Motions of the Planets ASTR 2110 Sarazin

Save this PDF as:
Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Motions of the Planets ASTR 2110 Sarazin"

Transcription

1 Motions of the Planets ASTR 2110 Sarazin

2 Motion of Planets Retrograde Motion Inferior Planets: Mercury, Venus Always near Sun on Sky Retrograde motion when very close to Sun on sky (Every other time) Superior Planets Mars, Jupiter, Saturn (Uranus, Neptune) Can be near or far from Sun Retrograde motion when opposite Sun on sky

3 Greek Theory of Solar System What is center of Solar System? Aristarchus: Sun Sun is largest object in Solar System Aristotle: Earth Main argument was lack of observable parallax from Earth

4 Parallax If Earth travels around Sun, we view stars from different angles The stars will appear to shift back and forth every year

5 Parallax

6 Parallax If Earth travels around Sun, we view stars from different angles The stars will appear to shift back and forth every year Effect decreases with increasing distance

7 Parallax Hipparchus found NO measurable shift for stars each year Aristarchus: Earth orbits around Sun, but stars are VERY far away, so parallax too small to measure Correct explanation, but required that stars be > 1000 times further away than planets (actually millions of times further) Aristotle, Hipparchus: Earth is center of Solar System, Sun orbits Earth Stars could not be so far away

8 Hipparchus ( BCE): Greatest of the Ancient Astronomers Invented magnitudes for star brightness Determined accurate sizes and distances for Sun and Moon Determined accurate length of year Very good orbit for Moon and Sun Refined eclipse predictions (within 1 hour) Compiled star catalogue

9 Hipparchus (cont.) Found Sun didn t move at a constant speed Discovered precession of Earth s axis

10 Ptolemy ( AD)

11 Ptolemy (Cladius Ptolemaeus) Compiled previous measurements by Hipparchus and others (most original sources lost) Made improved measurements Systemized the constellations Measured distance to Moon to 3% using parallax Constructed first complete theory of motion of planets Compiled all in series of 13 volumes: The Almagest (from Al Magisti, Arabic for The Greatest). Main source of information about Greek astronomy

12 Ptolemy s Theory of Planetary Motions Starting points 1. Earth is center of Universe Geocentric theory No measurable parallax Hipparchus, Aristotle 2. Orbits are circles Most perfect plane figure Plato, Aristotle

13 Problem: No retrograde motion No inferior and superior planets

14 Ptolemy s Theory 1. Orbits are Epicycles circles within circles Sun and Moon do not have epicycles Earth planet

15 Ptolemy: how epicycles produce retrograde motion

16 Ptolemy s Theory 1. Orbits are Epicycles circles within circles Sun and Moon do not have epicycles 2. Earth is off set from center only one retrograde motion period per orbit

17 Ptolomy s Epicycles

18 Ptolemy s Theory 1. Orbits are Epicycles circles within circles Sun and Moon do not have epicycles 2. Earth is off set from center only one retrograde motion per orbit 3. Epicycles of inferior planets tied to Sun Mercury, Venus center of epicycle point to Sun

19 Inferior Planets Venus Sun Earth

20 Ptolemy s Geocentric Universe

21 Negatives Wrong! Ptolemy Theory Very complex, epicycles within epicycles, offsets, Required complex tables Did not predict planetary motions correctly for long times, had to be corrected by adding more epicycles Not a physical, scientific theory (descriptive)

22 Positives Ptolemy Theory Survived for ~1300 years! Worked OK, given enough effort

23 Time Flies When You re Having 1300 year pass Fun... Ptolemy s work spreads through Roman Empire Western Roman Empire falls Dark Ages in Europe, much of science lost Arab astronomers translate Almagest into Arabic, make new observations, update theory Muslim invaders in Europe (e.g., Spain) carry Greek books back to Europe, Almagest

24 Alphonsine Tables Last hurrah of Ptolemy King Alphonse X, Toledo, Spain, ~1270 AD Collects astronomers, mainly from Moorish Spain Translate Almagest Updates Ptolemy s theory, tables Very complex, ~130 epicycles If the Lord Almighty had consulted me before embarking on creation thus, I should have recommended something simpler. - King Alphonse X

25 Funny, I didn t see that coming Ptolemy s geocentric universe becomes part of Catholic doctrine!!

26 Renaissance Astronomy ASTR 2110 Sarazin Astronomical Clock in Prague

27 A Timeline for Astronomical Discovery

28 A Timeline for Astronomical Discovery

29 Nicholas Copernicus ( )

30 Heliocentric Theory Copernicus argues that: 1. Sun is center of Solar System 2. Earth and Moon together orbit Sun, as do all the other planets

31 Nicolaus Copernicus Studied church law, medicine, & astronomy Latinized his Polish name Assistant to Bishop (his uncle) Commentariolis (~1514) informal notes De revolutionibus orbium coelestrium ( On the revolutions of the celestial bodies ) book

32 Copernican Cosmology

33 Copernicus Theory 1. Sun is center of Solar System

34

35 Copernicus Theory 1. Sun is center of Solar System 2. The further a planet is from the Sun, the slower it moves

36

37 Copernicus Theory 1. Sun is center of Solar System 2. The further a planet is from the Sun, the slower it moves Ptolemy: Complex apparent motion is real motion Copernicus: Complex apparent motion is result of simple real motion seen from moving Earth

38

39 Retrograde Motion

40 Like passing a car Retrograde Motion relative motion relative motion

41 Retrograde Motion Passing occurs when two planets are closest Retrograde motion occurs when planet is closest to Earth Inferior planets: near Sun on sky Superior planets: opposite Sun on sky The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file Mars Venus Earth

42 Why are inferior planets always close to Sun on sky? Orbit closer to Sun than Earth

43

44 Sidereal and Synodic Periods Period = time for planet to orbit the Sun Sidereal period = real period Synodic period = apparent period as seen from Earth

45 Periods: Ptolemy s Theory ,

46 Periods: Copernicus Theory

47 Computing relative sizes of orbits in the Copernican system

48 Astronomical Unit (AU) Right-sized distance unit for Solar System, exoplanetary systems, binary stars Average distance from Earth to Sun 1 AU = 1.50 x cm = 1.50 x m ~92 million miles, 150 million km

49 Advantages of the Copernican System Simpler in concept Natural explanation for the annual motion of the Sun against the background stars Natural explanation of retrograde motion Relative spacing of planetary orbits determined, periods made sense Natural explanation for motion of Venus and Mercury relative to the Sun But: not more accurate than Ptolemaic tables (because circular orbits assumed)

50 The Copernican Revolution Cosmic Connection We live on a planet like many others moving about a star like many others in a galaxy like many others. We are part of the Universe. We are not special. Simplicity of nature Natural laws are simple, but can result in complex phenomena Predictive power of theories

51 The Empire Strikes Back Catholic church moves to suppress new thinking, due in part to the Reformation Giordano Bruno: builds on Copernicus. Suggests other planets may also have intelligent life

52 A Timeline for Astronomical Discovery

53 Galileo Galilei ( )

54 Galileo First great experimenter Theories must correctly predict the results of experiments Predictions must be quantitative Studied motion and gravity Inertia (heavier objects harder to stop) Gravity (all things fall at the same rate) Time (pendulum) Relativity First astronomy telescope

55 Telescopic Observations Galileo did not invent telescope, but was first to use it for astronomy Observations called into question the Ptolemaic cosmology First described in book Sidereus Nuncius

56 Aristotelian Concept: Celestial bodies are perfect Observation: mountains, craters, valleys on the Moon The Moon

57 The Sun Aristotelian Concept: Celestial bodies are perfect Observation: Sunspots, rotation of the Sun

58 The Milky Way Aristotelian Concept: Stars are located on a fixed celestial sphere Observation: Many more stars than visible to the naked eye. Suggest stars are very distant

59 The moons of Jupiter The View through a telescope Everything does NOT orbit the Earth A page from Galileo s notes

60 Key Observational Test: Proves that Venus shines by reflected sunlight Phases of Venus Provides an absolute, yes or no test of Ptolemy vs. Copernicus

61 Phases of Venus- Copernicus

62 Phases of Venus - Ptolemy

63 Final Jeopardy, for all the money Perfect observational test 1) If Venus ever has gibbous phases (more than half full), then Ptolemy is wrong 2) If Venus never has gibbous phases, then Copernicus is wrong

64 Phases of Venus

65 Phases of Venus- Copernicus

66 Galileo: Troubles with Catholic Church First book Sidereus Nuncius controversial Galileo ordered to stop defending Copernican theory In 1632, published Dialogo dei Due Massimi Sistemi (Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems) Put on trial by Inquisition, ordered to recant, put under house arrest

67 Galileo s Finger

Gravitation Part I. Ptolemy, Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler

Gravitation Part I. Ptolemy, Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler Gravitation Part I. Ptolemy, Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler Celestial motions The stars: Uniform daily motion about the celestial poles (rising and setting). The Sun: Daily motion around the celestial

More information

Astronomy Notes Chapter 02.notebook April 11, 2014 Pythagoras Aristotle geocentric retrograde motion epicycles deferents Aristarchus, heliocentric

Astronomy Notes Chapter 02.notebook April 11, 2014 Pythagoras Aristotle geocentric retrograde motion epicycles deferents Aristarchus, heliocentric Around 2500 years ago, Pythagoras began to use math to describe the world around him. Around 200 years later, Aristotle stated that the Universe is understandable and is governed by regular laws. Most

More information

History of Astronomy. Historical People and Theories

History of Astronomy. Historical People and Theories History of Astronomy Historical People and Theories Plato Believed he could solve everything through reasoning. Circles and Spheres are good because they are perfect (never ending) and pleasing to the

More information

Ancient Cosmology: A Flat Earth. Alexandria

Ancient Cosmology: A Flat Earth. Alexandria Today Competing Cosmologies Geocentric vs. Heliocentric Ptolemy vs. copernicus Retrograde Motion Phases of Venus Galileo FIRST HOMEWORK DUE How d it work? Ancient Cosmology: A Flat Earth Here there be

More information

Lecture #5: Plan. The Beginnings of Modern Astronomy Kepler s Laws Galileo

Lecture #5: Plan. The Beginnings of Modern Astronomy Kepler s Laws Galileo Lecture #5: Plan The Beginnings of Modern Astronomy Kepler s Laws Galileo Geocentric ( Ptolemaic ) Model Retrograde Motion: Apparent backward (= East-to-West) motion of a planet with respect to stars Ptolemy

More information

The Copernican Revolution

The Copernican Revolution The Copernican Revolution Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (1543) [ On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres ] The Ptolemaic Cosmology: Geocentric and Geostatic The

More information

Evidence that the Earth does not move: Greek Astronomy. Aristotelian Cosmology: Motions of the Planets. Ptolemy s Geocentric Model 2-1

Evidence that the Earth does not move: Greek Astronomy. Aristotelian Cosmology: Motions of the Planets. Ptolemy s Geocentric Model 2-1 Greek Astronomy Aristotelian Cosmology: Evidence that the Earth does not move: 1. Stars do not exhibit parallax: 2-1 At the center of the universe is the Earth: Changeable and imperfect. Above the Earth

More information

Claudius Ptolemaeus Second Century AD. Jan 5 7:37 AM

Claudius Ptolemaeus Second Century AD. Jan 5 7:37 AM Claudius Ptolemaeus Second Century AD Jan 5 7:37 AM Copernicus: The Foundation Nicholas Copernicus (Polish, 1473 1543): Proposed the first modern heliocentric model, motivated by inaccuracies of the Ptolemaic

More information

Directions: Read each slide

Directions: Read each slide Directions: Read each slide and decide what information is needed. Some slides may have red or yellow or orange underlined. This information is a clue for you to read more carefully or copy the information

More information

The Puzzle of Planetary Motion versus

The Puzzle of Planetary Motion versus The Puzzle of Planetary Motion versus Finding Earth s place in the Universe Observing the Planets Five of the planets are bright enough to be seen by the unaided eye. This view shows the sky after sunset

More information

This Week... Week 3: Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy. 3.1 The Ancient Roots of Science. How do humans employ scientific thinking?

This Week... Week 3: Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy. 3.1 The Ancient Roots of Science. How do humans employ scientific thinking? Week 3: Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy This Week... The Copernican Revolution The Birth of Modern Science Chapter 2 Walkthrough Discovering the solar system Creating a clockwork Universe 3.1 The Ancient

More information

The Birth of Astronomy. Lecture 3 1/24/2018

The Birth of Astronomy. Lecture 3 1/24/2018 The Birth of Astronomy Lecture 3 1/24/2018 Fundamental Questions of Astronomy (life?) What is the shape of the Earth? How big is the planet we live on? Why do the stars move across the sky? Where is Earth

More information

Early Models of the Universe. How we explained those big shiny lights in the sky

Early Models of the Universe. How we explained those big shiny lights in the sky Early Models of the Universe How we explained those big shiny lights in the sky The Greek philosopher Aristotle (384 322 BCE) believed that the Earth was the center of our universe, and everything rotated

More information

Gravitation and the Motion of the Planets

Gravitation and the Motion of the Planets Gravitation and the Motion of the Planets 1 Guiding Questions 1. How did ancient astronomers explain the motions of the planets? 2. Why did Copernicus think that the Earth and the other planets go around

More information

ASTR 1010 Spring 2016 Study Notes Dr. Magnani

ASTR 1010 Spring 2016 Study Notes Dr. Magnani The Copernican Revolution ASTR 1010 Spring 2016 Study Notes Dr. Magnani The Copernican Revolution is basically how the West intellectually transitioned from the Ptolemaic geocentric model of the Universe

More information

Earth Science, 13e Tarbuck & Lutgens

Earth Science, 13e Tarbuck & Lutgens Earth Science, 13e Tarbuck & Lutgens Origins of Modern Astronomy Earth Science, 13e Chapter 21 Stanley C. Hatfield Southwestern Illinois College Early history of astronomy Ancient Greeks Used philosophical

More information

ASTR 2310: Chapter 2

ASTR 2310: Chapter 2 Emergence of Modern Astronomy Early Greek Astronomy Ptolemaic Astronomy Copernican Astronomy Galileo: The First Modern Scientist Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion Proof of the Earth's Motion Early Greek

More information

Things to do today. Terminal, Astronomy is Fun. Lecture 24 The Science of Astronomy. Scientific Thinking. After this lecture, please pick up:

Things to do today. Terminal, Astronomy is Fun. Lecture 24 The Science of Astronomy. Scientific Thinking. After this lecture, please pick up: Things to do today After this lecture, please pick up: Review questions for the final exam Homework#6 (due next Tuesday) No class on Thursday (Thanksgiving) Final exam on December 2 (next Thursday) Terminal,

More information

Ch. 22 Origin of Modern Astronomy Pretest

Ch. 22 Origin of Modern Astronomy Pretest Ch. 22 Origin of Modern Astronomy Pretest Ch. 22 Origin of Modern Astronomy Pretest 1. True or False: Early Greek astronomers (600 B.C. A.D. 150) used telescopes to observe the stars. Ch. 22 Origin of

More information

January 19, notes.notebook. Claudius Ptolemaeus Second Century AD. Jan 5 7:37 AM

January 19, notes.notebook. Claudius Ptolemaeus Second Century AD. Jan 5 7:37 AM 8.1 notes.notebook Claudius Ptolemaeus Second Century AD Jan 5 7:7 AM Copernicus: The Foundation Nicholas Copernicus (Polish, 147 154): Proposed the first modern heliocentric model, motivated by inaccuracies

More information

Introduction To Modern Astronomy I

Introduction To Modern Astronomy I ASTR 111 003 Fall 2006 Lecture 03 Sep. 18, 2006 Introduction To Modern Astronomy I Introducing Astronomy (chap. 1-6) Planets and Moons (chap. 7-17) Ch1: Astronomy and the Universe Ch2: Knowing the Heavens

More information

Gravitation and the Waltz of the Planets

Gravitation and the Waltz of the Planets Gravitation and the Waltz of the Planets Chapter Four Guiding Questions 1. How did ancient astronomers explain the motions of the planets? 2. Why did Copernicus think that the Earth and the other planets

More information

Gravitation and the Waltz of the Planets. Chapter Four

Gravitation and the Waltz of the Planets. Chapter Four Gravitation and the Waltz of the Planets Chapter Four Guiding Questions 1. How did ancient astronomers explain the motions of the planets? 2. Why did Copernicus think that the Earth and the other planets

More information

Introduction To Modern Astronomy II

Introduction To Modern Astronomy II ASTR 111 003 Fall 2006 Lecture 03 Sep. 18, 2006 Introduction To Modern Astronomy II Introducing Astronomy (chap. 1-6) Planets and Moons (chap. 7-17) Ch1: Astronomy and the Universe Ch2: Knowing the Heavens

More information

Learning Objectives. one night? Over the course of several nights? How do true motion and retrograde motion differ?

Learning Objectives. one night? Over the course of several nights? How do true motion and retrograde motion differ? Kepler s Laws Learning Objectives! Do the planets move east or west over the course of one night? Over the course of several nights? How do true motion and retrograde motion differ?! What are geocentric

More information

BROCK UNIVERSITY. 1. The observation that the intervals of time between two successive quarter phases of the Moon are very nearly equal implies that

BROCK UNIVERSITY. 1. The observation that the intervals of time between two successive quarter phases of the Moon are very nearly equal implies that BROCK UNIVERSITY Page 1 of 10 Test 1: November 2014 Number of pages: 10 Course: ASTR 1P01, Section 2 Number of students: 961 Examination date: 7 November 2014 Time limit: 50 min Time of Examination: 17:00

More information

BROCK UNIVERSITY. 1. The observation that the intervals of time between two successive quarter phases of the Moon are very nearly equal implies that

BROCK UNIVERSITY. 1. The observation that the intervals of time between two successive quarter phases of the Moon are very nearly equal implies that BROCK UNIVERSITY Page 1 of 10 Test 1: November 2014 Number of pages: 10 Course: ASTR 1P01, Section 2 Number of students: 30 Examination date: 10 November 2014 Time limit: 50 min Time of Examination: 9:00

More information

9/12/2010. The Four Fundamental Forces of Nature. 1. Gravity 2. Electromagnetism 3. The Strong Nuclear Force 4. The Weak Nuclear Force

9/12/2010. The Four Fundamental Forces of Nature. 1. Gravity 2. Electromagnetism 3. The Strong Nuclear Force 4. The Weak Nuclear Force The Four Fundamental Forces of Nature 1. Gravity 2. Electromagnetism 3. The Strong Nuclear Force 4. The Weak Nuclear Force The Universe is made of matter Gravity the force of attraction between matter

More information

Practice Test DeAnza College Astronomy 04 Test 1 Spring Quarter 2009

Practice Test DeAnza College Astronomy 04 Test 1 Spring Quarter 2009 Practice Test DeAnza College Astronomy 04 Test 1 Spring Quarter 2009 Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Mark answer on Scantron.

More information

2.4 The Birth of Modern Astronomy

2.4 The Birth of Modern Astronomy 2.4 The Birth of Modern Astronomy Telescope invented around 1600 Galileo built his own, made observations: Moon has mountains and valleys Sun has sunspots, and rotates Jupiter has moons (shown): Venus

More information

Chapter 2 The Copernican Revolution

Chapter 2 The Copernican Revolution Chapter 2 The Copernican Revolution Units of Chapter 2 2.1 Ancient Astronomy 2.2 The Geocentric Universe 2.3 The Heliocentric Model of the Solar System The Foundations of the Copernican Revolution 2.4

More information

Earth Science, 11e. Origin of Modern Astronomy Chapter 21. Early history of astronomy. Early history of astronomy. Early history of astronomy

Earth Science, 11e. Origin of Modern Astronomy Chapter 21. Early history of astronomy. Early history of astronomy. Early history of astronomy 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 21 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors

More information

Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy

Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy 3.1 The Ancient Roots of Science Our goals for learning: In what ways do all humans employ scientific thinking? How did astronomical observations benefit ancient societies?

More information

Chapter 4. The Origin Of Modern Astronomy. Is okay to change your phone? From ios to Android From Android to ios

Chapter 4. The Origin Of Modern Astronomy. Is okay to change your phone? From ios to Android From Android to ios Chapter 4 The Origin Of Modern Astronomy Slide 14 Slide 15 14 15 Is Change Good or Bad? Do you like Homer to look like Homer or with hair? Does it bother you when your schedule is changed? Is it okay to

More information

Was Ptolemy Pstupid?

Was Ptolemy Pstupid? Was Ptolemy Pstupid? Why such a silly title for today s lecture? Sometimes we tend to think that ancient astronomical ideas were stupid because today we know that they were wrong. But, while their models

More information

18. Kepler as a young man became the assistant to A) Nicolaus Copernicus. B) Ptolemy. C) Tycho Brahe. D) Sir Isaac Newton.

18. Kepler as a young man became the assistant to A) Nicolaus Copernicus. B) Ptolemy. C) Tycho Brahe. D) Sir Isaac Newton. Name: Date: 1. The word planet is derived from a Greek term meaning A) bright nighttime object. B) astrological sign. C) wanderer. D) nontwinkling star. 2. The planets that were known before the telescope

More information

Announcements. Topics To Be Covered in this Lecture

Announcements. Topics To Be Covered in this Lecture Announcements! Tonight s observing session is cancelled (due to clouds)! the next one will be one week from now, weather permitting! The 2 nd LearningCurve activity was due earlier today! Assignment 2

More information

Chapter 2. The Rise of Astronomy. Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Chapter 2. The Rise of Astronomy. Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 2 The Rise of Astronomy Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Periods of Western Astronomy Western astronomy divides into 4 periods Prehistoric

More information

Module 3: Astronomy The Universe Topic 6 Content: The Age of Astronomy Presentation Notes

Module 3: Astronomy The Universe Topic 6 Content: The Age of Astronomy Presentation Notes Module 3: Astronomy The Universe The Age of Astronomy was marked by the struggle to understand the placement of Earth in the universe and the effort to understand planetary motion. Behind this struggle

More information

In so many and such important. ways, then, do the planets bear witness to the earth's mobility. Nicholas Copernicus

In so many and such important. ways, then, do the planets bear witness to the earth's mobility. Nicholas Copernicus In so many and such important ways, then, do the planets bear witness to the earth's mobility Nicholas Copernicus What We Will Learn Today What did it take to revise an age old belief? What is the Copernican

More information

ASTR-1010: Astronomy I Course Notes Section III

ASTR-1010: Astronomy I Course Notes Section III ASTR-1010: Astronomy I Course Notes Section III Dr. Donald G. Luttermoser Department of Physics and Astronomy East Tennessee State University Edition 2.0 Abstract These class notes are designed for use

More information

Planets & The Origin of Science

Planets & The Origin of Science Planets & The Origin of Science Reading: Chapter 2 Required: Guided Discovery (p.44-47) Required: Astro. Toolbox 2-1 Optional: Astro. Toolbox 2-2, 2-3 Next Homework Due. Sept. 26 Office Hours: Monday,

More information

A100 Exploring the Universe: The Rise of Science. Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy

A100 Exploring the Universe: The Rise of Science. Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy A100 Exploring the Universe: The Rise of Science Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy weinberg@astro.umass.edu September 11, 2012 Read: Chap 3 09/11/12 slide 1 Problem Set #1 due this afternoon at 5pm! Read:

More information

The History and Philosophy of Astronomy

The History and Philosophy of Astronomy Astronomy 350L (Fall 2006) The History and Philosophy of Astronomy (Lecture 3: Antiquity I) Instructor: Volker Bromm TA: Jarrett Johnson The University of Texas at Austin Astronomy and Cosmology in Antiquity:

More information

Chapter 1 The Copernican Revolution

Chapter 1 The Copernican Revolution Chapter 1 The Copernican Revolution The Horse Head nebula in the Orion constellation (Reading assignment: Chapter 1) Learning Outcomes How the geocentric model accounts for the retrograde motion of planets?

More information

The History of Astronomy. Theories, People, and Discoveries of the Past

The History of Astronomy. Theories, People, and Discoveries of the Past The History of Astronomy Theories, People, and Discoveries of the Past Early man recorded very little history. Left some clues in the form of petrographs. Stone drawings that show eclipses, comets, supernovae.

More information

Lecture #4: Plan. Early Ideas of the Heavens (cont d): Geocentric Universe Heliocentric Universe

Lecture #4: Plan. Early Ideas of the Heavens (cont d): Geocentric Universe Heliocentric Universe Lecture #4: Plan Early Ideas of the Heavens (cont d): Shape & size of the Earth Size & distance of Moon & Sun Geocentric Universe Heliocentric Universe Shape of the Earth Aristotle (Greece, 384 322 B.C.)

More information

2X CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY BIOGRAPHY 1260L

2X CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY BIOGRAPHY 1260L 2X CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY BIOGRAPHY 1260L CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY AN EARTH-CENTERED VIEW OF THE UNIVERSE Born 85 CE Hermiou, Egypt Died 165 CE Alexandria, Egypt By Cynthia Stokes Brown The Earth was the center of the

More information

D. A system of assumptions and principles applicable to a wide range of phenomena that has been repeatedly verified

D. A system of assumptions and principles applicable to a wide range of phenomena that has been repeatedly verified ASTRONOMY 1 EXAM 1 Name Identify Terms - Matching (20 @ 1 point each = 20 pts.) 1 Solar System G 7. aphelion N 14. eccentricity M 2. Planet E 8. apparent visual magnitude R 15. empirical Q 3. Star P 9.

More information

A100 Exploring the Universe: The Invention of Science. Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy

A100 Exploring the Universe: The Invention of Science. Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy A100 Exploring the Universe: The Invention of Science Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy astron100-mdw@courses.umass.edu September 09, 2014 Read: Chap 3 09/09/14 slide 1 Problem Set #1: due this afternoon

More information

Astronomy 1 Fall 2016

Astronomy 1 Fall 2016 Astronomy 1 Fall 2016 Comet Halley Edmund Halley, a friend of Newton s used Newton s math to predict the return of a comet seen at intervals of 76 years. Lecture 3; September 29, 2016 Previously on Astro-1

More information

Observing the Solar System 20-1

Observing the Solar System 20-1 Observing the Solar System 20-1 Ancient Observations The ancient Greeks observed the sky and noticed that the moon, sun, and stars seemed to move in a circle around the Earth. It seemed that the Earth

More information

Philosophical Issues of Computer Science Historical and philosophical analysis of science

Philosophical Issues of Computer Science Historical and philosophical analysis of science Philosophical Issues of Computer Science Historical and philosophical analysis of science Instructor: Viola Schiaffonati March, 17 th 2016 Science: what about the history? 2 Scientific Revolution (1550-1700)

More information

Lecture 4: Kepler and Galileo. Astronomy 111 Wednesday September 6, 2017

Lecture 4: Kepler and Galileo. Astronomy 111 Wednesday September 6, 2017 Lecture 4: Kepler and Galileo Astronomy 111 Wednesday September 6, 2017 Reminders Online homework #2 due Monday at 3pm Johannes Kepler (1571-1630): German Was Tycho s assistant Used Tycho s data to discover

More information

The great tragedy of science the slaying of a beautiful hypothesis by an ugly fact. -Thomas Huxley. Monday, October 3, 2011

The great tragedy of science the slaying of a beautiful hypothesis by an ugly fact. -Thomas Huxley. Monday, October 3, 2011 The great tragedy of science the slaying of a beautiful hypothesis by an ugly fact. -Thomas Huxley 1 Chapter 4 The Origin of Modern Astronomy Outline I. The Roots of Astronomy A. Archaeoastronomy B. The

More information

3) During retrograde motion a planet appears to be A) dimmer than usual. B) the same brightness as usual C) brighter than usual.

3) During retrograde motion a planet appears to be A) dimmer than usual. B) the same brightness as usual C) brighter than usual. Descriptive Astronomy (ASTR 108) Exam 1 B February 17, 2010 Name: In each of the following multiple choice questions, select the best possible answer. In the line on the scan sheet corresponding to the

More information

1) Kepler's third law allows us to find the average distance to a planet from observing its period of rotation on its axis.

1) Kepler's third law allows us to find the average distance to a planet from observing its period of rotation on its axis. Descriptive Astronomy (ASTR 108) Exam 1 A February 17, 2010 Name: In each of the following multiple choice questions, select the best possible answer. In the line on the scan sheet corresponding to the

More information

Competing Models. The Ptolemaic system (Geocentric) The Copernican system (Heliocentric)

Competing Models. The Ptolemaic system (Geocentric) The Copernican system (Heliocentric) Competing Models The Ptolemaic system (Geocentric) The Copernican system (Heliocentric) How did Galileo solidify the Copernican revolution? Galileo overcame major objections to the Copernican view. Three

More information

The Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolution Consider the following. Put them in order from most true to least true. 1. That house is on fire. 2. God exists. 3. The earth moves around the sun. 4. 2 + 2 = 4 5. Michelangelo

More information

How big is the Universe and where are we in it?

How big is the Universe and where are we in it? Announcements Results of clicker questions from Monday are on ICON. First homework is graded on ICON. Next homework due one minute before midnight on Tuesday, September 6. Labs start this week. All lab

More information

Planets & The Origin of Science

Planets & The Origin of Science Planets & The Origin of Science Reading: Chapter 2 Required: Guided Discovery (p.44-47) Required: Astro. Toolbox 2-1 Optional: Astro. Toolbox 2-2, 2-3 Next Homework Due. Feb. 26 Office Hours: Monday, 12-2

More information

Copernican Revolution. Motions of the sky. Motions of the sky. Copernican Revolution: questions on reading assignment

Copernican Revolution. Motions of the sky. Motions of the sky. Copernican Revolution: questions on reading assignment Copernican Revolution Motion of the sun & planets Ptolemy s Almagest Copernicus de Revolutionibus Orbium Caelestium, (Concerning Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres), 1543 Galileo refutes Ptolemy with

More information

PHYS 155 Introductory Astronomy

PHYS 155 Introductory Astronomy PHYS 155 Introductory Astronomy - observing sessions: Sunday Thursday, 9pm, weather permitting http://www.phys.uconn.edu/observatory - Exam - Tuesday March 20, - Review Monday 6:30-9pm, PB 38 Marek Krasnansky

More information

Unit 2: Celestial Mechanics

Unit 2: Celestial Mechanics Unit 2: Celestial Mechanics The position of the Earth Ptolemy (90 168 AD) Made tables that allowed a user to locate the position of a planet at any past, present, or future date. In order to maintain circular

More information

2) The number one million can be expressed in scientific notation as: (c) a) b) 10 3 c) 10 6 d)

2) The number one million can be expressed in scientific notation as: (c) a) b) 10 3 c) 10 6 d) Astronomy Phys 181 Midterm Examination Choose the best answer from the choices provided. 1) What is the range of values that the coordinate Declination can have? (a) a) -90 to +90 degrees b) 0 to 360 degrees

More information

EXAM #2. ANSWERS ASTR , Spring 2008

EXAM #2. ANSWERS ASTR , Spring 2008 EXAM #2. ANSWERS ASTR 1101-001, Spring 2008 1. In Copernicus s heliocentric model of the universe, which of the following astronomical objects was placed in an orbit around the Earth? The Moon 2. In his

More information

Most of the time during full and new phases, the Moon lies above or below the Sun in the sky.

Most of the time during full and new phases, the Moon lies above or below the Sun in the sky. 6/16 Eclipses: We don t have eclipses every month because the plane of the Moon s orbit about the Earth is different from the plane the ecliptic, the Earth s orbital plane about the Sun. The planes of

More information

First MIDTERM Exam: Mon, Sep. 22, covering chapters tutorials (review later today).

First MIDTERM Exam: Mon, Sep. 22, covering chapters tutorials (review later today). Announcements First MIDTERM Exam: Mon, Sep. 22, covering chapters 1 3 + tutorials (review later today). Interim grades online, coded by class ID. See course website Grades tab. Another great night for

More information

Chapter 2 The Science of Life in the Universe

Chapter 2 The Science of Life in the Universe In ancient times phenomena in the sky were not understood! Chapter 2 The Science of Life in the Universe The Ancient Greeks The Scientific Method Our ideas must always be consistent with our observations!

More information

Models of the Solar System. The Development of Understanding from Ancient Greece to Isaac Newton

Models of the Solar System. The Development of Understanding from Ancient Greece to Isaac Newton Models of the Solar System The Development of Understanding from Ancient Greece to Isaac Newton Aristotle (384 BC 322 BC) Third in line of Greek thinkers: Socrates was the teacher of Plato, Plato was the

More information

History of Astronomy - Part I. Ancient Astronomy. Ancient Greece. Astronomy is a science that has truly taken shape only in the last couple centuries

History of Astronomy - Part I. Ancient Astronomy. Ancient Greece. Astronomy is a science that has truly taken shape only in the last couple centuries History of Astronomy - Part I Astronomy is a science that has truly taken shape only in the last couple centuries Many advances have been made in your lifetime However, astronomical concepts and ideas

More information

Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy 1 3.1 The Ancient Roots of Science Our goals for learning: In what ways do all humans employ scientific thinking? How did astronomical observations benefit ancient societies?

More information

Astronomy 1143 Quiz 1 Review

Astronomy 1143 Quiz 1 Review Astronomy 1143 Quiz 1 Review Prof. Pradhan September 7, 2017 I What is Science? 1. Explain the difference between astronomy and astrology. Astrology: nonscience using zodiac sign to predict the future/personality

More information

At Home Phases Demo. Astronomy 210. Section 1 MWF Astronomy Building. Geocentric vs. Heliocentric system. The Motion of the Planets

At Home Phases Demo. Astronomy 210. Section 1 MWF Astronomy Building. Geocentric vs. Heliocentric system. The Motion of the Planets Astronomy 210 Section 1 MWF 1500-1550 134 Astronomy Building This Class (Lecture 4): Early Cosmology HW #1 Due on Friday! Next Class: You missed the first planetarium show. Cosmic Revolution Music: Twilight

More information

Today. Planetary Motion. Tycho Brahe s Observations. Kepler s Laws Laws of Motion. Laws of Motion

Today. Planetary Motion. Tycho Brahe s Observations. Kepler s Laws Laws of Motion. Laws of Motion Today Planetary Motion Tycho Brahe s Observations Kepler s Laws Laws of Motion Laws of Motion In 1633 the Catholic Church ordered Galileo to recant his claim that Earth orbits the Sun. His book on the

More information

Review of previous concepts!! Earth s orbit: Year, seasons, observed constellations, Polaris (North star), day/night lengths, equinoxes

Review of previous concepts!! Earth s orbit: Year, seasons, observed constellations, Polaris (North star), day/night lengths, equinoxes Review of previous concepts!! Earth s orbit: Year, seasons, observed constellations, Polaris (North star), day/night lengths, equinoxes Celestial poles, celestial equator, ecliptic, ecliptic plane (Fig

More information

History of Astronomy. PHYS 1411 Introduction to Astronomy. Tycho Brahe and Exploding Stars. Tycho Brahe ( ) Chapter 4. Renaissance Period

History of Astronomy. PHYS 1411 Introduction to Astronomy. Tycho Brahe and Exploding Stars. Tycho Brahe ( ) Chapter 4. Renaissance Period PHYS 1411 Introduction to Astronomy History of Astronomy Chapter 4 Renaissance Period Copernicus new (and correct) explanation for retrograde motion of the planets Copernicus new (and correct) explanation

More information

Kepler correctly determined the motion of the planets giving his 3 Laws which still hold today for the planets and other orbital motion: moons around

Kepler correctly determined the motion of the planets giving his 3 Laws which still hold today for the planets and other orbital motion: moons around Kepler correctly determined the motion of the planets giving his 3 Laws which still hold today for the planets and other orbital motion: moons around planets, exoplanets around other stars, stars in the

More information

Origin of Modern Astronomy Chapter 21

Origin of Modern Astronomy Chapter 21 Origin of Modern Astronomy Chapter 21 Early history of astronomy Ancient Greeks Used philosophical arguments to explain natural phenomena Also used some observa:onal data (looking at the night sky) Ancient

More information

History of Astronomy

History of Astronomy History of Astronomy Ancient Astronomy Ancient cultures used the nighttime sky Arrival of seasons Astronomical events (eclipse) Seafarers-navigation Farmers-planting crops Constellations-way to label regions

More information

Monday, October 3, 2011

Monday, October 3, 2011 We do not ask for what useful purpose the birds do sing, for song is their pleasure since they were created for singing. Similarly, we ought not ask why the human mind troubles to fathom the secrets of

More information

Midterm 1: Friday Sept 25 (this Friday) Practice Midterm on course web page (also under Supplementary Material > Midterm 1)

Midterm 1: Friday Sept 25 (this Friday) Practice Midterm on course web page (also under Supplementary Material > Midterm 1) Reminders 1 No Online Quiz this Week 2 Midterm 1: Friday Sept 25 (this Friday) Bring OU ID Pencil Eraser 3 Practice Midterm on course web page (also under Supplementary Material > Midterm 1) 4 All lectures

More information

Astr 2320 Tues. Jan. 24, 2017 Today s Topics Review of Celestial Mechanics (Ch. 3)

Astr 2320 Tues. Jan. 24, 2017 Today s Topics Review of Celestial Mechanics (Ch. 3) Astr 2320 Tues. Jan. 24, 2017 Today s Topics Review of Celestial Mechanics (Ch. 3) Copernicus (empirical observations) Kepler (mathematical concepts) Galileo (application to Jupiter s moons) Newton (Gravity

More information

Occam s Razor: William of Occam, 1340(!)

Occam s Razor: William of Occam, 1340(!) Reading: OpenStax, Chapter 2, Section 2.2 &2.4, Chapter 3, Sections 3.1-3.3 Chapter 5, Section 5.1 Last time: Scales of the Universe Astro 150 Spring 2018: Lecture 2 page 1 The size of our solar system,

More information

Chapter. Origin of Modern Astronomy

Chapter. Origin of Modern Astronomy Chapter Origin of Modern Astronomy 22.1 Early Astronomy Ancient Greeks Astronomy is the science that studies the universe. It includes the observation and interpretation of celestial bodies and phenomena.

More information

Astronomy- The Original Science

Astronomy- The Original Science Astronomy- The Original Science Imagine that it is 5,000 years ago. Clocks and modern calendars have not been invented. How would you tell time or know what day it is? One way to tell the time is to study

More information

Next Homework Due. Feb. 20

Next Homework Due. Feb. 20 This week: Chapter 2 Required: Guided Discovery (p.44-47) Required: Astro. Toolbox 2-1 Optional: Astro. Toolbox 2-2, 2-3 Next Homework Due. Feb. 20 Office Hours: Monday, 3-4 Did you see the Lunar Eclipse?

More information

cosmogony geocentric heliocentric How the Greeks modeled the heavens

cosmogony geocentric heliocentric How the Greeks modeled the heavens Cosmogony A cosmogony is theory about ones place in the universe. A geocentric cosmogony is a theory that proposes Earth to be at the center of the universe. A heliocentric cosmogony is a theory that proposes

More information

Venus Project Book, the Galileo Project, GEAR

Venus Project Book, the Galileo Project, GEAR 1 Venus Project Book, the Galileo Project, GEAR Jeffrey La Favre November, 2013 Updated March 31, 2016 You have already learned about Galileo and his telescope. Recall that he built his first telescopes

More information

Contents: -Information/Research Packet. - Jumbled Image packet. - Comic book cover page. -Comic book pages. -Example finished comic

Contents: -Information/Research Packet. - Jumbled Image packet. - Comic book cover page. -Comic book pages. -Example finished comic Contents: -Information/Research Packet - Jumbled Image packet - Comic book cover page -Comic book pages -Example finished comic Nicolaus Copernicus Nicholas Copernicus was a Polish astronomer who lived

More information

N = R * f p n e f l f i f c L

N = R * f p n e f l f i f c L This Class (Lecture 32): Cultural Evolution Next Class: Lifetime ET: Astronomy 230 HW 7 due today! Outline Will a civilization develop that has the appropriate technology and worldview? The most important

More information

The History of Astronomy

The History of Astronomy The History of Astronomy The History of Astronomy Earliest astronomical record: a lunar calendar etched on bone from 6500 B.C. Uganda. Also we find early groups noted the Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Earth,

More information

2. See FIGURE B. This person in the FIGURE discovered that this planet had phases (name the planet)?

2. See FIGURE B. This person in the FIGURE discovered that this planet had phases (name the planet)? ASTRONOMY 2 MIDTERM EXAM PART I SPRING 2019 60 QUESTIONS 50 POINTS: Part I of the midterm constitutes the Take-Home part of the entire Midterm Exam. Additionally, this Take-Home part is divided into two

More information

BROCK UNIVERSITY. 1. About 2300 years ago, Aristotle argued that the Earth is spherical based on a number of observations, one of which was that

BROCK UNIVERSITY. 1. About 2300 years ago, Aristotle argued that the Earth is spherical based on a number of observations, one of which was that BROCK UNIVERSITY Page 1 of 10 Test 2: November 2015 Number of pages: 10 Course: ASTR 1P01, Section 2 Number of students: 861 Examination date: 7 November 2015 Time limit: 50 min Time of Examination: 13:00

More information

Today FIRST HOMEWORK DUE. Ancient Astronomy. Competing Cosmologies. Geocentric vs. Heliocentric. Ptolemy vs. copernicus.

Today FIRST HOMEWORK DUE. Ancient Astronomy. Competing Cosmologies. Geocentric vs. Heliocentric. Ptolemy vs. copernicus. Today FIRST HOMEWORK DUE Ancient Astronomy Competing Cosmologies Geocentric vs. Heliocentric Ptolemy vs. copernicus Retrograde Motion Phases of Venus Galileo 1 3.1 The Ancient Roots of Science Our goals

More information

Plato ( BC) All natural motion is circular Reason is more important than observation

Plato ( BC) All natural motion is circular Reason is more important than observation Plato (428-348 BC) All natural motion is circular Reason is more important than observation Aristotle (384-322 BC) Physics elements earth water air fire quintessence Eratosthenes (276-195 BC) He measured

More information

,.~ Readlng ~ What,~,~~ is a geocentric system? Chapter3 J 73

,.~ Readlng ~ What,~,~~ is a geocentric system? Chapter3 J 73 Earth at the Center When the ancient Greeks watched the stars move across the sky, they noticed that the patterns of the stars didn t change. Although the stars seemed to move, they stayed in the same

More information

What was once so mysterious about planetary motion in our sky? We see apparent retrograde motion when we pass by a planet

What was once so mysterious about planetary motion in our sky? We see apparent retrograde motion when we pass by a planet What was once so mysterious about planetary motion in our sky? Planets usually move slightly eastward from night to night relative to the stars. You cannot see this motion on a single night. But sometimes

More information

Early Theories. Early astronomers believed that the sun, planets and stars orbited Earth (geocentric model) Developed by Aristotle

Early Theories. Early astronomers believed that the sun, planets and stars orbited Earth (geocentric model) Developed by Aristotle Planetary Motion Early Theories Early astronomers believed that the sun, planets and stars orbited Earth (geocentric model) Developed by Aristotle Stars appear to move around Earth Observations showed

More information

Chapter 3 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. The Science of Astronomy Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 3 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. The Science of Astronomy Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 3 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition The Science of Astronomy 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The Science of Astronomy 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 3.1 The Ancient Roots of Science Our

More information