# BALANCING EQUATIONS NOTES

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1 BALANCING EQUATIONS NOTES WHY DO WE NEED TO BALANCE CHEMICAL EQUATIONS? The LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS says that matter cannot be created or destroyed. In other words, you cannot end up with any more or any less than you started with. WHAT ARE "REACTANTS" & "PRODUCTS"? In a chemical equation (eqn), reactants are on the left side of the arrow products are on the right HOW DO YOU BALANCE AN EQUATION? 1. Count up the number of atoms of each element (or polyatomic ion) on each side of the arrow in the eqn. 2. Use coefficients to balance the numbers on either side of the eqn. 3. Do not ever change subscripts (formulas) in a compound! ===================================================================== EXAMPLE #1: Na + Br 2 NaBr STEP 1: Set up a chart with # of atoms of each element on each side of eqn. Reactants Products Na 1 1 Br 2 1 STEP 2: Balance one of the elements that is not balanced. In this case, that is the Br. (Reactant side has more than product side, so coefficient should go on the product side.) Na + Br 2 _2_ NaBr * Reminder: the coefficient gets multiplied by subscripts of all elements in the compound it is in front of. * Reactants Products Na 1 2 Br 2 2 STEP 3: Check all elements to see if they are balanced. Na is not balanced, so it needs a coefficient of 2. _2_ Na + Br 2 _2_ NaBr Reactants Products Na 2 2 Br 2 2 ===================================================================== EXAMPLE #2: HgO + Cl 2 HgCl + O 2 R P Hg O Cl EXAMPLE #3: CuCl 2 + H 2 S CuS + HCl EXAMPLE #4: Al 2 O 3 Al + O 2 EXAMPLE #5: Fe(NO 3 ) 2 + Na 3 PO 4 Fe 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + NaNO 3 Fe 1 3 NO Na 3 1 PO * because there is oxygen in every compound in the equation, it may be helpful to count the number of a polyatomic ion, rather than splitting the polyatomic ion into its elements and then counting.* Notes & Worksheets Standard 1

2 _3_ Fe(NO 3 ) 2 + Na 3 PO 4 Fe 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + NaNO 3 Fe 3 3 NO Na 3 1 PO _3_ Fe(NO 3 ) 2 + Na 3 PO 4 Fe 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + _6_ NaNO 3 Fe 3 3 NO Na 3 6 PO _3_ Fe(NO 3 ) 2 + _2_ Na 3 PO 4 Fe 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + _6_ NaNO 3 Fe 3 3 NO Na 6 6 PO Finished! EXAMPLE #6: KClO 3 KCl + O 2 EXAMPLE #7: C 3 H 8 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O **HINT: Balance the H's and O's last.** EXAMPLE #8: C 4 H 10 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O Now, you try these examples: 1.) Ca(OH) 2 + HNO 3 Ca(NO 3 ) 2 + H 2 O 2.) Cl 2 + NaBr NaCl + Br 2 3.) NaOH + HCl NaCl + H 2 O 4.) H 2 O + Fe Fe 2 O 3 + H 2 BALANCING EQUATIONS PRACTICE WORKSHEET 1.) CH 4 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 2.) Na + I 2 NaI 3.) N 2 + O 2 N 2 O 4.) N 2 + H 2 NH 3 5.) KI + Cl 2 KCl + I 2 6.) HCl + Ca(OH) 2 CaCl 2 + H 2 O 7.) KClO 3 KCl + O 2 8.) K 3 PO 4 + HCl KCl + H 3 PO 4 9.) S + O 2 SO 3 10.) KI + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 KNO 3 + PbI 2 11.) CaSO 4 + AlBr 3 CaBr 2 + Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 Notes & Worksheets Standard 2

3 12.) H 2 O 2 H 2 O + O 2 13.) Na + H 2 O NaOH + H 2 14.) C 2 H 6 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 15.) Mg(NO 3 ) 2 + K 3 PO 4 Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + KNO 3 TYPES OF EQUATIONS NOTES DECOMPOSITION: a compound breaks apart into simpler substances * To recognize a DECOMPOSITION reaction, look for only 1 REACTANT. * SYNTHESIS: 2 or more simple substances combine to form one compound; opposite of decomposition * To recognize a SYNTHESIS reaction, look for only 1 PRODUCT. * SINGLE REPLACEMENT: an element reacts with a compound to form a new element & a new compound * To recognize a SINGLE REPLACEMENT reaction, look for one element and one compound as the reactants. * DOUBLE REPLACEMENT: a compound reacts with another compound to form 2 new compounds * To recognize a DOUBLE REPLACEMENT reaction, look for 2 compounds as the reactants. * Notes & Worksheets Standard 3

4 COMBUSTION: a hydrocarbon combines with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water REACTION TYPES WORKSHEET --> Balance each equation. --> Identify the type of reaction as: * S - synthesis * D - decomposition * C combustion * SR - single replacement * DR - double replacement TYPE 1. Fe + O 2 Fe 2 O 3 UNIT 8 CHEMICAL EQUATIONS 2. Cl 2 + KBr KCl + Br 2 3. Fe + Cu(NO 3 ) 2 Fe(NO 3 ) 3 + Cu 4. NaCl Na + Cl 2 5. FeCl 3 + KOH KCl + Fe(OH) 3 6. KClO 3 KCl + O 2 7. Al + O 2 Al 2 O 3 8. Na 2 S + AgNO 3 Ag 2 S + NaNO 3 9. CaCO 3 CaO + CO Mg + HCl MgCl 2 + H Mg(OH) 2 + HCl MgCl 2 + H 2 O 12. Na 2 SO 4 + BaCl 2 BaSO 4 + NaCl 13. C 2 H 2 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 14. CaI 2 + F 2 CaF 2 + I NaOH Na 2 O + H 2 O 16. ZnBr 2 + AgNO 3 AgBr + Zn(NO 3 ) C 4 H 10 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 18. K + Br 2 KBr 19. NaHCO 3 Na 2 CO 3 + H 2 O + CO AgNO 3 + Cu Ag + Cu(NO 3 ) CuSO 4 + NaOH Cu(OH) 2 + Na 2 SO Ca(ClO 3 ) 2 CaCl 2 + O PH 3 + O 2 H 3 PO H 2 O + Fe H 2 + Fe 3 O NO + O 2 NO 2 Notes & Worksheets Standard 4

5 PREDICTING WHETHER A SINGLE REPLACEMENT REACTION WILL OCCUR The reactants in a single replacement reaction are an element (by itself) and a compound. Some single replacement reactions will happen, others will not. In order to determine if a single replacement reaction will occur, you must use the Activity Series. (It is located on page 7 of the Reference Tables.) EXAMPLE 1 Will the following reaction happen or not? Al + PbCl 2 Step 1 Look at the element by itself. Is this element a metal or a nonmetal? Al (aluminum) is a metal because it is located to the left side of the staircase line on the Periodic Table. Step 2 You will compare the type of element by itself to the similar type of element in the compound. In this case, aluminum is a metal, so I will compare it with the metal in the compound (which is Pb). Step 3 RULE: The element that is by itself must be HIGHER on (closer to the top of) the Activity Series for the reaction to happen! In this case Al (by itself) Mn Zn Cr Fe Cd Replace hydrogen from steam Co Ni Sn Pb (in compound) Aluminum (Al) is higher than lead (Pb), so the reaction happens. EXAMPLE 2 Will the following reaction happen or not? Fe + Mg(NO 3 ) 2 Answer: Iron (Fe) needs to be higher on the Activity Series than magnesium (Mg) in order for the reaction to occur. It is not, so there is no reaction. EXAMPLE 3 Will the following reaction happen or not? NaCl + Br 2 Answer: Br 2 is the element by itself. It is a nonmetal, so I have to compare it to the nonmetal in the compound which is Cl. Br needs to be higher than Cl in order for the reaction to happen. It is not, so there s no reaction. EXAMPLE 4 Will the following reaction happen or not? AlBr 3 + F 2 Answer: F 2 is the element by itself. It is a nonmetal, so I have to compare it to the nonmetal in the compound which is Br. F needs to be higher than Br in order for the reaction to happen. It is, so the reaction happens. Fluorine and bromine switch places. Remember to use the oxidation numbers of the elements to write the formulas. Also, remember that fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine are DIATOMIC that means that these elements will have a subscript of 2 when they are by themselves. AlBr 3 + F 2 Br 2 + AlF 3 Balanced 2 AlBr F 2 3 Br AlF 3 EXAMPLES: 1. Al + NiBr 2 2. Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + Ag 3. NaCl + F 2 4. Ba(NO 3 ) 2 + Ni 5. I 2 + AlBr 3 Notes & Worksheets Standard 5

6 6. Ca + KCl 7. Mg + Zn 3 (PO 4 ) 2 8. Na + SnCO 3 UNIT 8 CHEMICAL EQUATIONS Unit 8 Review Worksheet (Standard level) (A) Write the formula(s) for the products of the reaction (if they are not already given). (B) Balance the equation. (C) Tell the type of reaction. Reactants Products Type of Equation 1. silver nitrate + sodium chloride AgNO 3 + NaCl 2. ammonium sulfide + barium nitrate (NH 4 ) 2 S + Ba(NO 3 ) 2 3. lithium carbonate AgCl + NaNO 3 NH 4 NO 3 + BaS Li 2 CO 3 4. zinc + sulfur Zn + S 5. potassium + chlorine K + Cl 2 6. magnesium nitride Li 2 O + CO 2 ZnS KCl Mg 3 N 2 7. aluminum + copper (II) sulfate Mg + N 2 Al + CuSO 4 8. aluminum + iron (III) bromide Al + FeBr 3 9. bromine + silver chloride Br 2 + AgCl 10. zinc + nickel (II) nitrate Zn + Ni(NO 3 ) magnesium + silver sulfate Mg + Ag 2 SO potassium sulfate + aluminum chlorate K 2 SO 4 + Al(ClO 3 ) ethane (C 2 H 6 ) + oxygen KClO 3 + Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 C 2 H 6 + O copper (II) chloride + sodium phosphate CuCl 2 + Na 3 PO 4 Cu 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + NaCl Notes & Worksheets Standard 6

7 15. calcium bicarbonate Ca(HCO 3 ) strontium nitrate + copper (II) sulfate CaO + CO 2 + H 2 O UNIT 8 CHEMICAL EQUATIONS Sr(NO 3 ) 2 + CuSO magnesium acetate + iron (III) carbonate SrSO 4 + Cu(NO 3 ) 2 Mg(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 + Fe 2 (CO 3 ) copper (II) phosphate + zinc Cu 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + Zn 19. potassium + HCl K + HCl 20. calcium + potassium chlorate MgCO 3 + Fe(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 3 Ca + KClO 3 Notes & Worksheets Standard 7

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