# Can We See Them?! Planet Detection! Planet is Much Fainter than Star!

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1 Can We See Them?! Planet Detection! Estimating f p! Not easily! Best cases were reported in late 2008! Will see these later! Problem is separating planet light from star light! Star is 10 9 times brighter in visible light! Only 10 6 times brighter in infrared! Planet is Much Fainter than Star! Wobbling star! Indirect Detection! Detect effect of planet on star (both orbit around center of mass)! M! 1! M! 2! M! 1! M! 2! M! 1! M! 2! Large planet will make a star wobble! M =! 1! M! 2! M >>! 1! M! 2! In plane of sky observe position shift! Along our line of sight! Observe Doppler Shift! 1!

2 The Astrometric Technique! Star and Planet Orbit Center of Mass! Measure stellar position (angle) accurately - see wobble compared to more distant stars! How far does the star wobble?! Center of mass! M! *! M! pl! R! *! M r! r! R *! =! pl! M! *! We measure angle; for small angles,! R! Θ =! *! D! in radians! Θ! R! *! D! so! M r! Θ =! pl! 1! Big planet, big orbit M! *! D! small star, close to sun! Current limit: 1 mas = 10-3 arcsec = degrees!! = radians! e.g. M pl! = M Jupiter!, M = M, D = 15 ly Θ = 1 mas! *!! 1 mas 30 ly! -1 mas The Sun as viewed from 10 pc (~30 ly) 2!

3 The Spectroscopic Method! Light is a wave! The Doppler Shift! wavelength! (λ)! Relies on Doppler Effect! Motion of star towards and away from us! Most planets around other stars found by this method so far! Doppler Shift wavelength seen by! BLUESHIFT! moving star! λ observed! λ emitted! = 1 +! v! c! wavelength seen by! REDSHIFT! Magnitude and direction of velocity! But only along line-of-sight! The Spectroscopic Technique! Measure velocity, not position, of star! Use spectrometer to get Doppler Shift of spectral line! light! shift! Shift! λ! M V! pl!! M *! r! *! 1/2! 1/2! Big planet, small orbit! Small star! Distance doesnʼt matter (except for brightness)! Edge - On! 3!

4 30 ly What We Can Learn! 1. There is a planet!!(if not a mistake)! 2. The orbital period (P)!!(The time for pattern to repeat)! 3. The orbital radius!! r 3 M * P 2! (Keplerʼs Third Law)!! 4.! Lower limit to planet mass ( M planet )!!Conservation of momentum! M!pl! >! M *! V *! P! 2π r! = if we see orbit edge-on! > if tilted! Comparison of Search Methods! 100! Stars! Advantages! Astrometric! Big Planet! Big Orbit! Small Star! Nearby Star! Spectroscopic! Big Planet! Small Orbit! Small Star! --! Edge-on Orbit! M pl! (in Jupiter Masses)! 30! 10! 3! 1! 0.3! Astrometric Technique (1 mas)! Jupiter! Saturn! (at ~ 15 ly)! Spectroscopic Technique ( m s -1 )! Separate Stars! 0.1! 0.01! 0.1! 1 10! 100! Orbital Radius (AU)! 4!

5 Other Methods! Transits: Planet passes in front of a star! planet! star! Artistʼs conception of Transit of HD209458! us! Only about 0.5% of stars with planets will line up! Light from star! transit! Time! First planet found with this method in January 2003; 35 detected as of January 2008, 55 by January 2009! Microlensing: Light from more distant star is focused by gravity of nearer star passing in front! us! nearer star! distant star! Fortuitous alignment brightens! light planet! 8 planets found this way as of January 2009! from distant star! Copyright Lynette Cook used with permission! To simulate, try Timing! Planets from the Transit Method! Delays or advances in periodic signals! Pulses from pulsar! First planets found that way in 1992! Not suitable for life!! Oscillations in white dwarfs! First found this way in 2007 by grad student at UT! OGLE-TR-10! Light curve! Star field, shows star! 5!

6 Planet Detected by Microlensing! Current Statistics (Jan. 2011)! OGLE 2005-BLG-235Lb, announced 1/25/06 Sharp spike indicates second lens.! Mass of second lens only 8 x 10 5 as massive as star. Most likely mass of planet is 5.5 M earth and separation from star is 2.6 AU.! Most likely star is low mass (0.22 M sun ).! This method can detect very low mass planets, but they are onetime events. Cannot follow up.! Based on Extrasolar Planets Encyclopedia! Planets! 54 stars with multiple planets! Most planets in one system is 5 (55 Cancri)! Least massive! M = 0.01 M Jup = 3.0 M earth (MOA-2007-B)! M = 1.8 M earth (Gl 581e, but in question)! Implications of Planets around other stars! Planets more massive than Jupiter can form around stars like the Sun.! Number of planets for different masses! Large Planets can form much closer to a star than Jupiter (or move there)! Does this mean we are unusual and our ideas about other planetary systems are just solar system chauvinism?! Not necessarily.! The ones found so far are the easy ones. (Big planets close to a star)! Now there are many more with lower masses than higher masses.! Too early to say that we are unusual.! 6!

7 Estimating f p! Estimating f p! Maximum? f p ~ 1! All young stars may have disks! Binaries?! Can have disks, but planet formation?! Even if form planets, orbits may not be stable! If reject binaries, f p < 0.3! Minimum?! Based on success rate of searches (n found /n searched )! Extrapolate trends to finding! Smaller planets, larger orbits,! Estimates range from 0.3 to 0.7! Note much larger than 0.02 given in book! Allowed range: f p = 0.3 to 1.0! Explain your choice!! Include/exclude binaries?! Transits!! CoRoT Dec present!! Ongoing Missions and Future Prospects! Has reported numerous new planets!!! Kepler (Launched March 2009)!!Monitor 100,000 stars for 4 years!! Hundreds of Terrestrial Planets! So far, 11 announced, 700 candidates! Most notable: Kepler 10b, first rocky planet, 1.4 times size of Earth! Astrometric Method!!! GAIA Launch planned for 2012!!M J Planets out to 600 ly; predicted to detect 15,000 planets! 7!

8 Direct Detection NOW!! Three planets detected with groundbased telescopes working in the near-infrared. They used adaptive optics and other techniques to block the direct starlight and obtain very good spatial resolution.! Three planets at 24, 38, and 68 AU. Evidence for orbiting the star. Best guess masses 5-14 M jupiter.! Reported in Science, 2008, 322, 1348 by Marois et al.! And, in the same issue! A planet just inside the dust ring around the star Fomalhaut. A coronagraph was used to block the star light and the Hubble Space Telescope avoids seeing.! The faint spot in the box moves across the sky with Fomalhaut (proper motion), but with a slight shift due to its orbital motion (see inset). Announced by Kalas et al. Science, 2008, 322, 1345.! Planet about 3 M jupiter and 119 AU from star. Keeps inner edge of dust ring sharp. Light may actually be reflected off a circumplanetary disk.! Direct Detection in Future! TPF Concepts! TPF-I Infrared Interferometer (2020)! Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF)! Under study, not planned for this decade.! TPF-C Visible light coronagraph! TPF-I Infrared interferometer! Goal is to detect earth-mass planets! And to see what gases in atmosphere! Suitable for life?! TPF-C Visible light coronagraph (2014)! 8!

9 Spectroscopy of atmosphere! 9!

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