# Balancing Equations Notes

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1 . Unit 9 Chemical Equations and Reactions What is a Chemical Equation? A Chemical Equation is a written representation of the process that occurs in a chemical reaction. A chemical equation is written with the Reactants on the left side of an arrow and the Products of the chemical reaction on the right side of the equation. The head of the arrow typically points toward the right or toward the product side of the equation, although reactions may indicate equilibrium with the reaction proceeding in both directions simultaneously. The elements in an equation are denoted using their symbols. Coefficients next to the symbols indicate the stoichiometric numbers. Subscripts are used to indicate the number of atoms of an element present in a chemical species. An example of a chemical equation may be seen in the combustion of methane: CH O 2 CO H 2 O Balancing Equations Notes An equation for a chemical reaction in which the number of atoms for each element in the reaction and the total charge are the same for both the reactants and the products. In other words, the mass and the charge are balanced on both sides of the reaction. Symbol Meaning + used to separate one reactant or product from another used to separate the reactants from the products - it is pronounced "yields" or "produces" when the equation is read (g) (s) (aq) (l) used when the reaction can proceed in both directions - this is called an equilibrium arrow and will be used later in the course indicates that the substance is in a gaseous state an alternative way of representing a substance in a gaseous state indicates that the substance is in a solid state an alternative way of representing a substance in a solid state indicates that the substance is dissolved in water - the aq comes from aqueous Identifies a phase state as pure liquid indicates that heat is applied to make the reaction proceed 1

2 Use coefficients to make sure the number of atoms is the same on both sides of the equation. 1. _2_ H 2 + O 2 _2_ H 2 O 2. _2_ HCl + Zn ZnCl 2 + H 2 3. _2_ Al + _3_ CaS Al 2 S 3 + _3_ Ca Solid Iron and gaseous chlorine react to produce a solid iron (III) chloride Write the skeleton equation for the reaction Diatomic Elements are always diatomic (written with a subscribe of 2) when they are in their elemental form 1. Hydrogen 5. Chlorine 2. Nitrogen 6. Iodine 3. Oxygen 7. Bromine 4. Fluorine 2

3 Types of Chemical Reactions Notes Synthesis- two or more elements or compounds combine to form one compound. Decomposition- a single compound decomposes into two or more elements or smaller compounds. Single Replacement- a metal will replace a less active metal in an ionic compound OR a nonmetal will replace a less active nonmetal. Double Replacement- the metals in ionic compounds switch places. Combustion- an organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen and sometimes oxygen reacts with oxygen gas to form carbon dioxide and water. o Synthesis : Definition - two or more substances react to form 1 product. Usually releases energy, _ EXOTHERMIC _. Combination reactions that contain oxygen as a reactant can also be considered combustion. A + X AX 4 Fe (s) + 3 O 2 (g) 2 Fe 2 O 3 (s) CaO (s) + H 2 O (l) Ca(OH) 2 (s) One example of a synthesis reaction is the combination of iron and sulfur to form iron (II) sulfide: 8 Fe + S 8 ---> 8 FeS o DECOMPOSITION : Definition - A single compound breaks down into 2 or more elements or compounds AX A + X 2NaN 3 (s) 2Na(s) + 3N 2 (g) 2KClO 3 (s) 2KCl (s) + 3O 2 (g) 3

4 CaCO 3 (s) CaO (s) + CO 2 (g) ***These reactions often require an energy source as an initiator. Energy sources can be heat, light, or electricity. They are usually ENDOTHERMIC,. One example of a decomposition reaction is the electrolysis of water to make oxygen and hydrogen gas: 2H 2 O ---> 2 H 2 + O 2 o Combustion : Definition - Oxygen gas combines with a substance and releases energy in the form of light or heat. So combustion reactions are usually exothermic. Combination reactions that contain oxygen as a reactant can also be considered combustion. A + O 2 C(s) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + energy 4 Fe (s) + 3O 2 (g) 2Fe 2 O 3 (s) + energy For hydrocarbons: C x H y + [x + (y/4)] O 2 xco 2 + (y/2)h 2 O C 3 H 8 (g) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (g) + light + heat o Single Replacement : Definition - one ion replaces another in a compound. AB + C --> AC + B One example of a single displacement reaction is when magnesium replaces hydrogen in water to make magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen gas: Mg + 2 H 2 O ---> Mg(OH) 2 + H 2 o Double Replacement : Definition - two ions replace each other or switch places in compounds. AB + CD --> AC + BD One example of a double displacement reaction is the reaction of lead (II) nitrate with potassium iodide to form lead (II) iodide and potassium nitrate: Pb(NO 3 ) KI ---> PbI KNO 3 4

5 Sample Problems (the solutions are in the next section) List the type of the following reactions. Solutions 1) NaOH + KNO 3 NaNO 3 + KOH 1) double replacement 2) CH O 2 CO H 2 O 3) 2 Fe + 6 NaBr 2 FeBr Na 4) CaSO 4 + Mg(OH) 2 Ca(OH) 2 + MgSO 4 5) NH 4 OH + HBr H 2 O + NH 4 Br 6) Pb + O 2 PbO 2 7) Na 2 CO 3 Na 2 O + CO 2 2) combustion 3) single replacement 4) double replacement 5) acid-base 6) synthesis 7) decomposition TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS Directions (a) Write and balance the given equation. (b) Indicate the type of chemical reaction represented. 1. Iron reacts with oxygen gas to produce Iron (III) oxide. (a) Fe + O 2 Fe 2 O 3 (b) Synthesis 2. Propane (C 3 H 8 ) reacts with oxygen gas to produce carbon dioxide and water. (a) C 3 H 8 + O 2 H 2 O + CO 2 (b) Combustion 3. Bromine gas reacts with potassium iodide to produce potassium bromide and iodine gas. (a) Br 2 (g) + KI KBr + I 2 (b) Single displacement 4. Hydrogen peroxide will produce water and oxygen gas if left in sunlight. (a) H 2 O 2 H 2 O + O 2 (b) Decomposition 5. Phosphorous reacts with oxygen gas to produce tetraphosphorous decoxide. (a) P 4 + 5O 2 P 4 O 10 (b) Synthesis 5

6 6. Iron (III) Chloride reacts with sodium hydroxide to produce Iron (III) hydroxide and sodium chloride. (a) (b) FeCI 3 +3NaOH Fe(OH) 3 +3NaCI Double Replacement 7. Iron (III) oxide reacts with hydrogen gas to produce iron and water. (a) (b) Fe 2 O 3 + 3H 2 --> 2Fe + 3H 2 O Single Replacement 8. Octane (C 8 H 18 ) reacts with oxygen gas to produce carbon dioxide and water. (a) C 8 H 18 + O 2 H 2 O + CO 2 (b) Combustion 9. Calcium carbonate reacts with aluminum phosphate to produce calcium phosphate and aluminum carbonate. (a) CaCO 3 + AlPO 4 Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + Al2(CO 3 ) 3 (b) Double Replacement 10. Aluminum hydroxide decomposes to produce aluminum oxide and water. (a) (b) Al(OH) 3 Al 2 O 3 + H 2 O Decomposition 11. Zinc reacts with silver nitrate to produce zinc nitrate and silver. (a) (b) Zn + 2 AgNO 3 Zn (NO 3 ) Ag Single Replacement 12. Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) reacts with oxygen gas to produce carbon dioxide and water. (a) (b) C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O Combustion 13. Potassium oxide reacts with water to produce potassium hydroxide. (a) (b) K 2 O + H 2 O 2KOH Synthesis 14. Lead (IV) oxide decomposes into lead (II) oxide and oxygen gas. (a) PbO 2 Pb + O 2 (b) Decomposition 15. Hydrochloric acid (hydrogen chloride) reacts with barium hydroxide to produce water and barium chloride. (a) 2 HCl + BaOH H 2 O + BaCl 2 (b) Double Replacement 6

7 Symbol Balancing Equations Notes Meaning + used to separate one reactant or product from another used to separate the reactants from the products - it is pronounced "yields" or "produces" when the equation is read used when the reaction can proceed in both directions - this is called an equilibrium arrow and will be used later in the course indicates that the substance is in a gaseous state (g) (s) (aq) an alternative way of representing a substance in a gaseous state indicates that the substance is in a solid state an alternative way of representing a substance in a solid state indicates that the substance is dissolved in water - the aq comes from aqueous indicates that heat is applied to make the reaction proceed Use coefficients to make sure the number of atoms is the same on both sides of the equation. 4. 2_ H 2 + O 2 _2_ H 2 O 5. _2_ HCl + Zn ZnCl 2 + H 2 6. _2_ Al + _3_ CaS Al 2 S 3 + _3_ Ca Solid Iron and gaseous chlorine react to produce a solid iron (III) chloride Write the skeleton equation for the reaction Fe + Cl 2 FeCl 3 Note: Br I N Cl H O F- these are always diatomic when they are in their elemental form Change the coefficients to make the number of atoms of each element equal on both sides of the equation 1. Calcium metal reacts with water to form solid calcium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. 2. Zinc hydroxide solution reacts with lithium to form lithium hydroxide solution and zinc metal. 7

8 3. Liquid propanol (C 3 H 7 OH) reacts with oxygen gas to form carbon dioxide gas and water vapor. 4. Aluminum metal reacts with oxygen gas to form solid aluminum oxide. 5. Liquid carbonic acid (hydrogen carbonate) decomposes into carbon dioxide gas and water. 6. Lead (II) nitrate solution reacts with iron (III) chloride solution to form solid lead (II) chloride and Iron (III) nitrate solution. 7. Aluminum metal reacts with silver sulfate solution to form aluminum sulfate solution and silver metal. 8. Methane gas (CH 4 ) reacts with oxygen gas to form carbon dioxide gas and water vapor. 9. Iron metal reacts with bromine gas to form iron (III) bromide solid. 10. Hydrogen peroxide solution decomposes into water and oxygen gas. 8

9 Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Balance the following chemical equations using coefficients 1 1Al(OH)3(s) + 3HCl (aq) 1AlCl3 (aq) + 3H2O (l) 2. 3Fe2O3 (s) + 1CO (g) 2Fe3O4(s) + 1CO2 (g) 3. 4FeO (s) + 1O2 (g) 2Fe2O3 (s) 4. 2C6H6 (l) + 15O2 (g) 12CO2 (g) + 6H2O (g) 5. 3Ca(OH)2 (aq) + 2H3PO4 (aq) 6H2O (l) + 1Ca3(PO4)2 (s) 6. 2I4O9 (s) 1I2O6(s) + 3I2 (s) + 6O2 (g) **there s another way to balance this equation can you figure it out?** 7. 2Eu (s) + 6HF (g) 2EuF3 (s) + 3H2 (g) 8. 3NaHCO3 (aq) + 1C6H8O7 (aq) 3CO2 (g) + 3H2O (l) + 1Na3C6H5O7 (aq) 9. 1Ni (s) + 4CO (g) 1Ni(CO)4 (g) 10. 1K2PtCl4 (aq) + 2NH3 (aq) 1Pt(NH3)2Cl2 (s) + 2KCl (aq) Write the following chemical equations and balance using coefficients. 1. Liquid mercury reacts with liquid bromine to produce solid mercury (II) Bromide 1Hg (l) + 1Br2 (l) 1HgBr2 (s) balanced 2. Solid calcium carbonate decomposes upon heating to produce solid calcium oxide and carbon dioxide gas. 1CaCO3 (s) 1CaO (s) + 1CO2 (g) balanced 3. Solid calcium will react with liquid water to produce aqueous calcium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. 1Ca (s) + 2H2O (l) 1Ca(OH)2 (s) + 1H2 (g) 9

10 4. Butane gas (C 4 H 10 ) will react with oxygen gas to produce carbon dioxide gas and water vapor. 2C4H10 (g) + 13O2 (g) 8CO2 (g) + 10H2O (g) 5. Solid aluminum will react with oxygen gas to produce solid aluminum oxide. 4Al (s) + 3O2 (g) 2Al2O3 (s) 6. Aluminum metal is oxidized by oxygen (from the air) to form aluminum oxide. Al (s) + O2 Al 2 O 3 7. Sodium oxide reacts with carbon dioxide to form sodium carbonate. Na 2 O + CO 2 Na 2 CO 3 8. Calcium metal reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. Ca (s) + 2H 2 O Ca(OH) 2 + H 2 (g) 9. Potassium nitrate decomposes to form potassium nitrite and oxygen. 2KNO3 (s) 2KNO2 (s) + 1O2 (g) 10. Barium metal reacts with Iron (III) sulfate to produce barium sulfate and iron metal. 3Ba (s) + Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 3BaSO 4 + 2Fe (s) 11. Barium chloride reacts with sodium sulfate to produce barium sulfate and sodium chloride. 1BaCl2 (aq) + 1Na2SO4 (aq) 1BaSO4 (s) + 2NaCl (aq) 10

11 Rules for Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions 1. Hydrocarbon + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O (Combustion) a. 2C 4 H O 2 8 CO H 2 O 2. Metal Carbonate Metal Oxide + CO 2 (Decomposition) a. MgCO 3 MgO + CO 2 b. Synthesis: Metal Oxide + CO 2 Metal Carbonate 3. Metal Sulfites Metal Oxide + SO 2 (Decomposition) a. CaSO 3 CaO + SO 2 b. Synthesis: Metal Oxide + SO 2 Metal Sulfite 4. Metal Hydride + H 2 O Metal Hydroxide + H 2 (Double Replacement) a. KH + H 2 O KOH + H 2 5. Metal + H 2 O Metal Hydroxide + H 2 (Single Replacement) a. 2Na + 2H 2 O 2NaOH + H 2 6. Metal Oxide + H 2 O Metal Hydroxide (Synthesis) a. MgO + H 2 O Mg(OH) 2 7. Non-metal oxide + H 2 O ternary acid (Synthesis) a. N 2 O 3 + H 2 O 2 HNO 2 b. N 2 O 5 + H 2 O 2 HNO 3 c. CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 11

12 Predicting Products: Write the COMPLETE balanced equation 1. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) reacts with sodium hydroxide. 2. Sodium reacts with oxygen 3. Mercury (II) oxide 4. Zinc reacts with lead (II) Nitrate 5. Silver nitrate reacts with calcium chloride 6. C 7 H 16 reacts with oxygen 7. CH 3 OH reacts with oxygen 8. Magnesium reacts with Fluorine 9. Copper (II) Chloride 10. Aluminum reacts with Calcium Sulfide 11. Potassium Hydroxide reacts with Zinc Chloride 12. C 2 H 2 reacts with oxygen 13. Sodium Iodide reacts with chlorine 14. Aluminum reacts with sulfur 12

13 Unit 9 Test Review Balance the following equations: 1. 6 HCl + 2 Al 2 AlCl3 + 3 H HNO3 + 1 Zn 1 Zn(NO3)2 + 2 NO2 + 2 H2O 3. 4 HNO3 + 1 Sn 1 SnO2 + 4 NO2 + 2 H2O Write the balanced equation for the following chemical reaction AND the type of reaction that has occurred. 4. Sodium metal is added to sulfuric acid sodium sulfate. 2 Na (s) + 1 H2SO4 (aq) 1 H2 (g) Single Replacement 5. White phosphorus (P4) reacts with chlorine to make phosphorus 1 P4 (s) + 6 Cl2 (g) 4 PCl3 (g) Synthesis 6. Magnesium chlorate, is heated strongly until it decomposes into magnesium chloride and oxygen gas. 1 Mg(ClO3)2 (s) 1 MgCl2 (s) + 3 O2 (g) Decomposition Write the balanced equation for the product) AND the type of reaction that has occurred. 7. Butane gas (C4H10) is burned completely in air. 2 C4H10 (g) + 13 O2 (g) 8 CO2 (g) + 10 H2O (g) single Replacement 8. Iron metal is added to bromine 2 Fe (s) + 3 Br2 (l) 2 FeBr3 (s) synthesis 9. Calcium metal is added to phosphoric acid. 3 Ca (s) + 2 H3PO4 (aq) 1 Ca3 (PO4)2 (s) + 3 H2 (g) single replacement 10. Aluminum metal is added to a solution of iron (III) chloride. 1 Al(s) + 1 FeCl3(aq) 1 AlCl3(aq) + 1 Fe(s) single replacement 11. A piece of iron metal is exposed to oxygen gas (Fe product would form). 4 Fe (s) + 3 O2(g) 2 Fe2O3(s) synthesis 12. Calcium metal is added to water. 1 Ca (s) + 2H2O (l) 1 Ca(OH)2 (s) + 1 H2 (g) single replacement 13. Potassium metal reacts with chlorine gas. 2 K (s) + Cl2 (g) 2 KCl (s) synthesis 13

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