Origin of Modern Astronomy Chapter 21

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1 Origin of Modern Astronomy Chapter 21

2 Early history of astronomy Ancient Greeks Used philosophical arguments to explain natural phenomena Also used some observa:onal data (looking at the night sky)

3 Ancient Greeks Most ancient Greeks held a geocentric (Earthcentered) view of the universe "Earth centered" view Stars were on the celes:al sphere Transparent, hollow sphere Celes:al sphere turns daily around Earth

4 Seven heavenly bodies (planetai) (pluto & neptune not detected yet) The seven wanderers included: Sun Moon Mercury through Saturn (excluding Earth)

5 Ancient Greeks Aristarchus ( B.C.) was the first Greek to profess a Sun centered, or heliocentric, universe (not accepted yet, but he was right, sort of) Planets exhibit an apparent westward drir Called retrograde mo:on Occurs as Earth, with its faster orbital speed, overtakes another planet (think of 2 cars on a high way 1 passes the other one off. If you are in the car passing off the other one it looks like the other car is going backwards, its all part of your perspec:ve)

6 Ancient Greeks Ptolemaic system A.D. 141 Geocentric model To explain retrograde mo:on, Ptolemy used two mo:ons for the planets Large orbital circles, called deferents, and Small circles, called epicycles

7 The universe according to Ptolemy, second century A.D. Figure 21.4 A

8 Retrograde mobon as explained by Ptolemy Figure 21.4 B

9 Birth of modern astronomy 1500s and 1600s Five noted scien:sts 1. Nicolaus Copernicus ( ) (polish, by the way) Concluded Earth was a planet Constructed a model of the solar system that put the Sun at the center, but he used circular orbits for the planets Ushered out old astronomy

10 2. Tycho Brahe ( ) Precise observer Tried to find stellar parallax the apparent shir in a star's posi:on due to the revolu:on of Earth Did not believe in the Copernican system because he was unable to observe stellar parallax Big with Mars orbit

11 Five noted scien:sts 3. Johannes Kepler ( ) Ushered in new astronomy Planets revolve around the Sun Three laws of planetary mo:on Orbits of the planets are ellip:cal Planets revolve around the Sun at varying speed

12 Kepler s law of equal areas Figure 21.10

13 Three laws of planetary mo:on There is a propor:onal rela:on between a planet's orbital period and its distance to the Sun (measured in astronomical units (AU s) one AU averages about 93 million miles)

14 Galileo Galilei ( ) Supported Copernican theory Used experimental data Constructed an astronomical telescope in 1609 Chinese invented the telescope but never used it for astronomy Four large moons of Jupiter (called the Galilean moons Io, Europa, Callisto, Ganymede) Planets appeared as disks Phases of Venus (just like the moons) Features on the Moon Sunspots (ended up going blind from this experiment)

15 Sir Isaac Newton ( ) Law of universal gravita:on Proved that the force of gravity, combined with the tendency of a planet to remain in straightline mo:on, results in the ellip:cal orbits discovered by Kepler Gravity strengthened by greater mass, & how close an object is from another.

16 ConstellaBons Configura:on of stars named in honor of mythological characters or great heroes Today 88 constella:ons are recognized Constella:ons divide the sky into units, like state boundaries in the United States The brightest stars in a constella:on are iden:fied in order of their brightness by the leiers of the Greek alphabet alpha, beta, and so on

17 PosiBons in the sky Stars appear to be fixed on a spherical shell (the celes:al sphere) that surrounds Earth Equatorial system of loca:on A coordinate system that divides the celes:al sphere Similar to the la:tude longitude system that is used on Earth's surface Two loca:onal components Declina:on the angular distance north or south of the celes:al equator

18 Two loca:onal components Right ascension the angular distance measured eastward along the celes:al equator from the posi:on of the vernal equinox

19 Astronomical coordinate system on the celesbal sphere Figure 21.16

20 Earth mobons Two primary mo:ons Rota:on (a day on earth) Turning, or spinning, of a body on its axis Two measurements for rota:on Mean solar day the :me interval from one noon to the next, about 24 hours Sidereal day the :me it takes for Earth to make one complete rota:on (360º) with respect to a star other than the Sun 23 hours, 56 minutes, 4 seconds

21 The difference between a solar day and a sidereal day Figure 21.19

22 Revolu:on (a year on earth) The mo:on of a body, such as a planet or moon, along a path around some point in space Earth's orbit is ellip:cal Earth is closest to the Sun (perihelion) in January Earth is farthest from the Sun (aphelion) in July Think of a for away The plane of the eclip:c is an imaginary plane that connects Earth's orbit with the celes:al sphere All planet s, moon, & sun travel along this path

23 Precession (wobble of the earth) Very slow Earth movement Direc:on in which Earth's axis points con:nually changes (Messes up your horoscope, your real sign might not be the same as you though it was.)

24 Precession of Earth Figure 21.22

25

26

27 Capricorn (22 December 20 January) Aquarius (21 January 19 February) Pisces (20 February 20 March) Aries (21 March 20 April) Taurus (21 April 21 May) Gemini (22 May 21 June) Cancer (22 June 22 July) Leo (23 July 22 August) Virgo (23 August 21 September) Libra (22 September 22 October) Scorpio (23 October 21 November) Sagi8arius (22 November 21 December)

28 Capricorn: January 20th to February 16th Aquarius: February 17th to March 11th Pisces: March 12th to April 18th Aries: April 19th to May 13th Taurus: May 14th to June 21st Gemini: June 22nd to July 20th Cancer: July 21st to August 10th Leo: August 11th to September 16th Virgo: September 17th to October 30th Libra: October 31st to November 23rd Scorpio: November 24th to November 29th Ophiuchus: November 30th to December 17th Sagi8arius: December 18th to January 19th

29 MoBons of the Earth Moon system Phases of the Moon When viewed from above the North Pole, the Moon orbits Earth in a counterclockwise (eastward) direc:on The rela:ve posi:ons of the Sun, Earth, and Moon constantly change Lunar phases are a consequence of the mo:on of the Moon and the sunlight that is reflected from its surface

30 Phases of the Moon Figure 21.23

31 MoBons of the Earth Moon system Lunar mo:ons Earth Moon Synodic month Cycle of the phases Takes 29 1/2 days Sidereal month True period of the Moon's revolu:on around Earth Takes 27 1/3 days

32 The difference between the sidereal month and the synodic month Figure 21.24

33 MoBons of the Earth Moon system Lunar mo:ons Earth Moon The difference of two days between the synodic and sidereal cycles is due to the Earth Moon system also moving in an orbit around the Sun Moon's period of rota:on about its axis and its revolu:on around Earth are the same, 27 1/3 days Causes the same lunar hemisphere to always face Earth

34 MoBons of the Earth Moon system Eclipses Simply shadow effects that were first understood by the early Greeks Two types of eclipses Solar eclipse Moon moves in a line directly between Earth and the Sun Can only occur during the new Moon phase

35 Solar eclipse Figure 21.25

36 MoBons of the Earth Moon system Eclipses Two types of eclipses Lunar eclipse Moon moves within the shadow of Earth Only occurs during the full Moon phase For any eclipse to take place, the Moon must be in the plane of the eclip:c at the :me of new or full Moon

37 MoBons of the Earth Moon system Eclipses Two types of eclipses Lunar eclipse Because the Moon's orbit is inclined about 5 degrees to the plane of the eclip:c, during most of the :mes of new and full Moon the Moon is above or below the plane, and no eclipse can occur The usual number of eclipses is four per year

38 Lunar eclipse Figure 21.26

39 End of Chapter 21

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