3 CHEMICAL REACTIONS Occurs when matter combines or breaks apart to produce new kinds of matter with different properties with a change in energy.
4 EVIDENCE FOR CHEMICAL REACTIONS Release of a gas. Color change. Formation of a precipitate. Changes in energy. Heat, light, sound, and electrical.
5 ENERGY Anything that is not matter and can cause a change in matter. is a property of objects, transferable among them via fundamental interactions, which can be converted into different forms but not created or destroyed.
6 When individual atoms combine to form a compound, energy is usually released. Exothermic Reaction
9 When a compound breaks apart into individual atoms, energy is required or absorbed. Endothermic Reactions
11 Energy is going in to the ingredients and causing a chemical change endothermic.
12 Chemical Cold Pack
13 Endothermic Reactions of Barium Hydroxide and Ammonium Salts
14 Energy can have many forms but exists as only two types. Kinetic energy: Energy of motion. KE = 1/2 mass X velocity 2 Potential Energy: Stored energy or energy of position.
15 LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Energy can not be created or destroyed. It can change form but the total remains the same.
16 ENERGY MEASUREMENT Changes in energy are measured using the unit of a JOULE (J). What is a JOULE? One NEWTON acting over a 1 meter distance. What is a NEWTON? One kilogram accelerated at 1m/s 2.
17 COMPARE AMOUNTS OF ENERGY. A 100 Watt bulb burning for 0.01 seconds uses 1 J of energy J = 1 Kilojoule (KJ) The energy value per gram of various food components includes: fat 37 kj (9 Cal) not all fatty acids may provide the same amount of energy alcohol 29 kj (7 Cal) carbohydrates 16 kj (4 Cal) not all carbohydrates may provide the same amount of energy protein 17 kj (4 Cal) dietary fiber 13 kj (3 Cal) if fermented by bacteria in the large intestine water 0 kj (0 Cal).
18 SYMBOLS USED IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS + reads plus or add. Used between 2 formulas to indicate reactants combined and products formed.
19 reads yields or produces. Points in the direction of change. Reactants Products Before yields After
20 (s) (l) (g) Solid, liquid, and gas. (aq) aqueous Dissolved in water. Solution. N.R. No reaction.
21 Or Reaction is Reversible. Reactants must be heated.
22 Writing Chemical Equations Reactants: What you start with the left side of the equation. Products: What you finish with the right side of the equation.
23 USING CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND ENERGY TO WRITE CHEMICAL EQUATIONS. C 3 H 8(l) + O 2(g) ---> CO 2(g) + H 2 O (g) + energy Energy is a product, right side of the equation.
24 The bonds in the reactants have more energy than + the bonds in the products. +
25 The prior reaction was an exothermic hydrocarbon reaction. Hydrocarbons: Compounds that contain only C and H. CH 4 - methane
26 Hydrocarbons combine with oxygen gas (burn) to form: carbon dioxide gas water / water vapor energy
27 Liquid Methane + oxygen gas ---> carbon dioxide gas + water + energy CH 4(l) + O 2(g) ----> CO 2(g) + H 2 O (l) + energy
28 Energy In Chemical Reactions Exothermic Reactions: A chemical reaction that releases energy. The surroundings warm up. Energy is a product. CH 4(g) + O 2(g) ---> CO 2(g) + H 2 O (l) + energy
29 Exothermic Reaction Graph q q Starting Energy Ending Energy
30 Activation Energy (E a ): Energy needed to get a reaction going. Compare change between peak and start. Heat of Reaction ( H): Amount of the energy change during the reaction. H= H final H initial
31 In an exothermic reaction, the products have less energy than the reactants. Energy is given off to the surroundings. H is negative.
32 X 250 J 250 J 100 J 100 J E a = J 25 J 100 J H = - 75 J 25 J
33 Endothermic Reactions: A chemical reaction that absorbs energy. The surroundings cool off. Endo (inside) Energy is a reactant.
34 Endothermic Reaction Graph q q Starting Energy Ending Energy
35 Endothermic Reaction Graph 250 J q 150 J 100 qj E a = J 250 J 100 J H = + 50 J 150 J 100 J
36 In an endothermic reaction, the reactants have less energy than the products. Energy is absorbed into the products. H is positive
37 Endo or Exo thermic Reaction Activation Energy = H = 200 J 100 J 25 J I I I il L L L L l
38 Endo or Exo thermic Reaction Activation Energy = H = 150 J 100 J 10 J L L L L L L L L l
39 Conservation of Mass and Atoms Law of Conservation of Matter: Mass is neither created or destroyed in chemical reactions. Lavoisier ( ) proved this.
40 The number and kinds of atoms present in the products is the same number and kind of atoms present in the reactants. The atoms just rearrange.
41 Coefficients in Chemical Reactions Coefficients tell how many molecules or atoms are available. Coefficients are numbers placed in front of each molecule or atom and are used to balance equations.
42 5 NH 4 C 2 H 3 O 2 N, H, C, O, NH 4, C 2 H 3 O 2 3 (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 N, H, P, O, NH 4, PO 4 4 Na 2 CO 3 Na, C, O, CO 3
43 Writing and Balancing Equations 1. Determine the reactants and products. 2. Write the equation. Use the correct formulas for each compound - watch for the 7 diatomics. H 2, N 2, O 2, F 2, Cl 2, Br 2, I 2 3. Balance the equation.
44 Balancing Examples Solid copper(ii) oxide reacts with hydrogen gas to form solid copper and liquid water. CuO (S) + H 2(g) ---> Cu (s) + H 2 O (l)
45 Aluminum metal reacts with oxygen gas to form solid aluminum oxide. Al (s) + O 2(g) ---> Al 2 O 3(s)
46 When balancing an equation, ONLY the coefficients can be changed. NEVER change the subscripts. For example: 3H 2 O 3 is the coefficient. 2 and 1 are the subscripts.
47 Changing the subscripts changes the compound. H 2 O 2 Hydrogen Peroxide Never break up the formula. H 2 2O
48 Aluminum metal reacts with oxygen gas to form solid aluminum oxide. 4 Al (s) + 3 O 2(g) ---> 2 Al 2 O 3(s)
49 HELPFUL HINTS 1. Keep polyatomic ions together as a unit if they show up on both sides of the equation. NO -1 3, C 2 H 3 O -1 2, NH +1 4,. Ca(NO 3 ) 2 + NaCl ---> CaCl 2 + NaNO 3
50 2. Save H and O until last. They will tend to balance out together with the H 2 O. Ba + H 2 O ---> Ba(OH) 2 + H 2
51 Fe + O 2 ---> Fe 2 O 3 4Fe + 3 O 2 ---> 2 Fe 2 O 3 Zn + CrCl 3 ---> CrCl 2 + ZnCl 2 Zn + 2CrCl 3 ---> 2 CrCl 2 + ZnCl 2 Balancing equations is a trial and error process.
52 Example Aluminum sulfide reacts with water to produce aluminum hydroxide and hydrogen sulfide. Al 2 S 3 + H 2 O --> Al(OH) 3 + H 2 S What should we look for immediately? Save O and H for last - there is water.
53 Al 2 S 3 + H 2 O ---> 2 Al(OH) 3 + H 2 S Al 2 S 3 + H 2 O ---> 2 Al(OH) H 2 S The Al and S are balanced - now - H & O. Al 2 S H 2 O > 2 Al(OH) H 2 S
54 Balance The Following Equations Ca(OH) 2 + HBr CaBr 2 + H 2 O Ca(OH) HBr CaBr H 2 O Al + S 8 Al 2 S 3 16 Al + 3 S 8 8 Al 2 S 3 CO + O 2 CO 2 2 CO + O 2 2 CO 2
55 Balance the Following Equations. C 2 H 4 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O C 2 H O 2 2 CO H 2 O Pb(NO 3 ) 4 + NaCl PbCl 4 + NaNO 3 Pb(NO 3 ) NaCl PbCl NaNO 3
56 Mg 2 C 3 + H 2 O Mg(OH) 2 + C 3 H 4 Mg 2 C H 2 O 2 Mg(OH) 2 + C 3 H 4
57 Regularities in Chemical Reactions How do chemists know what happens in a chemical reaction? Experimentation. Patterns emerged.
58 Combustion Reactions Combustion reactions are exothermic reactions in which a reactant quickly combines with oxygen gas and all the products formed are elements combined with oxygen.
62 Combustion of Hydrocarbons: Products are carbon dioxide and water. C X H Y + O 2(g) CO 2(g) + H 2 O (l) CH 4(g) + O 2(g) CO 2(g) + H 2 O (l)
64 Burning of propane with oxygen. C 3 H 8 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O
65 Exothermic H = - +
66 Combustion In A Flashbulb A Mg (S) + O 2(g) Mg +2 O -2 (S)
67 Calcium is burned. Ca (S) + O 2(g) Ca +2 O -2 (S) Sodium is burned. Na (S) + O 2(g) Na 2 +1 O -2 (S)
68 Combustion of Oxygenated Hydrocarbons Oxygenated hydrocarbons are: Compounds containing C, H, and O. Burning of sugar with oxygen to yield carbon dioxide and water vapor. C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O
69 SYNTHESIS -COMBINATION FORMATION - REACTIONS The number of reactant substances is greater than the number of product substances. Two or more reactants getting together to form one product. A + B AB
71 K (s) + Cl 2(g) K + Cl - (s) Aa b
72 Na (s) + Cl 2(g) Na + Cl - (s) + ENERGY EXOTHERMIC REACTION
73 SYNTHESIS I : 2 ELEMENTS Metal and Nonmetal binary ionic Al + Cl 2 Al +3 Cl 3-1 compound Element and oxygen element oxide Al + O 2 Al 2 +3 O 3-2 This can also be considered a combustion reaction.
74 Synthesis II Compound + compound ---> larger compound Examples: Water + metal oxide Metal Hydroxide Hydroxides indicate a Base. H 2 O + Ca +2 O -2 Ca +2 (OH -1 ) 2
75 Water + non metal oxide Acid Acids typically have H as the first element. H 2 O + SO 3 H 2 +1 SO 4-2
76 PRACTICE 1. Aluminum and bromine 2 Al + 3 Br 2 2 Al +3 Br Sodium and fluorine 2 Na + F 2 2 Na +1 F Sodium oxide and water Na +1 2 O -2 + H 2 O 2 Na +1 OH -1
77 MORE PRACTICE 4. Hydrogen and oxygen 2 H 2 + O 2 2 H 2 O 5. Water and carbon dioxide H 2 O + CO 2 H 2 +1 CO 3-2
78 DECOMPOSITION Reverse of synthesis reactions. Starting material is a compound, and the products are elements and/or smaller new compounds. Occurs when energy is added. Elec > >
79 H 2 CO 3(aq) H 2 O (l) + CO 2(g)
81 Hg +2 O -2 (s) Aa Hg(l) + O b 2 (g) Aa b
82 Na +1 Cl -1 Na (l) + Cl 2(g) Note: Chemical change - New substances are formed. No ions on the product side. H 2 O elec (l) H 2(g) + O 2(g) In general terms: AB A + B
83 Decomposition II (a little tough) 1. Metal Carbonate Metal oxide + Carbon dioxide Ca +2 CO 3-2 Ca +2 O -2 + CO 2 2. Metal Hydroxide Metal oxide + Water Ca +2 (OH -1 ) 2 Ca +2 O -2 + H 2 O
84 3. Acid Non-metallic oxide + Water H 2 SO 4 SO 3 + H 2 O
85 Practice Decompose sodium carbonate: Na 2 +1 CO 3-2 Na 2 +1 O -2 + CO 2 Decompose sodium hydroxide: Na +1 OH -1 Na 2 +1 O -2 + H 2 O Decompose Aluminum chloride: Al +3 Cl 3-1 Al + Cl 2
86 Dissociation Reactions Separation of a molecule into two or more fragments typically ions. Physical change - produces no new substances. Occurs upon dissolving an ionic substance in water. Na + Cl - H > O 2 Na + + Cl (s) (aq) - (aq)
88 Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq)
89 H 2 O Ca +2 (NO 3-1 ) 2(s) > Ca +2 (aq) + 2 NO 3-1 (aq) In General Terms: A + B - (s) > A + (aq) + B - (aq)
90 DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS Also called replacement reactions. An atom or ion in a compound is displaced by another atom or ion. Classified as: single displacement double displacement
91 SINGLE DISPLACEMENT A reaction in which one element takes the place of another element in a compound. Metal replaces metal.
92 Ag + NO 3 - (aq) + Cu (s) Cu + NO 3 - (aq) + Ag (s)
93 Zinc sulfate and Copper Zn +2 SO 4-2 (aq) + Cu (s) NR
94 Copper(II) sulfate and Zinc Cu +2 SO 4-2 (aq) + Zn (s) Cu (s) + Zn +2 SO 4-2 (aq)
95 Mg (s) + HCl (aq) MgCl 2(aq) + H 2(g)
96 Non metal replaces non metal. K + I - (aq) + Cl 2 K + Cl - (aq) + I 2 Practice: Sodium chloride and fluorine: Na + Cl - (aq) + F 2 Na + F - (aq) + Cl 2
97 In general terms: A + BC B + AC Chlorine + potassium bromide Cl 2 + K + Br - (aq) K + Cl - (aq) + Br 2 K + Cl - (aq) + Br 2 N.R. Replacement reactions are not reversible.
99 DOUBLE DISPLACEMENT A reaction where partners change. Positive metals trade negative non metals. Sodium chloride and silver nitrate. Na + Cl - (aq) + Ag + NO 3 - (aq) Na + NO 3 - (aq) + Ag + Cl - (s)
100 In order for a double replacement reaction to occur: Ions must be removed from the solution. * A precipitate can be formed.
101 Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2 NaI (aq) PbI 2(s) + 2 NaNO 3(aq) Indicates a precipitate is formed.
102 Water can be formed via an acid base neutralization reaction. H + Cl - (aq) + Na + OH - (aq) Na + Cl - (aq) + H 2 O (l)
103 A gas can be formed. Na 2 CO 3 (aq) + 2 HCl (aq) Na + Cl - (aq) + H 2 + CO 3-2 (aq) H 2 +1 CO 3-2 (aq) H 2 O (l) + CO 2(g) Na 2 CO 3 (aq) + 2 HCl (aq) Na + Cl - (aq) + H 2 O (l) + CO 2(g)
104 Lead(II) nitrate and potassium iodide. Pb +2 (NO 3- ) 2(aq) + K + I - (aq) Pb +2 I 2 - (s) + K + NO 3 - (aq) In general terms: AB + XY AY + XB
105 Single Replacement Revisited Not all reactions that appear to be single replacement reactions will occur. Activity Series - Halogens. Each halogen will react and replace any halogen below it on the periodic table but will not replace those halogens above it.
106 Sodium bromide and chlorine. Na + Br - + Cl 2 Na + Cl - + Br 2 Sodium fluoride and chlorine. Na + F - + Cl 2 N.R.
107 Activity Series - Metals. Metals will react like halogens but there is no simple pattern. Utilize the chart on the handout to determine if a reaction occurs.
108 Fe Zn Mg in HCl (Hydrochloric Acid)
109 Single Replacement Activity Series XXX
110 Iron and magnesium sulfate. Fe (s) + Mg +2 SO 4-2 (aq) N.R. Iron + copper(ii) sulfate. Fe (s) + Cu +2 SO 4-2 (aq) Fe +2 SO 4-2 (aq) + Cu (s)
111 Copper and Silver Nitrate Cu (s) + Ag +1 NO 3-1 (aq) Cu +1 NO 3-1 (aq) + Ag (s)
112 Double Replacement Revisited A double replacement reaction will occur if an insoluble product can form. Insoluble: Does not dissolve. A precipitate forms. Utilize the solubility chart on the handout to determine if a substance is soluble in water.
114 Ions can stay as they came into the solution Pb +2 (NO 3-1 ) 2(aq) + Na +1 I -1 (aq) Pb +2 (aq) + 2 NO 3-1 (aq) + Na+1 (aq) + I-1 (aq) or they can exchange partners if a precipitate forms. Pb +2 (NO 3-1 ) 2 (aq) + 2 Na +1 I -1 (aq) Pb +2 I Na +1 NO 3-1 (s) (aq)
115 AgNO 3(aq) + Na 2 CrO 4(aq) NaNO 3(aq) + Ag 2 CrO 4(s)
116 Will the following reaction occur? Sodium chloride and ammonium bromide. Na + Cl - + NH (aq) 4+ Br - (aq) Na + Br - (aq) + NH 4+ Cl - (aq) Na + Cl - (aq) + NH 4+ Br - (aq) N.R.
117 This reaction does not occur because both of the products are soluble. Therefore there is not a precipitate.
118 Will the following reaction occur? Sodium carbonate and barium chloride. Na 2 +1 CO 3-2 (aq) + Ba +2 Cl 2 - (aq) Ba +2 CO 3-2 (s) + Na +1 Cl -1 (aq) This reaction occurs because one of the products is insoluble.
119 Will the following reaction occur? Silver nitrate and potassium bromide. Ag + NO 3 - (aq) + K + Br - (aq) Ag + Br - (s) + K + NO 3 - (aq) This reaction occurs because one of the products is insoluble.
120 Calcium nitrate and potassium hydroxide. Ca +2 (NO 3-1 ) 2(aq) + K +1 OH -1 (aq) Ca +2 (OH - ) 2(aq) + K + NO 3 - (aq) Ca(NO 3 ) 2(aq) + KOH (aq) N.R.
121 Ammonium sulfide and zinc chloride. (NH 4 +1 ) 2 S -2 (aq) + Zn +2 Cl 2-1 (aq) NH 4+ Cl - (aq) + Zn +2 S -2 (s)
122 Double Replacement and Neutralization Neutralization Reactions: An Acid + Base form water and an ionic compound. HCl + Al(OH) 3 Al +3 Cl - 3(aq) + H 2 O (l)
123 Reaction Kinetics Collision Theory States that in order for a reaction to occur, molecules must collide, and collide with sufficient energy (K.E.) in order for a reaction to occur. a
124 Particle Collisions and Orientation: Particles must be aligned correctly for the appropriate reaction to take place. Collisions do not always equate to a reaction. think puzzle pieces
125 1. The nature of the reactants: depends on the complexity of the bonds that you wish to break apart and/or form. If you want to break more bonds, it takes a longer time for the reaction to occur. A reaction between two gases would be faster than a reaction between to liquids or two solids.
126 2. Temperature: The higher the temperature (or the hotter the reactant is), the quicker the reaction will occur. more frequent collisions and higher energy collisions more K.E.
127 3. Concentration: The higher the concentration of a reactant, the quicker the reaction will occur. This means that there are more particles, meaning it will collide more frequently into the particles of the other reactant.
128 4. Surface Area: The more particles that are exposed during the experiment, the faster the reaction will occur. The more the particles are exposed, the more particle collisions.
129 5. Catalysts: increase the rate of reaction by speeding up the reaction without being used up in the reaction. Not used up in the chemical reaction and remains unchanged..
130 Red = Reactants Blue = Products Explain what the graph is telling us!
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Reactions in aqueous solutions Redox reactions Redox reactions In precipitation reactions, cations and anions come together to form an insoluble ionic compound. In neutralization reactions, H + ions and
5072 CHEMISTRY (NEW PAPERS WITH SPA) BASIC TECHNIQUES 5067 CHEMISTRY (NEW PAPERS WITH PRACTICAL EXAM) BASIC TECHNIQUES LEARNING OUTCOMES a) Be able to write formulae of simple compounds b) Be able to write
Name Period Teacher Practice Test: OTHS Academic Chemistry Spring Semester 2017 The exam will have 100 multiple choice questions (1 point each) Formula sheet (see below) and Periodic table will be provided
Chemical Reactions and Equations Types of Reactions Predicting Products Activity Series Identifying Oxidation-Reduction Reactions A preview of things we will do Chemical Reactions are AWESOME! Characteristics
Chapter 11 Chemical Reactions All chemical reactions have two parts Reactants - the substances you start with Products- the substances you end up with The reactants turn into the products. Reactants Products