PH104 Descriptive Astronomy Learning Objectives

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 PH104 Descriptive Astronomy Learning Objectives March 11, Introduction This list of questions are questions that will need to be answered in order for students to be successful in the course. Each exam will be drawn from the same topics as these questions. The questions on the exams will either be verbatim or similar in content. 1.1 Material Integration Here is the layout for the midterms. Midterm 1 will be primarily section 1 and section 2 of the multiple choice and questions 1-18 of the written section. Midterm number 2 will be primarily section 2 and section 3 of the multiple choice and questions of the written section. The Final will cover all of the material in that I will draw questions directly from this document for each section. Keep in mind that there may be a need to use your knowledge from previous material, but I will not ask any specific questions from that material. 2 Multiple-Choice Below is a list of multiple-choice questions that may show-up on the exams. I will break these down into sections based upon the topic that they are most 1

2 related with. Keep in mind that the science or physics topics can show up in all of the other subsequent topics. 2.1 The Nature of Science and Physics These questions relate to the nature of science and the straight forward topic of physics. 1. When the space probe Voyager II passed by Saturn, its speed increased (but it did not fire any rocket or engine). What must have happened? 2. The amount of gravitational potential energy that an object has available to convert to kinetic energy when it falls depend on Momentum is calculated using what variables? 4. As long as an object is not gaining or losing mass, a non-zero outside force on the object will cause a change in what quantity? 5. What is a scientific model? 6. (This question does not have a list, but it will if on an exam. You should know as much as you can about scientific models). Given a list of statements which one about scientific models is true? 7. What is Newton s first law of motion? 8. What is Newton s second law of motion? 9. What is Newton s third law of motion? 10. Suppose you kick a soccer ball up to a height of 10 meters. According to conservation laws, when will the gravitational potential energy of the ball be the greatest? 11. Suppose an object is moving in a straight line at 50 m. According to hr Newton s first law of motion what can you predict about the future of the object? 12. Angular momentum is calculated using what three quantities? 2

3 13. What is light? 14. How do I use light to find the chemical composition of an astronomical body like a star? 15. A person is reading a newspaper while standing 5 feet from a table with an unshaded 100 watt light bulb. If the person were to move to 10 feet from the table, how many light bulbs will be needed to light up the newspaper with the same amount of brightness? 16. How does the speed of radio waves compare to the speed of visible light waves? 17. I have two electromagnetic waves. Wave A has a wavelength of 750 nm. Wave B has a wavelength of 350 nm. Which electromagnetic wave will have the higher energy? 18. The light year is a unit of 19. How do we define the astronomical unit? 20. A volleyball has about half the mass of a basketball. If both are moving the same velocity, how does the volleyball s kinetic energy compare to the basketball s kinetic energy? 21. Electrons in atoms will change from a low energy orbital to a high energy orbital through an interaction with what? 22. I want to measure the x-ray emission from the Sun. Which telescope would I use? 23. What is Kepler s first law? 24. What is Kepler s second law? 25. What is Kepler s third law? 26. How do we calculate density? 27. What is the best measure of the validity of an astronomical or any other hypothesis? 28. What is Occam s razor? 3

4 29. What does the semi-major axis of an orbit measure? 30. When we say something is periodic, what do we mean? 31. What does parallax measure? 32. How long does it take the Moon to go through a full set of phases? 33. What is the celestial sphere? 34. What is a photon? 35. What is the main difference between a neutron and a proton? 36. What is the main difference between an electron and a proton? 37. What is the nucleus of an atom? 38. What are the major hallmarks of science that we will use in this class? 39. What force holds the protons in an atom s nucleus? 40. How do we define the electromagnetic force? 41. What is a parsec? 42. What unit would we use to describe the size of an atom? 43. (This one may have different numbers than are here, but the concept is the same). Multiply and Since angular momentum is conserved, what will happen to the angular speed of a large gas cloud as it collapses? 45. How does the Earth s orbital speed at closest approach to the Sun compare to Earth s orbital speed at furthest approach? 46. How does Earth s orbital speed at closest approach to the Sun compare to Mars orbital speed at closest approach? 47. The planets never travel in a straight line as they orbit the Sun. According to Newton s second law of motion, what does this mean? 48. Compared to your mass on Earth, your mass on the Moon will be... 4

5 49. How does light tell us the speed of distant objects? 50. Gravity When a photon interacts with an atom what changes occur? 52. What is the center of mass of an object? 53. What equation do we use to calculate the gravitational force between two objects. 54. How do we calculate the surface gravity of an object? 55. What equation would we use to calculate the mass of a body using orbital motion? 56. How would we calculate the escape velocity of an object? 57. What is the primary cause for the ocean tides of Earth? 58. As a result of the Moon s gravitational pull, when would you weigh less? 59. How do we explain the tidal bulge on the side of the Earth opposite to the Moon? 60. What is a conservation law? 61. What is an inverse-square law? 62. What is the definition of a ground state? 63. What is a spectrum? 64. How would we calculate the energy of a photon? 65. How would we measure the wavelength of light? 5

6 2.2 The Solar System This list is primarily concerned with definitions and laundry type lists of information from the planets. Most of these things will come from the reading. I will not overly cover these things in the lectures. Make sure you read the chapters on the planets so that you can be prepared. 1. What features separate the Jovian planets from the Terrestrial Planets? 2. In the lab, you found that the orbit of the Moon is an ellipse, which law does this best fit with? 3. Why do we need to be concerned with the exceptions to the rules of the Solar System? 4. What is a terrestrial planet? 5. Using the given list, which planets are mostly rocky with iron cores? 6. More than 99% of the Solar System is contained in What is the Kuiper Belt? 8. What is accretion? 9. What do we think creates the magnetic field on Earth? 10. What is atmospheric pressure? 11. What is the most abundant element in the Earth s atmosphere? 12. How do astronomers think the Moon formed? 13. What evidence is there for the large impact formation of the Moon? 14. Why is Venus s surface hotter than Mercury s? 15. What is the runaway greenhouse effect 16. What is the main gas in the atmosphere of Mars? 17. How big is the radius of Mars compared to Earth? 6

7 18. What evidence is there for liquid water on Mars in the past and present? 19. What are asteroids? 20. Where can most of the asteroids be found? 21. What are factors cause the main difference in the terrestrial planets? 22. How does distance from the Sun affect a planet? 23. The composition of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn are closest to the composition of what other solar system body? 24. Why does Jupiter radiate more heat than we would expect? 25. Besides the Sun, which Solar System body has the greatest mass? 26. Why are Uranus and Neptune blue? 27. How do the compositions of Uranus and Neptune differ from the composition of Jupiter 28. What feature of Uranus would cause some astronomers to think Uranus has undergone a giant impact early in its history? 29. Why do why experience seasons on Earth? 30. What is the definition of a year? 2.3 Stars This is the section that will have to do with stars. The second midterm will consist of mainly stars and stellar models. 1. Sirius B is a white dwarf star. On the HR diagram, where would I place it? 2. Using the HR diagram, what type of stars are white dwarfs? 3. Using the HR diagram, where would we find the most massive mainsequence stars? 7

8 4. Using the HR diagram, where would we find the oldest main-sequence stars? 5. Using the HR diagram, where would we find the dimmest stars? 6. What region is the closest to where the Sun would be located on the HR diagram? 7. Suppose you drop a clock toward a black hole. As you look at the clock from a high orbit, what will you notice? 8. Which of the following stellar properties can you estimate simply by looking at a star on a clear night? 9. Since angular momentum is conserved, the rotational speed of a collapsing gas cloud 10. What do we mean by the event horizon of a black hole? 11. You are looking at the stars in the constellation of Orion from your backyard. Can you tell which stars are hotter than the others? 12. Red giant stars have greater than 10,000 times the luminosity of our yellow Sun. What property of red giant stars would cause this to be the case? 13. We plot the thermal spectra of two stars. Which one is hotter? 14. Why does hydrogen fusion not occur in stars under 0.08 Solar Masses? 15. In 10 billion years what will the Sun be like? 16. The upper mass limit for a white dwarf is 17. In a high mass main sequence star the dominant fusion cycle is the CNO cycle. What is happening in this cycle? 18. When the star begins to evolve off of the HR diagram, it will slowly become a red giant. What visible changes are happening to the star 19. What does the luminosity of a star measure? 20. The hottest stars are what color? 8

9 21. The special theory of relativity implies what about time? 22. If by some unknown process the Sun suddenly collapsed in on itself and became a black hole tomorrow, the planets would 23. What is a main-sequence star? 24. A person is at rest, while you are moving by them at a speed almost the speed of light. You shine a flashlight on that person. How will your measurement of the speed of the flashlight beam be in comparison to the person at rest? 25. There is a relation between the mass and luminosity of MS stars. More luminous MS stars are more massive. What color would the most massive MS stars be? 26. Which of the following stellar properties can you estimate simply by looking at a star on a clear night? 27. If two intrinsically identical stars are at different distances from the Earth, the more distant star will have a 28. The star Betelgeuse is about 500 light years away from us in the constellation Orion. If this star underwent a supernova explosion right now, approximately how long would it be until we found out about it? 29. How far from the Earth is the nearest star? 30. Two identical stars, one 5 light years from Earth, and a second 50 light years from Earth are discovered. How much fainter does the farther star appear to be? 31. The reason astronomers use the concept of the absolute magnitude is to allow stars to be compared directly removing the effects of differing 32. What causes light from a star to be Doppler-shifted? 33. We can detect the velocity of a star through the Doppler effect by 34. Which of the following stars is probably oldest? 35. Giant stars are more rare than main sequence stars because 9

10 36. A star evolves off the main sequence when 37. A star is burning hydrogen to helium in its core and has ten times the mass of the Sun. Which of the following are true? 38. After hydrogen fusion stops in the core of a star, the core 39. As a one solar mass star evolves into a red giant, its 40. When a star becomes a red giant it becomes much brighter because it is 41. If the temperature in the core of the Sun increased 42. If the rate of hydrogen fusion within the Sun were to increase, the core of the Sun would 43. After a star has evolved into a red giant, hydrogen burning 44. Angular momentum plays an important role in star formation. What characteristics of stars are strongly affected by angular momentum? 45. Which of the following statements about apparent and absolute magnitudes is true? 46. What is a main-sequence star? 47. In a low mass star the dominant fusion cycle is the pp chain in which hydrogen is fused into what element? 48. Knowing what we know about stellar evolution now, it is safe to say that the Sun formed within an open cluster some 5 billion years ago. 49. During star formation the disk around the star will begin to flatten out. What is causing this to happen? 50. What is causing a star like the Sun to shine? 51. Angular momentum plays an important role in star formation. What characteristics of stars is strongly affected by angular momentum? 52. The axes on a Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram represent 10

11 53. How does light tell us the temperature of stars? 54. Using the HR diagram given, where would we find the oldest mainsequence stars? 55. The radius of Betelgeuse is about 2.5 AU. If we put this star where the Sun is, where would its surface end up? 56. You are looking at the stars in the constellation of Orion from your backyard. Can you tell which stars are furthest from you? 57. In the lab, you found the mass of Uranus. What information would you need in order to find the mass of Jupiter using the same techniques. 58. Which of the following statements about black holes is not true? 59. Given the mass of a star, discuss the life stage of the star. 60. Discuss what it would be like to visit a black hole. 61. What is a cepheid variable? 62. What is a RR lyrae star? 3 Galaxies and Cosmology This part is about galaxies and cosmology. Cosmology is the study of the cosmos, so in a sense we have been doing cosmology since the beginning of the course. But the cosmology that we are studying here is a specific type. 1. The largest identifiable structures in the universe are 2. The cosmological principle enables astronomers to generalize from what they observe to the properties of the universe as a whole. The principle states that any and all observers, everywhere in space, should see, on average, the same picture of the universe as us on scales comparable to 3. Suppose that we look at a photograph of many galaxies. Assuming that all galaxies formed at about the same time, which galaxy in the picture is the youngest? 11

12 4. What is the significance of the Planck time? 5. Which one would astronomers use as a standard candle 6. A large galaxy contains mostly old population II stars spread throughout its volume, but has little dust or gas. What type of galaxy is this most likely to be? 7. Astronomers think that dark matter exits because 8. Why do we call dark matter dark? 9. Gravitational bending of light can be used to 10. Suppose a white dwarf is gaining mass at a relatively high rate due to accretion in a binary system. What happens when the mass reaches the 1.4-solar-mass limit? 11. The cosmic background radiation comes from a time in the evolution of the universe 12. In which direction is the cosmic background radiation the brightest? 13. What is meant by inflation in the early universe? 14. Dark Energy is What does it mean for the expansion of the universe if dark energy does not exist? 16. Cepheid variables are important for astronomers because 17. What is a galaxy? 18. How do we find the size of the Milky Way Galaxy? 19. How do we find the Earth s position in the Milky Way Galaxy? 20. How big is the Milky Way galaxy? 21. What is the Milky Way galaxy shaped like? 22. What is the definition of a population II star? 12

13 23. What is the definition of a population I star? 24. What are the differences between Pop I and Pop II stars? 25. What are Pop III stars? 26. What is the definition of a dark nebula? 27. What is the definition of a reflection nebula? 28. How does dust in the interstellar regions affect our ability to observe the Milky Way? 29. What is the mass of the Milky Way? 30. Why do we hypothesize that there is a supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way galaxy? 31. What is the definition of dark matter? 32. Why do we call dark matter dark? 33. What is a spiral galaxy? 34. What is an elliptical galaxy? 35. What is an irregular galaxy? 36. What is a dwarf galaxy? 37. How far away is the closest galaxy to the Milky Way? 38. How far away is the closest spiral galaxy to the Milky Way? 39. What is a barred spiral galaxy? 40. What is the difference between a group of galaxies and a cluster of galaxies? 41. What is a QUASAR? 42. What is a radio lobe galaxy? 43. What are the three types of data astronomers gather to help confirm the existence of dark matter? 13

14 44. What might dark matter be? 45. What is a MACHO? 46. What is a WIMP? 47. What is a gravitational lens? 48. What is meant by the term dark matter halo? 49. What is the meaning of cosmological redshift? 50. What problems are solved by a period of inflation in the universe? 51. Where does the helium in the early universe come from? 52. What is the cosmological constant? 53. What is Omega(Ω) 14

15 4 Written Questions Half of each exam will be concerned with you answer in short answer form. Short answers can be... One or two sentence answers. Labeled diagrams Data analysis Small non-calculator calculations With this format of exam, all students can show their strengths or weaknesses. I again will break the list of items into sections. 1. Draw a labeled diagram of the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom. 2. You are living in a different star system with a certain number (to be given in the exam) of planets. You want to develop a model of this star system in order to be able to discuss its formation. Given the information for each planet, develop a classification model that groups the planets into main types. This is similar to what we have done for the Solar System. 3. Given three spectra of an atom, determine which is stationary with respect to the observer, which one is moving toward the observer, and which one is moving away from the observer. Also determine which one is moving the fastest compared to the others. 4. In one sentence, explain how speed, frequency, and wavelength of an electromagnetic wave are related. 5. Draw a labeled diagram of an electromagnetic wave. 6. Given a set of data that represents the angular positions of a planet in orbit around a star. Two of the data points are when the planet is at its closest point and two data points represent when the planet is at its furthest point. Using your knowledge of Kepler s second law, which two data points are the closest point to the star, and which two data points are the furthest from the star? Show your work. 15

16 7. Given a table that shows the orbital radius and orbital speed (velocity at the time data taken) of a planet around a star. Using this table you should be able to determine whether this planet is or is not conserving angular momentum, and why you would answer that. 8. In two sentences, what does Newton s first law tell us about the difference between motion in a straight line and motion on a curved line. 9. In one sentence, what does Kepler s second law tell us about the orbital speed of a planet? 10. In one sentence, what does Kepler s third law tell us about the differences in Jupiter and Mars? 11. In one sentence, explain the relationship between light and distance. 12. In no more than two sentences explain why the structure of an atom leads to discreet energy levels. 13. In no more than two sentences explain how we would use spectra to locate hydrogen in the universe. 14. In one sentence define frequency. 15. In no more than three sentences explain the differences between an absorption spectrum and an emission spectrum. Include a discussion of how each one is formed. 16. Given a set of data about a fictional star system (similar to lab 2), discuss where and at what temperature compositional changes take place in this star system. 17. Given a set of data about the position of a planet in its orbit (similar to pre-lab 3), discuss whether or not this planet obeys Kepler s law. 18. How would we find the mass of a planet? This should be a discussion of what data we would need to take and what relation or relations we would apply to that data. You can do this in no more than three sentences. 16

17 19. What is a planetary nebula? Explain the properties of the star, and what is happening to cause it to look like it does in the sky. No more than 3 sentences In no more than 2 sentences explain how we would find the mass of a black hole or neutron star. Equations are allowed as answers. 21. Explain how mass determines the main-sequence lifetime of a star. No more than 2 sentences. 22. What is left after a planetary nebula completely dissipates? One sentence only. 23. Why does the thermal pressure holding up a star drop when iron is formed from fusion. No more than 2 Sentences. 24. In no more than 2 sentences explain how we would find the mass of a black hole or neutron star. Equations are allowed as answers. 25. Explain how mass determines the main-sequence lifetime of a star. No more than 2 sentences. 26. What is left after a planetary nebula completely dissipates? One sentence only. 27. Why does the thermal pressure holding up a star drop when iron is formed from fusion. No more than 2 Sentences. 32. Given the stars in table 1 fill in the table with the appropriate properties. When comparing to the Sun, the answer will be greater than or smaller than the Sun. You may find the HR diagram in question 27 useful. When a space is not applicable write none. When preparing, remember that the list may be different than the one given here. 28. Given a list of stellar properties, describe the units that we normally use for those properties and how we would measure the value of each for the Sun or another star. 29. Given a periodic set of data about a star (either a set for orbit or a set for brightness change), build a model of the period, maximum value, minimum value, and average value. Discuss how the data indicates that the star is orbiting something or not. 17

18 Star Mass Main-Sequence Approximate Surface Approximate Lifetime Effective Color Radius Temperature Brown Dwarf Arcturus A 10 Solar Mass Main Sequence Star A stellar corpse Table 1: Stellar Property Table 30. In one sentence describe what the Doppler effect is. In one other sentence describe how we use the doppler effect in astronomy. 31. Given a set of stellar data and an HR diagram, describe where those stars are in their evolutionary stages (i.e. early, middle, late, or stellar corpse). 32. Given an HR diagram draw a line that represents the stages of life of the Sun. Mark the protstar stage 2. main-sequence stage 3. first red giant stage 4. second red giant stage 5. planetary nebula stage 6. white dwarf stage on the diagram. 18

19 33. Given a list of objects and the measurements of their calcium K line, determine whether the object is moving toward us, moving away from us, or sitting still with respect to us. 34. Explain in 2 sentences what a standard candle is, and how we would use it. 35. Explain in 2 sentences where the microwave background radiation came from, and why it is important. 36. Explain in 2 sentences why inflation is important in the Big Bang model, and what problems inflation fixes. 37. Draw a labeled diagram of how a foreground galaxy can gravitationally lens light, and next to it, what an Einstein cross might look like in the sky? 38. Draw a labeled diagram of the rotation curve of the Milky Way Galaxy, and explain in no more than 2 sentences why this implies the existence of dark matter. 39. There are three different redshifts that we see in astronomy: Doppler redshift, Gravitational redshift, and Cosmological redshift. In no more than 3 sentences explain what causes each one to happen. 40. Given different values of the redshift (z) of galaxies, determine which ones are moving away faster and which ones are further away. 41. Given a list of the distance and recessional velocities of 6 galaxies: plot these values, and show how one would find the Hubble constant for those six galaxies. 42. Discuss in no more than 2 sentences how the value of the Hubble constant gives us the age of the universe. 43. Discuss in no more than 3 sentences how cosmologists have built a model of the formation and evolution of the universe. 44. Explain what the value of the cosmological constant implies about the universe? 19

20 45. Given 5 spectra of galaxies, determine which ones are closer, and which ones are moving away faster. 46. Given a diagram with three lines that represent a relation between distance and recessional velocity choose the one that best represents Hubble s Law. Using that line fill in the values asked for below. 20

PH104 Descriptive Astronomy Learning Objectives

PH104 Descriptive Astronomy Learning Objectives April 6, 2008 1 Introduction This list of questions are questions that will need to be answered in order for students to be successful in the course. Each

Review Questions for the new topics that will be on the Final Exam

Review Questions for the new topics that will be on the Final Exam Be sure to review the lecture-tutorials and the material we covered on the first three exams. How does speed differ from velocity? Give

Exam # 3 Tue 12/06/2011 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti

Exam # 3 Tue 12/06/2011 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti INSTRUCTIONS: Please, use the `bubble sheet and a pencil # 2 to answer the exam questions, by marking

OPTION E, ASTROPHYSICS TEST REVIEW

IB PHYSICS Name: DEVIL PHYSICS Period: Date: BADDEST CLASS ON CAMPUS OPTION E, ASTROPHYSICS TEST REVIEW S1. This question is about the nature of certain stars on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and determining

Beyond Our Solar System Chapter 24

Beyond Our Solar System Chapter 24 PROPERTIES OF STARS Distance Measuring a star's distance can be very difficult Stellar parallax Used for measuring distance to a star Apparent shift in a star's position

Universe Celestial Object Galaxy Solar System

ASTRONOMY Universe- Includes all known matter (everything). Celestial Object Any object outside or above Earth s atmosphere. Galaxy- A large group (billions) of stars (held together by gravity). Our galaxy

Stars and Galaxies 1

Stars and Galaxies 1 Characteristics of Stars 2 Star - body of gases that gives off great amounts of radiant energy as light and heat 3 Most stars look white but are actually different colors Antares -

OPTION E, ASTROPHYSICS TEST REVIEW

IB PHYSICS Name: DEVIL PHYSICS Period: Date: # Marks: XX Raw Score: IB Curve: BADDEST CLASS ON CAMPUS OPTION E, ASTROPHYSICS TEST REVIEW S1. This question is about the nature of certain stars on the Hertzsprung-Russell

Directed Reading A. Section: The Life Cycle of Stars TYPES OF STARS THE LIFE CYCLE OF SUNLIKE STARS A TOOL FOR STUDYING STARS.

Skills Worksheet Directed Reading A Section: The Life Cycle of Stars TYPES OF STARS (pp. 444 449) 1. Besides by mass, size, brightness, color, temperature, and composition, how are stars classified? a.

ASTRONOMY 1 FINAL EXAM 1 Name

ASTRONOMY 1 FINAL EXAM 1 Name Multiple Choice (2 pts each) 1. Sullivan Star is an F spectral class star that is part of a binary star system. It has a MS lifetime of 5 billion years. Its life will eventually

Astronomy 102: Stars and Galaxies Examination 3 April 11, 2003

Name: Seat Number: Astronomy 102: Stars and Galaxies Examination 3 April 11, 2003 Do not open the test until instructed to begin. Instructions: Write your answers in the space provided. If you need additional

NSCI 314 LIFE IN THE COSMOS

NSCI 314 LIFE IN THE COSMOS 2 BASIC ASTRONOMY, AND STARS AND THEIR EVOLUTION Dr. Karen Kolehmainen Department of Physics CSUSB COURSE WEBPAGE: http://physics.csusb.edu/~karen MOTIONS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM

Coriolis Effect - the apparent curved paths of projectiles, winds, and ocean currents

Regents Earth Science Unit 5: Astronomy Models of the Universe Earliest models of the universe were based on the idea that the Sun, Moon, and planets all orbit the Earth models needed to explain how the

The Big Bang Theory (page 854)

Name Class Date Space Homework Packet Homework #1 Hubble s Law (pages 852 853) 1. How can astronomers use the Doppler effect? 2. The shift in the light of a galaxy toward the red wavelengths is called

8/30/2010. Classifying Stars. Classifying Stars. Classifying Stars

Classifying Stars In the early 1900s, Ejnar Hertzsprung and Henry Russell made some important observations. They noticed that, in general, stars with higher temperatures also have brighter absolute magnitudes.

Astronomy 1143 Final Exam Review Answers Prof. Pradhan April 24, 2015 What is Science? 1. Explain the difference between astronomy and astrology. 2. What number is the metric system based around? What

CST Prep- 8 th Grade Astronomy

CST Prep- 8 th Grade Astronomy Chapter 15 (Part 1) 1. The theory of how the universe was created is called the 2. Which equation states that matter and energy are interchangeable? 3. All matter in the

The Night Sky. The Universe. The Celestial Sphere. Stars. Chapter 14

The Night Sky The Universe Chapter 14 Homework: All the multiple choice questions in Applying the Concepts and Group A questions in Parallel Exercises. Celestial observation dates to ancient civilizations

2) On a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, where would you find red giant stars? A) upper right B) lower right C) upper left D) lower left

Multiple choice test questions 2, Winter Semester 2015. Based on parts covered after mid term. Essentially on Ch. 12-2.3,13.1-3,14,16.1-2,17,18.1-2,4,19.5. You may use a calculator and the useful formulae

Introduction to the Universe. What makes up the Universe?

Introduction to the Universe What makes up the Universe? Objects in the Universe Astrophysics is the science that tries to make sense of the universe by - describing the Universe (Astronomy) - understanding

Astronomy 1504 Section 10 Final Exam Version 1 May 6, 1999

Astronomy 1504 Section 10 Final Exam Version 1 May 6, 1999 Reminder: When I write these questions, I believe that there is one one correct answer. The questions consist of all parts a e. Read the entire

LESSON 1. Solar System

Astronomy Notes LESSON 1 Solar System 11.1 Structure of the Solar System axis of rotation period of rotation period of revolution ellipse astronomical unit What is the solar system? 11.1 Structure of the

Name Date Period. 10. convection zone 11. radiation zone 12. core

240 points CHAPTER 29 STARS SECTION 29.1 The Sun (40 points this page) In your textbook, read about the properties of the Sun and the Sun s atmosphere. Use each of the terms below just once to complete

What is the solar system?

Notes Astronomy What is the solar system? 11.1 Structure of the Solar System Our solar system includes planets and dwarf planets, their moons, a star called the Sun, asteroids and comets. Planets, dwarf

AST-1002 Section 0459 Review for Final Exam Please do not forget about doing the evaluation!

AST-1002 Section 0459 Review for Final Exam Please do not forget about doing the evaluation! Bring pencil #2 with eraser No use of calculator or any electronic device during the exam We provide the scantrons

GALAXIES AND STARS. 2. Which star has a higher luminosity and a lower temperature than the Sun? A Rigel B Barnard s Star C Alpha Centauri D Aldebaran

GALAXIES AND STARS 1. Compared with our Sun, the star Betelgeuse is A smaller, hotter, and less luminous B smaller, cooler, and more luminous C larger, hotter, and less luminous D larger, cooler, and more

Astronomy Stars, Galaxies and Cosmology Exam 3. Please PRINT full name

Astronomy 132 - Stars, Galaxies and Cosmology Exam 3 Please PRINT full name Also, please sign the honor code: I have neither given nor have I received help on this exam The following exam is intended to

Lecture PowerPoints. Chapter 33 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7 th edition Giancoli

Lecture PowerPoints Chapter 33 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7 th edition Giancoli This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching

29:50 Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe Final Exam December 13, 2010 Form A

29:50 Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe Final Exam December 13, 2010 Form A There are 40 questions. Read each question and all of the choices before choosing. Budget your time. No whining. Walk with Ursus!

Cosmology, Galaxies, and Stars OUR VISIBLE UNIVERSE

Cosmology, Galaxies, and Stars OUR VISIBLE UNIVERSE Cosmology Cosmology is the study of the universe; its nature, origin and evolution. General Relativity is the mathematical basis of cosmology from which

Base your answers to questions 1 and 2 on the passage below and on your knowledge of Earth Science. Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation In the 1920s, Edwin Hubble's discovery of a pattern in the red

Study Guide Chapter 2

Section: Stars Pages 32-38 Study Guide Chapter 2 Circle the letter of the best answer for each question. 1. What do scientists study to learn about stars? a. gravity c. space b. starlight d. colors COLOR

Question 1. Question 2. Correct. Chapter 16 Homework. Part A

Chapter 16 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Thursday, November 17, 2016 To understand how points are awarded, read the Grading Policy for this assignment. Question 1 Following are a number of distinguishing characteristics

21/11/ /11/2017 Space Physics AQA Physics topic 8

Space Physics AQA Physics topic 8 8.1 Solar System, Orbits and Satellites The eight planets of our Solar System Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune As well as the eight planets, the

Astronomy 102: Stars and Galaxies Spring 2003 Final Exam Review Topics

Astronomy 102: Stars and Galaxies Spring 2003 Final Exam Review Topics The final exam will cover material from the whole course (including the galaxies and cosmology material from after Exam 3). The topics

LESSON topic: formation of the solar system Solar system formation Star formation Models of the solar system Planets in our solar system

Unit 2 Lesson 1 LESSON topic: formation of the solar system - Solar system formation - Star formation - Models of the solar system - Planets in our solar system Big bang theory Origin of the universe According

BROCK UNIVERSITY. Test 2, March 2018 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P02, Section 1 Number of Students: 465 Date of Examination: March 12, 2018

BROCK UNIVERSITY Page 1 of 9 Test 2, March 2018 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P02, Section 1 Number of Students: 465 Date of Examination: March 12, 2018 Number of hours: 50 min Time of Examination:

Answers. The Universe. Year 10 Science Chapter 6

Answers The Universe Year 10 Science Chapter 6 p133 1 The universe is considered to be the whole of all matter, energy, planets, solar systems, galaxies, and space. Many definitions of the universe also

V. Astronomy Section

EAS 100 Planet Earth Lecture Topics Brief Outlines V. Astronomy Section 1. Introduction, Astronomical Distances, Solar System Learning objectives: Develop an understanding of Earth s position in the solar

Earth Space Systems. Semester 1 Exam. Astronomy Vocabulary

Earth Space Systems Semester 1 Exam Astronomy Vocabulary Astronomical Unit- Aurora- Big Bang- Black Hole- 1AU is the average distance between the Earth and the Sun (93 million miles). This unit of measurement

Introduction to the Universe

What makes up the Universe? Introduction to the Universe Book page 642-644 Objects in the Universe Astrophysics is the science that tries to make sense of the universe by - describing the Universe (Astronomy)

Stars & Galaxies. Chapter 27, Section 1. Composition & Temperature. Chapter 27 Modern Earth Science Characteristics of Stars

Stars & Galaxies Chapter 27 Modern Earth Science Chapter 27, Section 1 27.1 Characteristics of Stars Composition & Temperature Scientists use the following tools to study stars Telescope Observation Spectral

Test 4 Final Review. 5/2/2018 Lecture 25

Test 4 Final Review 5/2/2018 Lecture 25 Apparent daily motion of celestial objects is due to earth s rotation Seasons are created due to the title of the Earth relative to the Sun Phases of the moon due

2. Very generally, describe how the Milky Way Galaxy formed. (Words or labeled picture)

Potter Name: Date: Hour: Score: /11 Learning Check 2.1 LT 2.1 Galaxy Formation: I am able to describe the formation of the Milky Way Galaxy and our solar system and model earth s position in each. 1. Label

IB Physics - Astronomy

Solar System Our Solar System has eight planets. The picture below shows their relative sizes, but NOT their relative distances. A planet orbits the sun, and has gravitationally cleared its orbital area

Beyond the Solar System 2006 Oct 17 Page 1 of 5

I. Stars have color, brightness, mass, temperature and size. II. Distances to stars are measured using stellar parallax a. The further away, the less offset b. Parallax angles are extremely small c. Measured

Astronomy Final Exam Study Guide

Astronomy Final Exam Study Guide 1. Daily motion is diurnal. Yearly motion is annual. 2. The Celestial equator lies directly above the Earth s equator. The Celestial North Pole lies directly above the

Astronomy 1001/1005. Final Exam. (250 points)

Name: Astronomy 1001/1005 Final Exam (250 points) Instructions: Mark your answers on this test AND your bubble sheet You will NOT get your bubble sheet back One page of notes is allowed Use a #2 pencil

Stars & Galaxies. Chapter 27 Modern Earth Science

Stars & Galaxies Chapter 27 Modern Earth Science Chapter 27, Section 1 27.1 Characteristics of Stars How do astronomers determine the composition and surface temperature of a star? Composition & Temperature

5) Which stage lasts the longest? a) viii b) I c) iv d) iii e) vi

1) Which of the following statements about globular clusters is false? a) Globular cluster stars are very metal- poor relative to the Sun. b) Globular cluster stars are more than 12 billion years old.

Astronomy Today. Eighth edition. Eric Chaisson Steve McMillan

Global edition Astronomy Today Eighth edition Eric Chaisson Steve McMillan The Distance Scale ~1 Gpc Velocity L Distance Hubble s law Supernovae ~200 Mpc Time Tully-Fisher ~25 Mpc ~10,000 pc Time Variable

ANSWER KEY. Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe. Telescopes Guided Reading and Study. Characteristics of Stars Guided Reading and Study

Stars, Galaxies, a the Universe Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe Telescopes Use Target Reading Skills Check student definitions for accuracy. 1. Electromagneticradiationisenergythatcan travel through

The Universe. What is it? What is in it? How did it form? How will it end? How do we know?

The Universe What is it? What is in it? How did it form? How will it end? How do we know? What is your place in the Universe? What is the universe? a. The study of the universe its nature, origins, and

A star is a massive sphere of gases with a core like a thermonuclear reactor. They are the most common celestial bodies in the universe are stars.

A star is a massive sphere of gases with a core like a thermonuclear reactor. They are the most common celestial bodies in the universe are stars. They radiate energy (electromagnetic radiation) from a

PHYS 160 Astronomy Take-home Test #4 Fall 2017

PHYS 160 Astronomy Take-home Test #4 Fall 2017 Instructions: This is a take-home test. The test period starts Monday 11/27/2017 at 2:10pm and ends at Wednesday 11/29/2017 at 1:10pm. The test must represent

ASTR Midterm 1 Phil Armitage, Bruce Ferguson

ASTR 1120-001 Midterm 1 Phil Armitage, Bruce Ferguson FIRST MID-TERM EXAM FEBRUARY 16 th 2006: Closed books and notes, 1 hour. Please PRINT your name and student ID on the places provided on the scan sheet.

Formation of the Universe & What is in Space? The Big Bang Theory and components of the Universe

Formation of the Universe & What is in Space? The Big Bang Theory and components of the Universe The Big Bang Theory The Big Bang Theory The Big Bang Theory is the most widely accepted scientific explanation

Universe Now. 12. Revision and highlights

Universe Now 12. Revision and highlights Practical issues about the exam The exam is on Monday 6.5. (12.00-16.00), lecture hall B121 (Exactum). Paper will be provided. You have 4 hours to finish the exam,

Earth Science, 13e Tarbuck & Lutgens

Earth Science, 13e Tarbuck & Lutgens Beyond Our Solar System Earth Science, 13e Chapter 24 Stanley C. Hatfield Southwestern Illinois College Properties of stars Distance Distances to the stars are very

CHAPTER 28 STARS AND GALAXIES

CHAPTER 28 STARS AND GALAXIES 28.1 A CLOSER LOOK AT LIGHT Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation, which is energy that travels in waves. Waves of energy travel at 300,000 km/sec (speed of light Ex:

outline 1. in the beginning. The Big Bang 2. galaxies -- different types 3. stars -- life cycle 4. the solar system -- sun and planets

Earth s Place in the Universe outline 1. in the beginning. The Big Bang 2. galaxies -- different types 3. stars -- life cycle 4. the solar system -- sun and planets the big bang the universe is expanding

Chapter 19 Galaxies. Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Each dot is a galaxy of stars. More distant, further into the past. halo

Chapter 19 Galaxies Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Each dot is a galaxy of stars. More distant, further into the past halo disk bulge Barred Spiral Galaxy: Has a bar of stars across the bulge Spiral Galaxy 1

Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE

Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens Chapter 25 Beyond Our Solar System 25.1 Properties of Stars Characteristics of Stars A constellation is an apparent group of stars originally named for mythical

Galaxies and Stars. 3. Base your answer to the following question on The reaction below represents an energy-producing process.

Galaxies and Stars 1. To an observer on Earth, the Sun appears brighter than the star Rigel because the Sun is A) hotter than Rigel B) more luminous than Rigel C) closer than Rigel D) larger than Rigel

Astronomy 102: Stars and Galaxies Final Exam Review Problems Revision 2

Astronomy 102: Stars and Galaxies Final Exam Review Problems Revision 2 Multiple Choice Questions: The first eight questions are multiple choice. Except where explicitly noted, only one answer is correct

Chapter 33 The History of a Star. Introduction. Radio telescopes allow us to look into the center of the galaxy. The milky way

Chapter 33 The History of a Star Introduction Did you read chapter 33 before coming to class? A. Yes B. No You can see about 10,000 stars with the naked eye. The milky way Radio telescopes allow us to

Astronomy 102: Stars and Galaxies Examination 3 Review Problems

Astronomy 102: Stars and Galaxies Examination 3 Review Problems Multiple Choice Questions: The first eight questions are multiple choice. Except where explicitly noted, only one answer is correct for each

Observing the Night Sky. Observing the Night Sky. Observing the Night Sky. Observing the Night Sky. Observing the Night Sky. Chapter 29 THE UNIVERSE

Hewitt/Lyons/Suchocki/Yeh Conceptual Integrated Science Constellations are groups of stars named over antiquity. A familiar constellation is Ursa Major, the Great Bear. Chapter 29 THE UNIVERSE The monthly

What is Earth Science?

What is Earth Science? A.EARTH SCIENCE: the study of Earth and its history B. Earth science is divided into 4 main branches: 1. Geology: study of the lithosphere 2. Oceanography: study of oceans 3. Meteorology:

X Rays must be viewed from space used for detecting exotic objects such as neutron stars and black holes also observing the Sun.

6/25 How do we get information from the telescope? 1. Galileo drew pictures. 2. With the invention of photography, we began taking pictures of the view in the telescope. With telescopes that would rotate

Stellar Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 3

Stellar Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 3 Chapter 7 1. A protostar is formed by a) the rapid expansion of gas from an exploding star. b) the gravitational collapse of a rotating interstellar cloud.

Directions: For numbers 1-30 please choose the letter that best fits the description.

Directions: For numbers 1-30 please choose the letter that best fits the description. 1. The main force responsible for the formation of the universe is: a. Gravity b. Frictional force c. Magnetic force

Earth in the Universe Unit Notes

Earth in the Universe Unit Notes The Universe - everything everywhere, 15-20 billion years old Inside the universe there are billions of Galaxies Inside each Galaxy there are billions of Solar Systems

The Universe and Galaxies

The Universe and Galaxies 16.1 http://dingo.care-mail.com/cards/flash/5409/galaxy.swf Universe The sum of all matter and energy that exists, that has ever existed, and that will ever exist. We will focus

Unit 7 Review Guide: The Universe

Unit 7 Review Guide: The Universe Light Year: Unit of distance used to measure the great vastness of space. Galaxy: Large group of stars, gas, and dust held together by gravity. Spiral Galaxy: Galaxy in

Which letter on the timeline best represents the time when scientists estimate that the Big Bang occurred? A) A B) B C) C D) D

1. The red shift of light from most galaxies is evidence that A) most galaxies are moving away from Earth B) a majority of stars in most galaxies are red giants C) the light slows down as it nears Earth

(Astronomy for Dummies) remark : apparently I spent more than 1 hr giving this lecture

(Astronomy for Dummies) remark : apparently I spent more than 1 hr giving this lecture A.D. 125? Ptolemy s geocentric model Planets ( ) wander among stars ( ) For more info: http://aeea.nmns.edu.tw/aeea/contents_list/universe_concepts.html

Number of Stars: 100 billion (10 11 ) Mass : 5 x Solar masses. Size of Disk: 100,000 Light Years (30 kpc)

THE MILKY WAY GALAXY Type: Spiral galaxy composed of a highly flattened disk and a central elliptical bulge. The disk is about 100,000 light years (30kpc) in diameter. The term spiral arises from the external

Chapter 28 Stars and Their Characteristics

Chapter 28 Stars and Their Characteristics Origin of the Universe Big Bang Theory about 10-20 bya all matter in the universe existed in a hot dense state about the size of an atom (tiny). That matter sort

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

The Electromagnetic Spectrum Three Kinds of Spectra Sun: The Nearest Star Radius 696,000 km 109 Re Mass 2 x 10^30 kg 300,000 Me Density 1400 kg/m^3 Luminosity 3.8x10^26 Watts (board calc.) Comp. 70% H,

Modern Astronomy Review #1

Modern Astronomy Review #1 1. The red-shift of light from distant galaxies provides evidence that the universe is (1) shrinking, only (3) shrinking and expanding in a cyclic pattern (2) expanding, only

PHYS103 Sec 901 Hour Exam No. 3 Page: 1

PHYS103 Sec 901 Hour Exam No. 3 Page: 1 PHYS103 Sec 901 Hour Exam No. 3 Page: 2 1 The star alpha-centauri C has moved across the sky by 3853 seconds of arc during the last thousand years - slightly more

PHYS103 Sec 901 Hour Exam No. 3 Page: 1

PHYS103 Sec 901 Hour Exam No. 3 Page: 1 PHYS103 Sec 901 Hour Exam No. 3 Page: 2 1 A steady X-ray signal with sudden bursts lasting a few seconds each is probably caused by a. a supermassive star. b. a

Introduction to Astronomy

Introduction to Astronomy Have you ever wondered what is out there in space besides Earth? As you see the stars and moon, many questions come up with the universe, possibility of living on another planet

Astronomy: Exploring the Universe

Course Syllabus Astronomy: Exploring the Universe Course Description Why do stars twinkle? Is it possible to fall into a black hole? Will the sun ever stop shining? Since the first glimpse of the night

M31 - Andromeda Galaxy M110 M32

UNIT 4 - Galaxies XIV. The Milky Way galaxy - a huge collection of millions or billions of stars, gas, and dust, isolated in space and held together by its own gravity M110 M31 - Andromeda Galaxy A. Structure

Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe

Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe 1.1 Our Modern View of the Universe Topics we will explore: What is our place in the universe? How did we come to be? How can we know what the universe was like in the

Astronomy. physics.wm.edu/~hancock/171/ A. Dayle Hancock. Small 239. Office hours: MTWR 10-11am

Astronomy A. Dayle Hancock adhancock@wm.edu Small 239 Office hours: MTWR 10-11am Planetology II Key characteristics Chemical elements and planet size Radioactive dating Solar system formation Solar nebula

3. c 4. a 5. f 6. b 7. e. 1. Stars are bright and hot. 2. Distances between stars are measured in light-years. 3. The sun is a yellow star.

Stars, Galaxies, Use Target Reading Skills Check student definitions for accuracy. 1. Electromagnetic radiation is energy that can travel through space in the form of waves. 2. visible light 3. wavelength

Astronomy Part 1 Regents Questions

Regents Questions 1. The Sun revolves around the center of A) Polaris B) Aldebaran C) Earth D) the Milky Way Galaxy 4. In which sequence are the items listed from least total mass to greatest total mass?

The Universe. But first, let s talk about light! 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Universe But first, let s talk about light! Light is fast! The study of light All forms of radiation travel at 300,000,000 meters (186,000 miles) per second Since objects in space are so far away,

WHAT WE KNOW. Scientists observe that every object in the universe is moving away from each other. Objects furthest away are moving the fastest. So..

ASTRONOMY THE BIG BANG THEORY WHAT WE KNOW Scientists observe that every object in the universe is moving away from each other. Objects furthest away are moving the fastest. So.. WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? If

Foundations of Astrophysics

Foundations of Astrophysics Barbara Ryden The Ohio State University Bradley M. Peterson The Ohio State University Preface xi 1 Early Astronomy 1 1.1 The Celestial Sphere 1 1.2 Coordinate Systems on a Sphere

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION (The Universe) A. THE UNIVERSE: The universe encompasses all matter in existence. According to the Big Bang Theory, the universe was formed 10-20 billion years ago from a

Astronomy. Study of objects in space such as the Sun, stars, planets, comets, gas, & galaxies. *Also, the Earth s place in the universe.

Astronomy Study of objects in space such as the Sun, stars, planets, comets, gas, & galaxies. *Also, the Earth s place in the universe. Universe = everything that exists Disclaimer: Astrology is NOT science!!!

Stars and Galaxies. Content Outline for Teaching

Section 1 Stars A. Patterns of stars - constellations 1. Ancient cultures used mythology or everyday items to name constellations 2. Modern astronomy studies 88 constellations 3. Some constellations are

Astronomy Hour Exam 2 March 10, 2011 QUESTION 1: The half-life of Ra 226 (radium) is 1600 years. If you started with a sample of 100 Ra 226

Astronomy 101.003 Hour Exam 2 March 10, 2011 QUESTION 1: The half-life of Ra 226 (radium) is 1600 years. If you started with a sample of 100 Ra 226 atoms, approximately how many Ra 226 atoms would be left

Midterm Study Guide Astronomy 122

Midterm Study Guide Astronomy 122 Introduction: 1. How is modern Astronomy different from Astrology? 2. What is the speed of light? Is it constant or changing? 3. What is an AU? Light-year? Parsec? Which