Sioux Falls School District Anatomy and Physiology Holes Anatomy and Physiology Authors: Shier, Butler, and Lewis Glencoe/ McGraw hill

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1 Sioux Falls School District Anatomy and Physiology Holes Anatomy and Physiology Authors: Shier, Butler, and Lewis Glencoe/ McGraw hill Semester 1 Chapter 1: Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology (7 10 days) List and describe the major characteristics of life List and describe the major requirements of organisms Name the major organ systems and list the organs associated with each Describe the general functions of each organ system Describe the locations of the major body cavities, and list the organs Name the membranes associated with the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities Properly use the terms that describe relative positions, body sections, and body regions Define anatomy and physiology and explain how they are related Define homeostasis and explain its importance to survival Describe a homeostatic mechanism Explain the levels of organization of the human body Chapter 2: Chemical Basis of Life (5 7 days) This chapter can be omitted by incorporating the content into other units. Explain how the study of living material depends on the study of chemistry Describe the relationships among matter, atoms and molecules Discuss how atomic structure determines how atoms interact Explain how molecular and structural formulas symbolize the composition of compounds Describe three types of chemical reactions List the major groups of inorganic substances that are common in cells Define ph Describe the general functions of the main classes of organic molecules in cells Chapter 3: Cells (7 11 days) This chapter can be omitted by incorporating the content into other units. Explain how cells differ from one another Describe the general characteristics of a composite cell Describe each kind of cytoplasmic organelle and explain its function

2 Describe the cell nucleus and its parts Describe the cell cycle Explain how a cell divides Describe several controls of cell division Explain how the components of a cell s membrane provide its functions Explain how substances move into and out of cells Explain how stem cells and progenitor cells make possible growth and repair of tissues Chapter 4: Cellular Metabolism (5 10 days) This chapter can be omitted by incorporating the content into other units. Explain the reactions of cellular respiration in releasing chemical energy Describe how cells access energy for their activities Describe the general metabolic pathways of carbohydrate metabolism Explain the regulation of metabolic pathways Distinguish between anabolism and catabolism Explain enzymes control in the metabolic processes Describe the storage of genetic information in DNA molecules Explain how protein synthesis relies on genetic information Describe the replication of DNA molecules Explain how genetic information can be altered and the impact of change on an organism Chapter 5: Tissues (10 14 days) Describe the general characteristics and functions of epithelial tissue Name the types of epithelium and identify an organ in which each is found Describe the general characteristics of connective tissue Describe the major cell types and fibers of connective tissue List the types of connective tissue within the body Describe the major functions of each type of connective tissue Distinguish among the three types of muscle tissue Describe the general characteristics and functions of nervous tissue Describe the four major types of membranes Distinguish between the four major types of tissue: epithelial, connective, muscle, nerve Chapter 6: Skin and Integumentary System (7 9 days) List the general functions of each layer of skin Describe the accessory organs associated with the skin and their function Summarize the factors that determine skin color

3 Describe the events that are part of wound healing Describe life span changes in the integumentary system Describe the structure of the layers of the skin Explain the role skin has in regulating body temperature Identify the risk factors and symptoms of skin cancer Chapter 7: Skeletal System (13 18 days) Classify bones according to their shapes and name an example from each group Distinguish between intramembranous and endochondral bones and explain their growth and development Distinguish between the axial and appendicular skeletons and name their major parts Describe the general structure of a bone and list the functions of its parts Describe the effects of sunlight, nutrition, hormonal secretions, and exercise on bone development Locate and identify the bones and the major features of the bones that comprise the skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage, pectoral girdle, upper limb, pelvic girdle, and lower limb Describe life span changes in the skeletal system Chapter 8: Joints of the Skeletal System (3 5 days) Describe the connectivity of bones of fibrous joints Describe the connectivity of bones of cartilaginous joints Describe the general structure of a synovial joint Explain how skeletal muscles produce movements at joints, and identify several types of joint movements Describe the shoulder, hip, and knee joints and explain how their articulating parts are connected Explain the classification of joints according to the tissue type that binds the bones together List six types of synovial joints and name an example of each type Describe the life span changes in joints Chapter 9: Muscular System (11 14 days) Distinguish between fast and slow twitch muscle fibers Distinguish between a twitch and a sustained contraction Describe how connective tissue is part of the structure of a skeletal muscle Name the major parts of a skeletal muscle fiber and describe the function of each part Distinguish between the structures and functions of a multiunit smooth muscle and a visceral smooth muscle

4 Explain the major events that occur during muscle fiber contraction Explain how energy is supplied to the muscle fiber contraction mechanism, how oxygen debt develops, and how a muscle may become fatigued Describe how exercise affects skeletal muscles Identify and locate the major skeletal muscles of each body region and describe the action of each muscle Chapter 10: Nervous system I (5 6 days) Distinguish between excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials Describe the general structure of a neuron Name four types of neuroglial cells and describe the functions of each Explain the regeneration of an injured nerve fiber Explain the polarization of a membrane Describe the events that lead to the conduction of a nerve impulse Explain the general functions of the nervous system Explain the classification of neurons by function Explain the transmission of nerve impulse from one neuron to another Chapter 11: Nervous system II (5 6 days) List the functions of the limbic system and the reticular formation Explain how spinal nerves are named and their functions Describe the coverings of the brain and spinal cord Describe the formation and function of cerebrospinal fluid Describe and define a reflex arc and reflex behavior Distinguish among motor, sensory, and association areas of the cerebral cortex List and describe the major parts of the peripheral nervous system Name the cranial nerves and list their major functions Describe the general function of the autonomic nervous system Distinguish between the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system Describe the structure of the spinal cord and its major functions Name the major parts of the brain and describe the functions of each Chapter 12: Somatic and Special Senses (5 6 days) Distinguish between somatic and special senses Explain the relationship between the senses of smell and taste Explain how a sensation is produced

5 Describe the receptors associated with the senses of touch and pressure, temperature and pain Name the parts of the ear and explain the function of each part Name the parts of the eye and explain the function of each part Describe the visual nerve pathway Name five kinds of receptors and explain their function Semester 2 Chapter 13: Endocrine System (5 7 days) Distinguish between endocrine and exocrine glands Explain how steroid and nonsteroid hormones affect target cells Discuss how negative feedback mechanisms regulate hormonal secretion Name and describe the locations of the major endocrine glands and the hormones they secrete Describe the general functions of the various hormones Describe changes associated with aging of the endocrine system Chapter 14: Blood (5 7 days) Describe how blood reactions may occur between fetal and maternal tissues Explain the significance of red blood cell counts and their use in diagnosing disease Explain the control of red blood cell production Distinguish among the five types of white blood cells and give the functions of each type List the major components of plasma and describe the functions of each Describe the major steps in hemostasis Describe the general characteristics of blood Explain blood typing and how it is used to avoid adverse reactions following blood transfusions Chapter 15: Cardiovascular system (10 13 days) Trace the pathway of the blood through the heart and the vessels of the coronary circulation

6 Discuss the cardiac cycle and explain how it is controlled Identify the parts of a normal ECG pattern and discuss its significance Compare the and functions of the major types of blood vessels Describe how substances are exchanged between blood in capillaries and the tissue fluid surrounding body cells Compare the pulmonary and systemic circuits of the cardiovascular system Identify and locate the major arteries and veins of the pulmonary and systemic circuits Name the organs of the cardiovascular system and discuss their functions Identify and locate the major parts of the heart and discuss the function of each part Explain how blood pressure is produced and controlled Describe life span changes in the cardiovascular system Discuss disorders of the cardiovascular system Chapter 16: Lymphatic System and Immunity (5 7 days) Describe lymph nodes, their major functions and location Explain how allergic reactions, tissue rejection reactions, and autoimmunity arise from immune mechanisms Discuss the functions of the thymus and spleen Describe the general functions of the lymphatic system Describe life span changes in immunity Describe and explain the different types of defense mechanisms Identify the role of antibiotics their use and misuse Chapter 17: Digestive System (5 7 days) Describe the structure of the wall of the alimentary canal Explain how the contents of the alimentary canal are mixed and moved List the enzymes the digestive organs and glands secrete and describe their function Describe the mechanisms of swallowing, vomiting, and defecating Explain the absorption of the products of digestion Name and describe the locations and functions of the major organs of the digestive system Describe aging related changes and disorders in the digestive system Chapter 18: Nutrition (3 4 days) Explain how the energy values of foods are determined Explain the factors that affect an individual s energy requirements Define nutrition, nutrients, and essential nutrients List the major sources of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins

7 Describe how cells utilize carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids Explain what is meant by desirable weight Describe an adequate diet List factors that may lead to inadequate nutrition later in life Chapter 19: Respiratory system (6 8 days) Explain how inspiration and expiration are accomplished Name and define each of the respiratory air volumes and capacities Locate the respiratory center and explain how it controls normal breathing List the general functions of the respiratory system Name and describe the locations and function of the organs of the respiratory system Describe the effects of aging on the respiratory system Chapter 20: Urinary System (6 8 days) Discuss the process of micturition and explain how it is controlled Trace the pathway of blood through the major vessels within a kidney Discuss the role of tubular reabsorption in urine formation Name, describe, and locate the organs of the urinary system and list their general functions Describe the locations and list the functions and structure of a kidney Describe a nephron and explain the functions of its major parts Explain the effect of age on the components of the urinary system Discuss disorders of the urinary system Chapter 21: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid Base balance (3 days) Describe how the body fluids are distributed within compartments, how fluid composition differs between compartments, and how fluids move from one compartment to another Explain water and electrolyte balance and discuss its importance Explain acid base balance Explain how chemical buffer systems, the respiratory center, and the kidneys minimize changing ph values of the body fluids

8 Chapter 22: Reproductive system (10 days) Outline the process of meiosis and explain how it determines parental genes Outline the process of spermatogenesis and oogenesis Trace the path sperm cells follow from their site of formation to the outside Describe the structure of the penis and its function in sexual reproduction List the parts of the male and female reproductive system and describe their general functions Explain how hormones control the activities of the male and female reproductive organs and the development of male and female secondary sex characteristics Describe the major events that occur during a reproductive cycle List several methods of birth control and describe their relative effectiveness List general symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases Chapter 23: Pregnancy, Growth, and Development (10 days) Trace the general path of blood through the fetal cardiovascular system Describe the birth process and explain the role of hormones in this process Define pregnancy; describe the process of fertilization and implantation Describe the formation and function of the placenta Name the stages of development between the neonatal period and death, listing the characteristics and disorders Describe risk factors that may affect pregnancy Identify the major stages of development, from fertilization to birth Chapter 24: Genetics and Genomics (7 10 days) Explain the relevance of gene discoveries to the study of anatomy and physiology and to health care Explain gene therapy

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