aqueous solution, which statement below is correct? a) [H + ] < M b) [H + ] > M c) [OH ] > M d) [H + ] < [OH ] Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 19 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 20 In an aqueous solution in which [OH ] = 2.0 x M, the [H + ] = M, and the solution is. a) M ; basic b) M ; acidic c) M ; acidic d) M ; basic [H + ] = K w /[OH ] = / = M. Since [H + ] is greater than [OH ], the solution is acidic. ph = log[h + ] A compact way to represent solution acidity. ph decreases as [H + ] increases. Significant figures: The number of decimal places in the log is equal to the number of significant figures in the original number. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 21 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 22 ph Range ph = 7; neutral ph > 7; basic Higher the ph, more basic. ph < 7; acidic Lower the ph, more acidic. and ph Values of Some Common Substances Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 23 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 24 4

5 Calculate the ph for each of the following solutions. The ph of a solution is What is the [H + ] for this solution? a) M H + ph = log[h + ] = log( M) = 4.00 b) M OH K w = [H + ][OH ] = = [H + ](0.040 M) = M H + ph = log[h + ] = log( M) = [H + ] = M [H + ] = 10^ 5.85 = M Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 25 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 26 ph and poh Recall: K w = [H + ][OH ] log K w = log[h + ] log[oh ] pk w = ph + poh = ph + poh Calculate the poh for each of the following solutions. a) M H + ph = log[h + ] = log( M) = 4.00; So, = poh; poh = b) M OH poh = log[oh ] = log(0.040 M) = 1.40 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 27 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 28 The ph of a solution is What is the [OH ] for this solution? Determine the [H + ]. 2.0 M HCl 2.0 M H + and 2.0 M Cl ph = log[h + ] [OH ] = M = poh; poh = 8.15 [OH ] = 10^ 8.15 = M Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 29 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 30 5

6 Consider an aqueous solution of 2.0 HCl. What is the ph? 10 3 M Calculate the ph of a 1.5 HCl M solution of ph = 2.70 ph = M HCl M H + and M Cl ph = log[h + ] ph = log( M) ph = 2.70 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 31 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 32 Calculate the ph of a M solution of HNO 3. ph = 1.82 Section 16.6 Buffered Solutions Buffered solution resists a change in its ph when either an acid or a base has been added. Presence of a weak acid and its conjugate base buffers the solution. ph = log[h + ] ph = log( M) ph = 1.82 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 33 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 34 Section 16.6 Buffered Solutions The Characteristics of a Buffer 1. The solution contains a weak acid HA and its conjugate base A. 2. The buffer resists changes in ph by reacting with any added H + or OH so that these ions do not accumulate. 3. Any added H + reacts with the base A. H + (aq) + A (aq) HA(aq) 4. Any added OH reacts with the weak acid HA. OH (aq) + HA(aq) H 2 O(l) + A (aq) Section 16.6 Buffered Solutions If a solution is buffered with NH 3 to which has been added NH 4 Cl, what reaction will occur if a strong base such as NaOH is added? a) NaOH + NH 3 NaNH 4 O b) NaOH + NH 4 + Na + + NH 3 + H 2 O c) NaOH + Cl NaCl + OH d) NaOH + H 2 O NaH 3 O 2 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 35 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 36 6

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