# There are 4 x stars in the Galaxy

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1 ExtraSolar Planets

2 Our solar system consists of 1 Star 4 Jovian planets (+ icy moons) 4 Terrestrial planets The asteroid belt (minor planets) The Kuiper belt (dwarf planets, plutinos and TNOs) The Oort cloud and the comets There are 4 x stars in the Galaxy

3 Finding Extrasolar Planets. I Direct Searches Direct searches are difficult because stars are so bright.

4 How Bright are Planets? Planets shine by reflected light. The amount reflected is the amount received (the solar constant) times the projected area of the planet times the albedo (fraction reflected) L p = L * /4πd 2 x albedo x πr p 2 ~ L * (R p /d) 2 For the Earth, (R p /d) 2 ~5 x 10 8 For Jupiter, (R p /d) 2 ~10 8

5 How Bright are Planets? You gain by going to long wavelengths, where the Sun is relatively faint, and the planet is relatively bright.

6 How do you detect extra-solar planets? Remember planets orbit stars

7 Finding Extrasolar Planets. I. Direct imaging (this is not a planet)

8 How Far are Planets from Stars? 1 au = 1 at 1 pc (definition of the parsec) 1 pc (parsec) = 3.26 light years (ly) 1 (arcsec) = 1/3600 degree

9 Parallax

10 How Far are Planets from Stars? 1 au = 1 at 1 pc (definition of the parsec) 1 pc (parsec) = 3.26 light years 1 (arcsec) = 1/3600 degree As seen from α Centauri (4.3 ly): Earth is 0.75 arcsec from Sol Jupiter is 4 arcsec from Sol Can we see this? Yes, but it takes special techniques, and is not easy.

11 HR 8799 (A5V) Coronography Near-IR

12 Direct Imaging Best for planets that are Large, Hot (self-luminous) Far from their star

13 Orbits Orbit: the trajectory followed by a mass under the influence of the gravity of another mass. Gravity + Newton's laws explain orbits. In circular motion the acceleration is a=v 2 /r where V is the velocity and r is the radius of the orbit. The acceleration in orbit is due to gravity, so V 2 /r = G M * / r 2 or V = (GM * /r) Since V=2πr/P, we know r and can estimate M *

14 Orbits V = (GM/r) Observables: orbital velocity V (actually V sin i) orbital period P. In a circular orbit, V=2πr/P, so we know r and can estimate M Does this help?

15 Center of Mass Motions The star and the planet orbit the common center of mass The planet is invisible a=a * +a p a * = m p /m * a p (astrometric wobble) v * = m p /m * v p (radial velocity wobble)

16 Kepler s Laws Empirical laws describing planetary orbits 1. Orbits are ellipses, with the Sun at one focus of the ellipse 2. The line connecting the planet to the Sun traces out equal areas in equal times 3. a 3 = P 2

17 Types of Orbits K+U > 0 K+U = 0 K+U < 0

18 Finding Extrasolar Planets. II. Transits

19 Transits Artist s Conception Venus, 8 June 2004 Transits requires an edge-on orbit. Light occulted = area of planet / area of star = (r p /r * ) 2 Jupiter blocks 2% of the Sun's light Earth blocks about 0.01%.

20 How Transits Work

21 Transits Best for planets that are Large relative to their star, Near their star

22 Finding Extrasolar Planets. III. Astrometric Wobble

23 Reflex Motion Planets do not orbit the Sun - they both orbit the center of mass. The radius of the orbit is inversely proportional to the mass. a 1 M 1 = a 2 M 2 (a = R 1 + R 2 ) This is Newton s law of equal and opposite reactions. The radius of the Sun s orbit with respect to Earth: 1 / 300,000 au, or 500 km. Jupiter: 5.2 / 1,000 au, or about 1 R

24 Solar System Barycenter

25 Barnard s Star M4V star V mag: 9.5 Distance: 6 ly (4 th closest) Rotation: 130 days Age: 7-12 Gyr Proper motion: RA: -0.8 arcsec/yr DEC: 10.3 arcsec/yr (90 km/s) Parallax: 0.55 arcsec RV: -110 km/s

26 A Planet Orbiting Barnard s Star? P. Van der Kamp, , Sproul Observatory

27 Van der Kamp s Planet 1.6 M J at 4.4 au Never confirmed Attributed to calibration/maintenance of the telescope

28 Astrometric Wobble Best for planets that are Massive relative to their star, Far from their star

29 Finding Extrasolar Planets. IV. Most planets have been found by Doppler Wobble (radial velocity variations). This selects for massive planets close to the star.

30 Finding Extrasolar Planets. IV.

31 Orbital Velocity V = 2πr/P r is the radius of the orbit P is the orbital period V is the orbital velocity How fast does the star wobble? Kepler s 3 rd law: P 2 M a 3 a ~ r p (M * >> M p ) r * = m p /m * r p (center of mass) V * = 2π m p /m * / r p 1/2 V = 2 cm/s; V J = 3 m/s

32 Doppler Shifts

33 Doppler Wobble Best for planets that are Massive relative to their star Near their star

34 Finding Extrasolar Planets. V. Timing The Doppler Effect applied to pulse arrival times. Applicable to pulsar planets

35 Pulse Timing Equivalent to doppler wobble and astrometric wobble Δt = c a sin i (light travel time across orbit) Requires a stable clock (e.g.,a pulsar) Best for edge-on orbits

36 Finding Extrasolar Planets. VI. Gravitational Lensing Foreground objects focus (and magnify) light because they distort space.

37

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