1 Chapter 6 Chemical Reactions Sodium reacts violently with bromine to form sodium bromide.
2 Evidence of Chemical Reactions
3 Chemical Equations Reactants Products Reactant(s): Substance(s) present before the reaction. Product(s): Substance(s) formed by the reaction. Arrow indicates the direction of the change; read as yields or produces. Sometimes chemists say, goes to give you.
4 Ignore this!
5 Chemical Equations methane + oxygen carbon dioxide + water CH 4 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O
6 Chemical Equations iron + oxygen iron(iii) oxide Fe + O 2 Fe 2 O 3
7 Chemical Equations hydrogen peroxide water + oxygen H 2 O 2 H 2 O + O 2
8 In a chemical reaction, atoms are neither created nor destroyed! All atoms present in the reactants must be accounted for among the products. Ø A chemical reaction involves changing the way the atoms are grouped. Ø Number of atoms is always conserved in a chemical reaction mass is always conserved as well.
9 Balancing Chemical Equations Ø A balanced equation has the same number and type of atoms on both sides of the equation. An equation is balanced by introducing coefficients. Ø Coefficients: Whole numbers in front of the symbols or formulas. Must be in terms of lowest whole numbers!
10 Example 6-1, page 182 Nitrogen reacts with hydrogen to produce ammonia.
11 Physical States (s) (l) (g) solid liquid gas (aq) aqueous (i.e., dissolved in water)
12 Additional Example: Consider the reaction of ethanol with oxygen. C 2 H 5 OH(l) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(g) Reactants Products
13 Additional Example: Consider the reaction of ethanol with oxygen. C 2 H 5 OH(l) + 3 O 2 (g) 2 CO 2 (g) + 3 H 2 O(g) Reactants Products
14 Write a balanced chemical equation for each of the following. Coefficients should be in terms of lowest whole numbers. Be sure to include states. Solid potassium chlorate is strongly heated to produce solid potassium chloride and oxygen gas. 2 KClO 3 (s) 2 KCl(s) + 3 O 2 (g) Solid calcium hydroxide is placed in a dilute solution of phosphoric acid. The products of the reaction are solid calcium phosphate and liquid water. 3 Ca(OH) 2 (s) + 2 H 3 PO 4 (aq) Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s) + 6 H 2 O(l) Nitrogen monoxide and hydrogen are placed in a sealed container and a reaction occurs. The products are water and pure nitrogen. (All substances are in the gas phase.) 2 NO(g) + 2 H 2 (g) 2 H 2 O(g) + N 2 (g)
15 Example 6-2, page 183 Balance the following equation. B 2 H 6 (g) + H 2 O(l) H 3 BO 3 (aq) + H 2 (g)
16 Example Glass is sometimes decorated by etching patterns on its surface. Etching occurs when hydrofluoric acid reacts with the solid silicon dioxide in the glass to form gaseous silicon tetrafluoride and liquid water. Write the balanced chemical equation.
17 Example Balance the following equation. C 8 H 18 (g) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(g)
18 Example Under appropriate conditions at 1000 C, ammonia gas reacts with oxygen gas to produce gaseous nitrogen monoxide and gaseous water. Write the balanced chemical equation.
19 Combustion Reactions ² the reaction of an element or compound with elemental oxygen (O 2 ). ² usually liberates considerable thermal energy & is accompanied by a flame. ² typically referred to as burning.
20 Combustion Reactions Carbon-hydrogen or carbon-hydrogen-oxygen compounds with excess O 2 : products are CO 2 and H 2 O. CH 4 (g) + 2 O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2 H 2 O(g) C 6 H 12 O 6 (s) + 6 O 2 (g) 6 CO 2 (g) + 6 H 2 O(l) Special Case: If insufficient O 2 is present, CO is a product: 2 C 8 H 18 (l) + 17 O 2 (g) 16 CO(g) + 18 H 2 O(l)
21 Example 6-3, page 185 Write a balanced equation showing the burning of liquid rubbing alcohol, C 3 H 8 O.
22 Combination Reactions ² the formation of one compound from two or more elements and/or simpler compounds.
23 Example sodium + chlorine table salt
24 2 Na(s) + Cl 2 (g) 2 NaCl(s)
25 Example: Magnesium is burned in air.
26 Example: Magnesium is burned in air.
27 STATES OF MATTER AT ROOM TEMPERATURE (298 K) I. Metals: all solids except Hg II. Nonmetals A. Solid: C, P, S, Se, I B. Liquid: Br C. Gas: H, N, O, F, Cl, Group 8 (noble gases) III. Metalloids: all solids IV. Ionic Compounds: all solids V. Acids: aqueous, of course!
29 Decomposition Reactions ² the reverse of combination reactions. The fizz of carbonated water is the result of a decomposition reaction: H 2 CO 3 (aq) H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g)
30 Example: Mercury(II) oxide decomposes when heat is applied.
31 Note: Most binary compounds decompose into pure elements. Those that are not binary decompose into simpler compounds. Example: Solid calcium carbonate is strongly heated. CaCO 3 (s) CaO(s) + CO 2 (g)
32 Practice! 1) Pure solid phosphorus (white form, P 4 ) is burned in air to produce solid tetraphosphorus decoxide. 2) A sample of propanone, (CH 3 ) 2 CO(l), is burned in air.
33 Practice! 3) A solution of hydrogen peroxide is exposed to intense sunlight. 4) Solid iron(ii) sulfite is heated strongly to produce iron(ii) oxide and sulfur dioxide gas.
34 The Formation of Ions in Water Salt: Any ionic compound such that the cation is not H + the anion is neither OH nor O 2
35 The Formation of Ions in Water When an appreciable amount of a substance dissolves in a liquid medium, we say that the substance is soluble. If very little or none of the substance dissolves, we say that the compound is insoluble.
36 The Formation of Ions in Water
37 The Formation of Ions in Water When an ionic compound dissolves in water, in nearly all cases the compound is separated into individual ions (dissociation). NaCl(s) H 2 O "" Na + (aq) + Cl (aq) Physical or Chemical change?
38 The Formation of Ions in Water When an ionic compound dissolves in water, in nearly all cases the compound is separated into individual ions (dissociation). NaCl(s) H 2 O "" Na + (aq) + Cl (aq)
39 The Formation of Ions in Water How do we know that ionic compounds dissociate when dissolved in water? The solution conducts electricity!
40 Acids Acids form the H + (aq) ion when dissolved in water. Strong acids are completely ionized in water: Ø HCl Ø HBr Ø HI Ø HNO 3 Ø HClO 4 Ø H 2 SO 4 Memorize!
41 Acids: Strong vs. Weak HCl(aq) H 2 O "" H + (aq) + Cl (aq) HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) H 2 O!""!!" H + (aq) + C 2 H 3 O 2 (aq)
42 Warm-Up! Write a balanced chemical equation for each of the laboratory situations described below. In all cases, a reaction occurs. Balance the equations using lowest whole numbers and be sure to include states. 1. Gaseous chlorine dioxide is formed from its constituent elements. 2. Nickel(II) chlorate is heated strongly. Oxygen gas is one of the products.
43 Example 6-4, page 190 Write equations illustrating the dissociation of the following compounds in water: (a) Na 2 CO 3, (b) CaCl 2, (c) aluminum sulfate, and (d) perchloric acid.
44 Single-Replacement Reactions Reactions that involve an ion being transferred from one cation to another. XY + A X + AY
45 Single-Replacement Reactions Consider a piece of zinc placed in a solution of copper(ii) chloride.
46 Single-Replacement Reactions Consider a piece of zinc placed in a solution of copper(ii) chloride. Zn(s) + CuCl 2 (aq) ZnCl 2 (aq) + Cu(s)
47 Example: A piece of solid chromium is placed in a solution of lead(ii) nitrate. [Assume all of the chromium reacts as chromium(iii).]
48 Single-Replacement Reactions Some metals are more reactive than others. Activity Series: page 193 * (DO NOT memorize.)
49 Single-Replacement Reactions Some metals are more reactive than others. Activity Series: page 193 Copper immersed in a zinc sulfate solution. No reaction! Zn 2+ sits higher on the Activity Series than Cu.
50 Example 6-5, page 193 Consider the following two possible reactions. If a reaction does occur, write the balanced molecular, total ionic, and net ionic equations illustrating the reactions. (a) A strip of tin metal is placed in an aqueous AgNO 3 solution. (b) A strip of silver metal is placed in an aqueous perchloric acid solution.
51 (a) A strip of tin metal is placed in an aqueous AgNO 3 solution.
52 (a) A strip of tin metal is placed in an aqueous AgNO 3 solution. Molecular equation: All reactants and products are shown as neutral compounds.
53 (a) A strip of tin metal is placed in an aqueous AgNO 3 solution. Total ionic equation: The cations and anions of a compound in solution are shown separately.
54 (a) A strip of tin metal is placed in an aqueous AgNO 3 solution. Spectator ions: Ions that are in an identical state on both sides of a total ionic equation. Net ionic equation: The equation that remains when spectator ions are subtracted from both sides of the equation.
55 Sn(s) + 2 Ag + (aq) 2 Ag(s) + Sn 2+ (aq) Our analysis leads us to the net ionic equation shown above. Consider the following. Sn(s) + Ag + (aq) Ag(s) + Sn 2+ (aq) Is the equation still balanced?
56 b) A strip of silver metal is placed in an aqueous perchloric acid solution.
57 Problem 28, page 209 If the following reaction occurs spontaneously, write the balanced net ionic equation. If not, write no reaction. Al + Cu 2+ Al 3+ + Cu
58 Soluble and Insoluble Salts Soluble ionic compounds and strong acids completely dissociate in water: Ca(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 (s) Ca 2+ (aq) + 2 C 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) Insoluble ionic compounds do nothing: Pb 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s)
59 Use Table 6-3, page 195 for in-class work and homework. DO NOT memorize Table 6-3. Treat slightly soluble as INSOLUBLE.
60 Students must memorize the following: All sodium (Na + ), potassium (K + ), ammonium (NH 4+ ), and nitrate (NO 3 ) salts are soluble in water. *Memorization of other solubility rules does not deepen understanding of the important concepts & ideas.
61 Double-Replacement Reactions: Precipitation Precipitation Reaction: Formation of a precipitate by mixing solutions of two soluble compounds. Precipitate: The solid that is formed by the reaction of two solutions.
64 Shown above: Photos and accompanying molecular-level representations illustrating the reaction of KCl(aq) with AgNO 3 (aq) to form AgCl(s). Note that it is not possible to have a photo of the mixed solution before the reaction occurs, because it is an imaginary step that we use to help visualize the reaction. Actually, the reaction occurs immediately when the two solutions are mixed.
65 Double-Replacement Reactions: Precipitation Aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and copper(ii) chloride are mixed. Balanced Molecular Equation: Total (Complete) Ionic Equation: Net Ionic Equation:
66 Net Ionic Equation: Ag + (aq) + Cl (aq) AgCl(s)
67 Example Aqueous solutions of lithium acetate and iron(iii) sulfate are mixed. If a reaction occurs, write the balanced molecular, total ionic, and net ionic equations; otherwise write no reaction.
68 Aqueous solutions of potassium nitrate and copper(ii) chloride are mixed. No reaction.
69 Example 6-8, page 199 Aqueous solutions of KOH and MgI 2 are mixed. If a reaction occurs, write the balanced molecular, total ionic, and net ionic equations; otherwise write no reaction. Balanced Molecular Equation: Total (Complete) Ionic Equation: Net Ionic Equation:
70 Example 6-7, page 198 Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and calcium chloride are mixed. If a reaction occurs, write the balanced molecular, total ionic, and net ionic equations; otherwise write no reaction. Balanced Molecular Equation: Total (Complete) Ionic Equation: Net Ionic Equation:
71 Problem 49 (b), page 210 Aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and ammonium sulfate are mixed. Write the net ionic equation for the reaction that occurs.
73 Bases Bases form the OH (aq) [hydroxide] ion when dissolved in water. Strong bases are completely ionized in water. Simply follow the solubility rules to know which ones are strong.
74 Bases: Strong vs. Weak NaOH(aq) H 2 O "" Na + (aq) + OH (aq) NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O( ) #" # NH + 4 (aq) + OH (aq)
75 Example 6-10, page 202 Write the molecular, total ionic, and net ionic equations for the neutralization of sulfuric acid and potassium hydroxide. Balanced Molecular Equation: Total (Complete) Ionic Equation: Net Ionic Equation:
76 Double-Replacement Reactions: Acid-Base Neutralization Neutralization Reaction: The reaction of an acid and a base. Note: Only strong acid strong base reactions will be discussed here. Reactions with weak acids & bases are more complicated. (Chapter 13)
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