CHAPTER 9 CHEMICAL QUANTITIES

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1 Chemistry Name Hour Chemistry Approximate Timeline Students are expected to keep up with class work when absent. CHAPTER 9 CHEMICAL QUANTITIES Day Plans for the day Assignment(s) for the day 1 Begin Chapter 9 Discuss Chapter 8 test 9.1 Using Chemical Equations Assignment 9.0 Assignment 9.1 Read section(s) 9.2 o Information Given by Chem. Eq. Identities of reactants/products Physical state of reactants/products Relative number of each molecule o Mole-Mole Relationships Leading into stoichiometry Using Chem. Eq. to Calc. Mass Assignment 9.2a o Mass Calculations stoichiometry Using Chem. Eq. to Calc. Mass Assignment 9.2b o Mass Calculations stoichiometry 4 Discuss Experiment 37 Stoichiometry Assignment 9.2c Assignment 9.2c due tomorrow 5 Perform Experiment 37 Read section(s) 9.3 Lab Report due in 2 days Limiting Reactants & Percent Yield Assignment 9.3a o Concept of Limiting Reactants o Calculations with limiting reactants Limiting Reactants & Percent Yield Assignment 9.3b o Theoretical Yield v Actual Yield o Percent Yield calculations 8 Work on Assignment 9.3c Assignment 9.3c 9 Work on Assignment 9.4 Assignment Grade & discuss Assignment 9.4 Review for Chapter 9 Test 11 Chapter 9 Test Read section(s) 10.1

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3 Chemistry Name Hour Study Guides Chapter 9 Quizzes Quiz 9.1 Using Chemical Equations 1. What information is given by a balanced chemical equation? 2. What is meant by the term mole ratio? 3. Use the mole ratio to answer questions about a chemical reaction. 4. Be able to convert between grams and moles. Quiz 9.2 Using Chemical Equations to Calculate Mass 5. Define the term stoichiometry. 6. What are the three steps that constitute the overall plan of attack when solving stoichiometry problems? 7. Solve a stoichiometry problem. Quiz 9.3 Limiting Reactants & Percent Yield 8. Define the term limiting reactant. 9. After solving a stoichiometry problem, how do you know which reactant is the limiting reactant? 10. How can you tell whether you are working a limiting reactant problem or a regular stoichiometry problem? 11. Define the following terms. a. Theoretical yield b. Percent yield 12. What is the basic equation used to calculate percent yield? 13. Be able to solve a limiting reactant problem. 14. Be able to solve a percent yield problem.

4 Study Guide Chapter 9 Test At the completion of chapter 9 you should 1. Know the definitions of the following terms. a. Mole Ratio b. Stoichiometry c. Limiting Reactant d. Theoretical Yield e. Percent Yield 2. Understand the information given in a balanced chemical equation. 3. Give three ways to interpret a balanced chemical equation. 4. Use a balanced chemical equation to determine relationships between reactants and products. 5. Relate masses of reactants and products (stoichiometry problems). 6. Understand the concept of limiting reactants. 7. Recognize the limiting reactant in a chemical reaction. 8. Perform limiting reactant calculations. 9. Understand percent yield. 10. Perform percent yield calculations.

5 Chemistry Name Hour Define each of the following terms. 1. Mole Ratio Assignment 9.0 Vocabulary 2. Stoichiometry 3. Limiting Reactant 4. Theoretical Yield 5. Percent Yield

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7 Chemistry Name Hour Assignment 9.1 Using Chemical Equations 1) What part of a chemical equation allows us to determine how much product we can get from a known amount of reactants? 2) Why is it important to balance a chemical equation before proceeding to answer questions about it? 3) Give at least three different ways to interpret the coefficients in a chemical equation. 4) How many moles of oxygen gas are required to react with 3.6 moles of sulfur dioxide in the following reaction? 2 SO 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2 SO 3 (g) 5) Butane (C 4 H 10 ) reacts with oxygen in the air to form carbon dioxide and water. How many moles of carbon dioxide can be formed from 1.25 moles of butane and excess oxygen? 2 C 4 H 10 (g) + 13 O 2 (g) 8 CO 2 (g) + 10 H 2 O (l)

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9 Chemistry Name Hour Assignment 9.2a Stoichiometry (1) (2 pages) Solve each of the following problems. Show all work. No work = no credit. 1) If 20.0 g of magnesium react with excess hydrochloric acid, how many grams of magnesium chloride are produced? Mg + HCl ---> MgCl 2 + H 2 2) How many grams of chlorine gas must be reacted with excess sodium iodide to produce 10.0 g of sodium chloride? NaI + Cl 2 ---> NaCl + I 2 3) How many grams of oxygen are produced in the decomposition of 5.00 g of potassium chlorate? KClO 3 ---> KCl + O 2 4) What mass of copper is required to replace silver from 4.00 g of silver (I) nitrate dissolved in water? Cu + AgNO 3 ---> Cu(NO 3 ) 2 + Ag

10 5) If excess ammonium sulfate reacts with 20.0 g of calcium hydroxide, how many grams of ammonia are produced? (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 + Ca(OH) 2 ---> CaSO 4 + NH 3 + H 2 O

11 Chemistry Name Hour Assignment 9.2b Stoichiometry (2) (2 pages) Solve each of the following problems. Show all work. No work = no credit. 1) If excess sulfuric acid reacts with 30.0 g of sodium chloride, how many grams of hydrochloric acid are produced? NaCl + H 2 SO 4 ---> HCl + Na 2 SO 4 2) How much silver (I) phosphate is produced if 10.0 g of silver (I) acetate reacts with excess sodium phosphate? AgC 2 H 3 O 2 + Na 3 PO 4 ---> Ag 3 PO 4 + NaC 2 H 3 O 2 3) How many grams of sodium hydroxide are needed to completely neutralize 25.0 g of sulfuric acid? NaOH + H 2 SO 4 ---> Na 2 SO 4 + H 2 O 4) Molten iron and carbon monoxide are produced in a blast furnace by the reaction of iron (III) oxide and coke (carbon). If 2.5 x 10 4 g of pure Fe 2 O 3 is used, how many grams of iron can be produced? Fe 2 O 3 + C ---> Fe + CO

12 5) Ammonium nitrate, NH 4 NO 3, is an important fertilizer and is also used in the manufacture of explosives and fireworks. It is produced by treating nitric acid, HNO 3, with ammonia gas, NH 3. If 340 kg of ammonia are used with all the nitric acid necessary for reaction, how much ammonium nitrate can be produced? HNO 3 + NH 3 ---> NH 4 NO 3 Extra Credit 6) Coal gasification is a process that is carried out industrially in a series of steps. The net reaction involves coal (carbon) reacting with water to form methane, CH 4, and carbon dioxide. How many kilograms of methane can be produced from 1.00 x 10 3 kg of coal?

13 Chemistry Name Assignment 9.2c Using Chemical Equations to Calculate Mass (2 pages) 1) Why do we need to convert mass to moles in stoichiometry problems? Hour 2) Calculate the number of grams of carbon dioxide that can be absorbed by complete reaction with a solution that contains 5.00 grams of sodium hydroxide. 2 NaOH (aq) + CO 2 (g) Na 2 CO 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) 3) You react 10.0 grams of nitrogen gas with hydrogen gas according to the following reaction. N 2 (g) + 3 H 2 (g) 2 NH 3 (g) A) What mass of hydrogen gas is required to completely react with 10.0 grams of nitrogen gas? B) What mass of ammonia is produced from 10.0 grams of nitrogen gas and excess hydrogen gas? 4) You react hydrogen gas with chlorine gas according to the following reaction. What mass of HCl (g) can be produced from 2.5 x 10 3 g of hydrogen gas with excess chlorine gas? H 2 (g) + Cl 2 (g) 2 HCl (g)

14 5) Given the chemical equation below, determine the following. CO (g) + 2 H 2 (g) CH 3 OH (l) A) What mass of carbon monoxide is required to produce 6.0 kg of methanol? B) What mass of hydrogen is required to produce 6.0 kg of methanol?

15 Chemistry Name Hour Assignment 9.3a Limiting Reactants (2 pages) 1) Fe 2 O Al ----> Al 2 O Fe A) How many grams of iron are produced when g of iron (III) oxide react with g of aluminum? B) What is the limiting reactant? C) Which reactant is in excess? 2) 2 ZnS + 3 O > 2 ZnO + 2 SO 2 A) What mass of sulfur dioxide is produced when 567 g of zinc (II) sulfide react with g of oxygen? B) What is the limiting reactant? C) Which reactant is in excess?

16 3) N O > 2 NO 2 A) What mass of nitrogen dioxide results when 14.8 grams of nitrogen react with 18.4 grams of oxygen? B) What is the limiting reactant? C) Which reactant is in excess?

17 Chemistry Name Hour Assignment 9.3b Percent Yield 1) In the reaction between calcium hydride and water, the theoretical yield of hydrogen gas is 7.18 grams. In running this reaction the actual amount of hydrogen produced was 6.94 grams. What was the percentage yield of this reaction? 2) Bubba was doing an experiment. He calculated that the reaction should produce 6.72 grams of product, but, after performing the lab, found that only 5.48 grams were produced. What is the percentage yield? 3) Solid titanium(iv) oxide can be prepared by reacting gaseous titanium(iv) chloride with oxygen gas. A second product of this reaction is chlorine gas. TiCl 4 + O 2 TiO Cl 2 A) Suppose that 6.71 x 10 3 g of titanium(iv) chloride is reacted with 2.45 x 10 3 g of oxygen. Calculate the maximum mass of titanium(iv) oxide that can form. B) If the percent yield of TiO 2 is 75%, what mass is actually formed?

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19 Chemistry Name Hour Assignment 9.3c Limiting Reactants & Percent Yield (2 pages) 1) Suppose that a lemonade recipe calls for 1 cup of sugar for every 6 lemons. You have 12 lemons and 3 cups of sugar. A) Which ingredient is limiting? B) Why? 2) How is a limiting reactant problem different from other stoichiometry problems? (What is you clue that it is a limiting reactant problem?) 3) A) What is the difference between theoretical yield and the actual yield? B) Why is there a difference?

20 4) You react natural gas (methane, CH 4 ) with chlorine gas to produce carbon tetra chloride and hydrogen gas according to the following reaction: CH Cl 2 CCl H 2 Consider reacting 25.0 grams of each reactant and answer the following. A) What mass of carbon tetrachloride should be produced (assuming 100% yield)? B) Which reactant is limiting? C) If only 22.2 g of carbon tetrachloride is obtained, what is the percent yield for this reaction?

21 Chemistry Name Hour Assignment 9.4 Chapter Review (6 pages) 1) True or false? For the reaction represented by 2 H 2 O 2 (aq) 2 H 2 O (l) + O 2 (g): if 2.0 grams of hydrogen peroxide decomposes, then 2.0 grams of water and 1.0 grams of oxygen gas will be produced. 2) Consider the balanced equation CH 4 (g) + 2 O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2 H 2 O (g). A) What is the mole ratio that would enable you to calculate the number of moles of oxygen needed to react exactly with a given number of moles of methane? B) What mole ratio would you need to calculate how many moles of each product form from a given number of moles of methane? (two answers) 3) For each of the following balanced chemical equations, calculate how many moles and how many grams of each product would be produced by the complete conversion of 0.50 mole of the reactant in boldface. State clearly the mole ratio used in each conversion. A) NH 3 (g) + HCl (g) NH 4 Cl (s) B) CH 4 (g) + 4 S (s) CS 2 (l) + 2 H 2 S (g)

22 C) PCl 3 (l) + 3 H 2 O (l) H 3 PO HCl (g) D) NaOH (s) + CO 2 (g) NaHCO 3 (s) 4) What quantity serves as the conversion factor between the mass of a sample and the number of moles the sample contains? 5) Calculate the mass of water vapor produced when 56.0 grams of pure hydrogen gas burns in air. 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2 H 2 O (g) 6) What mass of carbon dioxide is produced when 5.00 grams of carbon is burned with excess oxygen? C (s) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g)

23 Chemistry Name Hour 7) What mass of carbon monoxide is produced when 5.00 grams of carbon is burned with excess oxygen? 2 C (s) + O 2 (g) 2 CO (g) 8) Small quantities of oxygen gas can be generated in the laboratory by the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. The UNBALANCED equation is: H 2 O 2 (aq) H 2 O (l) + O 2 (g) Calculate the mass of oxygen produced when grams of hydrogen peroxide decomposes. 9) Ammonium nitrate has been used as a high explosive because it is unstable and decomposes into several gaseous substances. The rapid expansion of the gaseous substances produces the explosive force. Calculate the mass of each product if 1.25 grams of ammonium nitrate reacts. NH 4 NO 3 (s) N 2 (g) + O 2 (g) + H 2 O (g)

24 10) How does the maximum yield of products for a reaction depend on the limiting reactant? 11) Suppose that exactly 50.0 grams of each reactant is taken. NH 3 (g) + Na (s) NaNH 2 (s) + H 2 (g) A) Calculate the mass of the product in boldface produced when the limiting reactant is completely consumed. B) Which reactant is the limiting reactant? 12) Suppose that exactly 50.0 grams of each reactant is taken. BaCl 2 (aq) + Na 2 SO 4 (aq) BaSO 4 (s) + NaCl (aq) A) Calculate the mass of the product in boldface produced when the limiting reactant is completely consumed. B) Which reactant is the limiting reactant?

25 Chemistry Name 13) If steel wool (iron) is heated until it glows and is placed in a bottle containing pure oxygen, the iron reacts spectacularly to produce iron (III) oxide. Fe (s) + O 2 (g) Fe 2 O 3 (s) Hour If 1.25 grams of iron is placed in a bottle containing grams of oxygen gas, what mass of iron (III) oxide will be produced? 14) According to his prelaboratory theoretical yield calculations, a student s experiment should have produced 1.44 grams of magnesium oxide. When he weighed his product after reaction, only 1.23 grams of magnesium oxide was present. What is the student s percent yield?

26 15) Although they were formerly called inert gases, at least the heavier elements of Group 8 do form relatively stable compounds. For example, xenon combines directly with elemental fluorine at elevated temperatures in the presence of a nickel catalyst. Xe (g) + 2 F 2 (g) XeF 4 (s) A) What is the theoretical mass of xenon tetrafluoride that should form when 130. grams of xenon are reacted with 100. grams of fluorine? B) What is the percent yield if only 145 grams of XeF 4 is actually isolated?

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