# Balancing Equations Notes

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1 . Unit 9 Chemical Equations and Reactions What is a Chemical Equation? A is a written representation of the process that occurs in a chemical reaction. A chemical equation is written with the (starting materials) on the left side of an arrow and the (resulting substance) of the chemical reaction on the right side of the equation. The head of the arrow typically points toward the right or toward the product side of the equation, although reactions may indicate equilibrium with the reaction proceeding in directions simultaneously. The elements in an equation are denoted using their symbols. next to the symbols indicate the numbers. Subscripts are used to indicate the number of atoms of an element present in a chemical species. An example of a chemical equation may be seen in the combustion of methane: CH O 2 CO H 2 O Balancing Equations Notes An equation for a chemical reaction in which the number of atoms for each element in the reaction and the total charge are the same for both the reactants and the products. In other words, the mass and the charge are balanced on both sides of the reaction. Symbol + Meaning (g) (s) (aq) 1

2 (l) Use coefficients to make sure the number of atoms is the same on both sides of the equation. 1. H 2 + O 2 H 2 O 2. HCl + Zn ZnCl 2 + H 2 3. Al + CaS Al 2 S 3 + Ca Solid Iron and gaseous chlorine react to produce a solid iron (III) chloride Write the skeleton equation for the reaction Diatomic Elements are always diatomic (written with a subscribe of 2) when they are in their elemental form

3 Types of Chemical Reactions Notes Synthesis- elements or compounds combine to form one compound. Decomposition- a compound decomposes into two or more elements or smaller compounds. Single Replacement- a metal will a less active metal in an ionic compound OR a nonmetal will replace a less active nonmetal. Double Replacement- the metals in ionic compounds places. Combustion- an compound containing carbon, hydrogen and sometimes oxygen reacts with oxygen gas to form carbon dioxide and water. o : Definition - two or more substances react to form 1 product. Usually releases energy,. Combination reactions that contain oxygen as a reactant can also be considered combustion. A + X AX 4 Fe (s) + 3 O 2 (g) 2 Fe 2 O 3 (s) CaO (s) + H 2 O (l) Ca(OH) 2 (s) One example of a synthesis reaction is the combination of iron and sulfur to form iron (II) sulfide: 8 Fe + S 8 ---> 8 FeS o : Definition - A single compound breaks down into 2 or more elements or compounds AX A + X 2NaN 3 (s) 2Na(s) + 3N 2 (g) 2KClO 3 (s) 2KCl (s) + 3O 2 (g) CaCO 3 (s) CaO (s) + CO 2 (g) ***These reactions often requires an energy source as an initiator. Energy sources can be heat, light, or electricity. They are usually. 3

4 One example of a decomposition reaction is the electrolysis of water to make oxygen and hydrogen gas: 2H 2 O ---> 2 H 2 + O 2 o :Definition - Oxygen gas combines with a substance and releases energy in the form of light or heat. So combustion reactions are usually exothermic. Combination reactions that contain oxygen as a reactant can also be considered combustion. A + O 2 C(s) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + energy 4 Fe (s) + 3O 2 (g) 2Fe 2 O 3 (s) + energy For hydrocarbons: C x H y + [x + (y/4)] O 2 xco 2 + (y/2)h 2 O C 3 H 8 (g) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (g) + light + heat o : definition - one ion replaces another in a compound. AB + C --> AC + B One example of a single displacement reaction is when magnesium replaces hydrogen in water to make magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen gas: Mg + 2 H 2 O ---> Mg(OH) 2 + H 2 o : Definition - two ions replace each other or switch places in compounds. AB + CD --> AC + BD One example of a double displacement reaction is the reaction of lead (II) nitrate with potassium iodide to form lead (II) iodide and potassium nitrate: Pb(NO 3 ) KI ---> PbI KNO 3 Sample Problems (the solutions are in the next section) List the type of the following reactions. Solutions 1) NaOH + KNO 3 --> NaNO 3 + KOH 1) 2) CH O 2 --> CO H 2 O 2) 3) 2 Fe + 6 NaBr --> 2 FeBr Na 3) 4) CaSO 4 + Mg(OH) 2 --> Ca(OH) 2 + MgSO 4 4) 5) NH 4 OH + HBr --> H 2 O + NH 4 Br 5 6) Pb + O 2 --> PbO 2 6) 7) Na 2 CO 3 --> Na 2 O + CO 2 7 4

5 TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS Directions Write and balance the given equation. Indicate the type of chemical reaction represented. 1. Iron reacts with oxygen gas to produce Iron (III) oxide. 2. Propane (C 3 H 8 ) reacts with oxygen gas to produce carbon dioxide and water. 3. Bromine gas reacts with potassium iodide to produce potassium bromide and iodine gas. 4. Hydrogen peroxide will produce water and oxygen gas if left in sunlight. 5. Phosphorous reacts with oxygen gas to produce tetraphosphorous decoxide. 6. Iron (III) Chloride reacts with sodium hydroxide to produce Iron (III) hydroxide and sodium chloride. 7. Iron (III) oxide reacts with hydrogen gas to produce iron and water. 5

6 8. Octane (C 8 H 18 ) reacts with oxygen gas to produce carbon dioxide and water. 9. Calcium carbonate reacts with aluminum phosphate to produce calcium phosphate and aluminum carbonate. 10. Aluminum hydroxide decomposes to produce aluminum oxide and water. 11. Zinc reacts with silver nitrate to produce zinc nitrate and silver. 12. Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) reacts with oxygen gas to produce carbon dioxide and water. 13. Potassium oxide reacts with water to produce potassium hydroxide. 14. Lead (IV) oxide decomposes into lead (II) oxide and oxygen gas. 15. Hydrochloric acid (hydrogen chloride) reacts with barium hydroxide to produce water and barium chloride. 6

7 Change the coefficients to make the number of atoms of each element equal on both sides of the equation 1. Calcium metal reacts with water to form solid calcium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. 2. Zinc hydroxide solution reacts with lithium to form lithium hydroxide solution and zinc metal. 3. Liquid propanol (C 3 H 7 OH) reacts with oxygen gas to form carbon dioxide gas and water vapor. 4. Aluminum metal reacts with oxygen gas to form solid aluminum oxide. 5. Liquid carbonic acid (hydrogen carbonate) decomposes into carbon dioxide gas and water. 6. Lead (II) nitrate solution reacts with iron (III) chloride solution to form solid lead (II) chloride and Iron (III) nitrate solution. 7. Aluminum metal reacts with silver sulfate solution to form aluminum sulfate solution and silver metal. 8. Methane gas (CH 4 ) reacts with oxygen gas to form carbon dioxide gas and water vapor. 9. Iron metal reacts with bromine gas to form iron (III) bromide solid. 10. Hydrogen peroxide solution decomposes into water and oxygen gas. 7

8 Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Balance the following chemical equations using coefficients 1. Al(OH) 3 (s) + HCl (aq) AlCl 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) 2. Fe 2 O 3 (s) + CO (g) Fe 3 O 4 (s) + CO 2 (g) 3. FeO (s) + O 2 (g) Fe 2 O 3 (s) 4. C 6 H 6 (l) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (g) 5. Ca(OH) 2 (aq) + H 3 PO 4 (aq) H 2 O (l) + Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s) 6. I 4 O 9 (s) I 2 O 6 (s) + I 2 (s) + O 2 (g) 7. Eu (s) + HF (g) EuF 3 (s) + H 2 (g) 8. NaHCO 3 (aq) + C 6 H 8 O 7 (aq) CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l) + Na 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 (aq) 9. Ni (s) + CO (g) Ni(CO) 4 (g) 10. K 2 PtCl 4 (aq) + NH 3 (aq) Pt(NH 3 ) 2 Cl 2 (s) + KCl (aq) Write the following chemical equations and balance using coefficients. 1. Liquid mercury reacts with liquid bromine to produce solid mercury (II) Bromide 2. Solid calcium carbonate decomposes upon heating to produce solid calcium oxide and carbon dioxide gas. 3. Solid calcium will react with liquid water to produce aqueous calcium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. 8

9 Rules for Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions 1. Hydrocarbon + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O (Combustion) a. 2C 4 H O 2 8 CO H 2 O 2. Metal Carbonate Metal Oxide + CO 2 (Decomposition) a. MgCO 3 MgO + CO 2 b. Synthesis: Metal Oxide + CO 2 Metal Carbonate 3. Metal Sulfites Metal Oxide + SO 2 (Decomposition) a. CaSO 3 CaO + SO 2 b. Synthesis: Metal Oxide + SO 2 Metal Sulfite 4. Metal Hydride + H 2 O Metal Hydroxide + H 2 (Double Replacement) a. KH + H 2 O KOH + H 2 5. Metal + H 2 O Metal Hydroxide + H 2 (Single Replacement) a. 2Na + 2H 2 O 2NaOH + H 2 6. Metal Oxide + H 2 O Metal Hydroxide (Synthesis) a. MgO + H 2 O Mg(OH) 2 7. Non-metal oxide + H 2 O ternary acid (Synthesis) a. N 2 O 3 + H 2 O 2 HNO 2 b. N 2 O 5 + H 2 O 2 HNO 3 c. CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 9

10 Predicting Products: Write the COMPLETE balanced equation 1. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) reacts with sodium hydroxide. 2. Sodium reacts with oxygen 3. Mercury (II) oxide 4. Zinc reacts with lead (II) Nitrate 5. Silver nitrate reacts with calcium chloride 6. C 7 H 16 reacts with oxygen 7. CH 3 OH reacts with oxygen 8. Magnesium reacts with Fluorine 9. Copper (II) Chloride 10. Aluminum reacts with Calcium Sulfide 11. Potassium Hydroxide reacts with Zinc Chloride 12. C 2 H 2 reacts with oxygen 13. Sodium Iodide reacts with chlorine 14. Aluminum reacts with sulfur 10

11 Unit 9 Test Review Balance the following equations: HCl + Al AlCl 3 + H 2 HNO 3 + Zn Zn(NO 3 ) 2 + NO 2 + H 2 O HNO 3 + Sn SnO 2 + NO 2 + H 2 O Write the balanced equation for the following chemical reaction AND the type of reaction that has occurred. Sodium metal is added to sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ). Hydrogen gas is produced, along with sodium sulfate. White phosphorus (P 4 ) reacts with chlorine to make phosphorus trichloride. Magnesium chlorate, Mg(ClO 3 ) 2 2, is heated strongly until it decomposes into magnesium chloride and oxygen gas. Write the balanced equation for the following chemical reaction (you must predict the product) AND the type of reaction that has occurred. Butane gas (C 4 H 10 ) is burned completely in air. Iron metal is added to bromine- Iron (III) product. Calcium metal is added to phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ). Aluminum metal is added to a solution of iron (III) chloride. A piece of iron metal is exposed to oxygen gas (Fe 3+ product would form). Calcium metal is added to water. 11

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