Grading Scheme 2 nd, Semester Tests 30% Quizzes 15% Labs 10% Assignments 10% Exam 30% Participation 5%

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1 San Pedro High School San Pedro Town Belize District Telefax: Address: 4 th Form BIOLOGY YEARLY CURRICULUM Text: BIOLOGY FOR CXC Credit Hours: 5 Teacher: Mr. Erick Santizo Contact No.: Course Description Biology is very important and relevant; it deals with the study of living organisms. The knowledge and understanding of oneself and other organisms will undoubtedly improve the life of the individual as a whole. During fourth form, the main focus of Biology will be to orient the students towards CXC Examinations as they build on the foundation they obtained in third form. The materials to be presented will be so as to eventually prepare the students for CXC; however, such will normally be presented at a pace that allows the students to comprehend the information. It is expected that students will participate in all laboratory exercise and make sure that all assignments are done and passed in on time. Students are strongly encouraged to pay keen attention to their laboratory exercises since the grading criteria to be used will be as recommended by CXC. Grading Scheme 1 st, Semester Tests 40% Quizzes 25% Labs 15% Assignments 15% Participation 5% Total 100% Grading Scheme 2 nd, Semester Tests 30% Quizzes 15% Labs 10% Assignments 10% Exam 30% Participation 5% Total 100% 1

2 SEMESTER 1, th Form Biology Date Topic Objectives Students should be able to: Enzymes Week 1 Aug 28 Sept 1 And Week 2 Sept 4-8 Week 3 Sept Week 4 Sept Week 5 Sept Week 6 Oct 2-6 *Digestive system **Chemical digestion ** how energy is released Breathing and Respiration *Transport in Mammals **Blood, the living fluid **More about blood **How does blood move around the body **Tissue fluid and lymph Sensitivity and coordination in living organisms **stimulus * Explain the role and importance of enzymes in the natural processes of life within an organism. *Explain how enzymes catalyze reactions. *Describe the effects of different factors on the activity of enzymes, including: temperature, ph and concentration of enzyme and substrate. * perform experiments to show that these factors affect the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. * Describe the structure and function of different regions of the human alimentary canal, including, mastication and the role of teeth, the internal structure of a tooth, peristalsis, role and importance of enzymes and the processes of digestions, absorption and egestion * Describe what happens to the products of digestion after their absorption, including transport to the liver, assimilation and the fate of products that are in excess of body requirements. *Construct a Visking tubing model of the ileum. *Understand the meaning of cell respiration and the difference between respiration and breathing. *Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the products of respiration. *Describe the process of aerobic respiration *Understand the function of ATP as an energy currency in the cell. *Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic respiration. *Carry out controlled experiments to demonstrate the products of aerobic and anaerobic respiration. *Describe the structure of the respiratory system *Describe the mechanism of ventilation of the lungs. * Identify the characteristics common to gas exchange surfaces *Discuss the effects of cigarette smoking on the body. *Understand why small organisms do not need a transport system, but large organisms do. *Explain the need for transport systems in multi-cellular organisms. *Identify the types of materials which need to be transported in animals and plants. *Describe the structure and function of the circulatory system in humans. *Describe the structure and function of the heart. *Explain how the structures of the three types of blood vessels are suited to their function. *List and Describe the composition and functions of blood in transport. *Describe the functions of the main components of blood. *Explain how immunization is used to control disease. *Understand the meaning of the terms stimulus and response * explain why response to stimuli is importance for the survival of organisms *Define the terms receptor and effector *Explain the relationship between the receptor, the central 2

3 Week 7 Oct 9-13 Week 8 Oct Week 9 Oct Week 10 Oct 30 Nov 3 And Week 11 Nov 6-10 ** Human eye **How do we keep our balance **The ear and hearing *Skin **Reflex arc The Brain **Responses to factors ** endocrine system Transport in plants **Uptake and transport in plants **How do plants support themselves HOMEOSTASIS AND EXCRETION **The liver **How do we get rid of waste substances Support and Movement Introducing the skeleton How do we move Aches, pains and broken bones How do other organisms move nervous system and the effector. *Identify the main sense organs and the stimuli to which they respond. *Relate the structure of the human eye to its functions as a sense organ. *Explain defects of vision and their correction. *Describe action of the body to keep balance. *Understand the structure and functions of the human skin *Use simple flow diagrams to show the pathway along which an impulse travels in a reflex arc. *describe the function of the main regions of the brain. *Discuss the physiological, social and economic effects of drug abuse. *Describe the responses of invertebrates to variations in light intensity, temperature and humidity, and how these responses can be investigated in a choice chamber. *Understand the nature of the human endocrine system. *Describe the role of hormones from the adrenal glands and pancreas *Describe the responses of plant stems and roots to light, touch and gravity. *Describe the structure of xylem vessels, sieve tubes and companion cells. *Explain how the structure of xylem vessels suits them for their function. *Describe the process involved in transpiration. *Demonstrate the effects of external factors on transpiration. *State the function of phloem in the transport system of plants. *Discuss adaptations of plants to conserve water. *Discuss the meaning of homeostasis and the concept of negative feedback *Discuss the importance of excretion in living organisms. *Give examples of substances excreted by animals and plants *State the means by which excretory products are eliminated from plants and animals. *Relate the structure of the kidney ton its osmoregulation and excretory function. *Explain the role of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in osmoregulation. *Understand how dialysis can be used in the event of kidney failure. *Understand the difference between movement and locomotion *Discuss the importance of locomotion in animals. * Relate the structure of the human skeleton to its function. *Describe the structure and function of a movable joint. *Understand the structure and functions of different types of joints. Relate the structure of the skeleton to its functions in humans. Distinguish between cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. Describe the mechanism of movement in a human. *Describe the mechanisms of movement in the human arm. 3

4 Week 12 Nov Week 13 Nov Week 14 Nov 27- Dec 1 Week 15 Dec 4-8 Week 16 Dec Dec 15- Jan 7 Week 17 Jan 8-12 Week 18 Jan Reproduction in animals The menstrual cycle Human reproductive system Pregnancy and birth Family Planning **Sexually transmitted diseases Reproduction in plants Seed and germination Diseases in Humans Microbes and diseases Christmas vacation *Harmful protists *Parasitic worms *Parasitic fungi *Insects harmful and helpful CELL DIVISION *Vegetative propagation *Cloning Draw, label and annotate a simple diagram of the long bones of a fore or hind limb. *Understand the difference between sexual and asexual reproduction *Describe the structure and function of the reproductive system in humans. *Understand the stages of sexual reproduction in humans: -Production of sex cells -Transfer of the male sex cell to the female sex cell -fertilization -development of the embryo *Describe the functions of the placenta during pregnancy *Describe the stages of birth *Describe the menstrual cycle and its control by hormones *Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of birth control *Discuss the transmission and control of sexually transmitted infections. *Relate the parts of a flower to their function *Compare the structure of an insect pollinated flower with that of a wind-pollinated flower *Understand the difference between cross-pollination and selfpollination. *Distinguish between the processes of pollination and fertilization. *Explain how the processes of fruit and seed formation occur. *relate the structure of the fruit and seed to the structure of the flower in a dicotyledonous plant. *Describe fruit structure including adaptations for seed dispersal *Distinguish between different types of disease *Understand how infectious diseases can be transmitted from one person to another. *Discuss the role of the mosquito in the transmission of diseases *Identify the stages in the life cycle of a mosquito. *Suggest appropriate methods of controlling mosquitoes. *Discuss the treatment and control of different types of diseases. *Distinguish among pathogenic, deficiency, hereditary and physiological diseases. *Identify treatment and control to the differences among the four main groups of diseases. Explain the role of vectors in the transmission of disease. Suggest stage-appropriate control methods based on life history of a vector *Understand mitosis and its role in organisms *Understand why asexual reproduction produces genetically identical offspring and explain the value of this in a stable environment. *Describe the process of meiosis and appreciate its importance in the human life cycle. 4

5 Date 2018 SEMESTER 2, 2018 Topic Objectives Students should be able to: 4 th Form Biology Week 1 Jan Week 2 Jan 29 Feb 2 Week 3 Feb 5 9 Week 4 Feb Week 5 Feb Week 6 Feb 26- March 2 Week 7 March 5-9 Week 8 March March is science trip. Week 9 March Week 10 March Week 11 April 2-6 Week 12 April 9-13 Genetics Genetic Variation Natural selection and the formation of new species CXC Drill and practice EASTER BREAK EASTER BREAK EXAM *Appreciate how the basic laws of inheritance were discovered *Understand how genes are passed from one generation to the next *Explain the patterns of inheritance shown by features that are determined by -Dominant and recessive alleles -Codominant alleles *Understand, define and use the term dominant, recessive, codominant, genotype, phenotype, homozygous and heterozygous * Use genetic diagrams to describe patterns of inheritance *interpret genetic diagrams and pedigrees *Appreciate that certain human conditions are determined genetically and that their inheritance follows as a similar pattern to many other features *Explain how gender is determined. *Understand that variation can be genetic or environmental *Define and describe variation *Distinguish between continuous and discontinuous variation *Explain the causes of genetic variation *Explain the importance of genetic variation *Appreciate the importance of the work of Charles Darwin in producing the theory of natural selection. *Understand the basic principles of natural selection *Quote specific examples of natural section in operation. *Understand how Natural selection can lead to the formation of new species. *Explain what is meant by artificial selection. *Appreciate the difference between artificial selection and natural selection. *Quote specific examples of artificial selection. *Understand the principles of genetic engineering *Quote specific examples of the use of genetic engineering. Develop study guide for DIPLOMA EXAM 5

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