# Part IX ( 45-47) Factorization

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1 Part IX ( 45-47) Factorization Satya Mandal University of Kansas, Lawrence KS USA January Unique Factorization Domain (UFD) Abstract We prove evey PID is an UFD. We also prove if D is a UFD, then so is D[x]. Definition Suppose R is a commutative ring (as always with unity 1). 1. Let a,b R. If b = ac for some c R, we say that a divides b. In this case, we write a b. 2. An element u R is called an unit in R, if it has an inverse in R. This is same as saying a Two elements a,b R would be called associatates, if a = ub for some unit u R. (Note, being associates is an equivalence relation.) 1

2 4. Assume R is an integral domain. An nonunit p R is said to be and irreducible element, if p = ab = a or b is a unit. Note, if p is irreducible and q = ub for some unit u R, then q is also irreducible. In other words, if p,q are assocites then p is irreducible if and only if q is irreducible. Now, we define Unique Factorization domain. Definition Suppose D is an integral domain. We day D is an Unique Factorization domain (UFD), if 1. Each nonzero, nonunit element a D is a product of irreducible elemnets. 2. (Uniqueness): For such a nonzero, nonunit element a D, if a = p 1 p 2 p r = q 1 q 2 q s where p i,q j are irreducible then r = s and q j can be relabeled so that p i,q i are associates. Example The ring of integers Z is a UFD. 2. If F is a field, then the polynomial ring F[x] is a UFD (see theorem 23.20). We also define principal ideal domain (PID). Definition An integral domain D is said to be a principal ideal domain (PID), if every ideal is principal (i.e. any ideali = Dx for some x.) The goal of this section is prove two theorems: 1. Every PID is a UFD, 2. If D is a UFD, so is the polynomial ring D[x]. 2

3 45.1 Every PID is a UFD Lemma Let R be a commutative ring and let I 1 I 2 I 3 is an ascending chain of ideals of R. Then I = i=1 I i is an ideal. Proof. Let a,b I. Then, a I i and b I j for some i,j. We can assume i j, and hence a,b I j. So, a±b I j, hence a±b I. Also, if a I and c R, we would like to prove ca I. First, a I i for some i. So, ca I i. So, ca I. The proof is complete. Lemma Let D be a PID. Let I 1 I 2 I 3 is an ascending chain of ideals of D. Then, there is an integer n such that I i = I n for all i n. (We say every ascending chain of ideals terminates. We also say that ascending chain condition (ACC) holds for ideals in D.) Proof. First, I = i=1 I i is an ideal. SinceD is a PID,I = Da for some a I. So, there is an integer n such that a I n. So, I = Da I n. So, I n = I. Therefore, I n = I I r I r n. So,I n = I = I r r n. The proof is complete. Remark. Any ring R that satisfies ACC for ideals is called a Noetherian ring. Noetherian rings are the main focus of higher level algebra courses at KU. Lemma Let D be an integral domain. 1. For elements a,b D, Da Bb b a. 3

4 2. For elements a,b D, Da = Db a, b are associates. Proof. (1) is obvious. For (2), Da = Db. Since a Db, we have a = λb for some λ D. Similarly, b = µa for some µ D. So, a = λb = λµa. So, λµ = 1. So, λ is an unit. Therefore, a,b are associates. The proof is complete. Remark. A lot of properties we studied about the polynomial rings F[x] are also enjoyed by any PID, as follows. Theorem 45.8 (45.11). Let D be a PID. For a D, if a 0 and not a unit, then a is product of irreducible elements in D. Proof. Claim: a has an irreducible factor. If a is irreducible then the claim is established. If a is not irreducible, a = a 1 b 1, for some nonzero nonunits a 1,b 1. If one of them is irreducible, then the claim is established. So, assume both are reducible. So, Da Da 1 and Da Da 1. Now we apply the same argument to a 1. Since a 1 is reducible, a 1 = a 2 b 2 for or some nonzero nonunits a 2,b 2. If one of them is irreducible, then the claim is established, becausea = b 1 a 2 b 2. If both are reducible, this process continues an we have a chain Da Da 1 Da 2 Since ACC for ideals holds in D, this process must terminate. So, a r is irreducible, and a = b 1 b 2 b r q a r. So, the claim is established. Now write a = p 1 c 1, where p 1 is irreducible. If c 1 is irreducible, then the proof is complete. If not c 1 = p 2 c 2, where p 2 is irreducible. This way we get a chain of ideals Da Dc 1 Dc 2 4

5 again, since ACC for ideals holds in D, this process must terminate. So, c k irreducible, for some k and a = p 1 p 2 p r 1 c r is a product of irreducible factors. The proof is complete. Lemma 45.9 (45.12). Let D be a PID and p D. Then, p is irreducible if and only if Dp is a maximal ideal. Proof. ( ): Suppose p is irreducible. Since p is not a unit, Dp D. If Dp is not maximal, then there is an ideal I such that Dp I and Dp I. Since D is a PID I = Da for some nonunit a D. Noe p I = Da. So, p = ba for some b. Since I Dp, b is also a nonunit. This contradicts that p is irreducible. This establishes that Dp is maximal. ( ): Suppose Dp is maximal. Suppose p = ab. Assume a is not an unit. Then Dp Da. Since Dp is maximal, Dp = Da. By the lemma above p,a are associates. So, p is irreducible. The proof is complete.. Theorem (45.13). Suppose D is a PID and p D is an irreducible element. Now, for a, b D we have p ab = (p a or p b). Proof. Since p is irreducible, Dp is maximal ideal. So, Dp is a prime ideal. Since p ab we have ab = λp Dp. Since Dp is prime, either a Dp or b Dp. Which is same as saying either p a or p b. The proof is complete. Corollary Suppose D is a PID and p D is an irreducible element. For a i D we have p a 1 a 2 a n = p a i for some i = 1,...,n. Proof. Use induction. The proof is complete. Definition Let R be an integral domain. A nonzero nonunit p R is called a prime element if for a,b D we have p ab = (p a or p b). 5

6 Lemma Let D be a PID. Then, an element p D is irreducible p is prime. Proof. Suppose p is irreducible. Then, by theorem 45.10, p is prime. Now suppose p is a prime. Suppose p is not reducible. So, p = ab. So, p a or p b. Without loss of generality, assume p a. So, a = λp. So, p = ab = λpb. So, λb = 1. Hence, b is a unit. The proof is complete. Following theorem is analogous to theorem on polynomial rings F[x]. Theorem (45.17). Suppose D is a PID. Then D is a UFD. Proof. By theorem 45.8, any nonzero element a D is product of irreducible element. The proof of the uniquenss of such factorization is exactly same as that of theorem I leave it as an exercise. The proof is complete. Remark. 1. Suppose F is a field F. (a) We proved that the polynomial ring F[x] is a PID. (b) We also proved F[x] is a UFD, independently. The same follows from the above theorem. (c) However, polynomial ring F[x, y] in two indeterminates is not a PID. The ideal (x,y) := F[x,y]x + F[x,y]y is not principal. 2. The ring of integers Z is a PID and a UFD. 6

7 45.2 If D is a UFD, then so is D[x] We start with the definition of gcd. Definition Let D be a UFD and a 1,a 2,...,a n D. An element d D is called a greatest common divisor (gcd, if 1. d a i for all i = 1,2,...,n. 2. If there is another element c D such that c a i for all i = 1,2,...,n, then c d. Usually, there are more than one gcds for any given a 1,a 2,...,a n D. However, if c,d are two gcds of a 1,a 2,...,a n D, then c d and d c. So, c,d are associates. For integers a 1,a 2,...,a n Z if d = gcd(a 1,a 2,...,a n ) then so is d, according to this definition. At high school, the positive gcd is refered to as "the gcd" Premitive Polynomial In 23 discussed when a polynomial with integer coefficients is called primitive. We extend the same as follows. Definition Suppose D is a UFD. A non constant polynomial f(x) = a 0 +a 1 x+ +a n x n D[x] is called premitive if gdc(a 0,a 1,...,a n ) = 1. Lemma (45.22). Suppose D is a UFD and f(x) = a 0 +a 1 x+ +a n x n D[x] be a polynomial. Then 7

8 1. Definition: c = gcd(a 0,a 1,...,a n ) is called the content of f. The content is unique only upto associates. 2. f(x) = cg(x) where g(x) D[x] is a primitive polynomial. Proof. Obvious. The following is an analogue of a theorem (not in the textboo; but I did) in 23 on polynomials with integer coefficients. Lemma (45.25 Gauss Lemma). Suppose D is a UFD. Then the product of two premitive polynomial in D[x] is primitive. Proof. (It will exactly same as that in 23. I will copy and paste.) Write f(x) = a 0 +a 1 x+ +a n x n and g(x) = b 0 +b 1 x+ +b m x m where a i,b j D. Suppose p D is an irreducible element. We will show p does not divide some coefficient of f(x)g(x). Since f is primitive p does not divide some coefficient of f. Let a j be the first one: p a 0,p a 1,...,p a j 1,p a j. Similarly, there is a k such that p b 0,p b 1,...,p b k 1,p b k. Now, coefficient c j+k of x j+k in f(x)g(x) is give by c j+k = a j b k +(a j+1 b k 1 +a j+2 b k 2 + +a j+k b 0 )+(a j 1 b k+1 +a j 2 b k+2 + +a 0 b j+k ) Now, p a j b k and all the other terms are divisible by p. So, p c j+k. The proof is complete. Corollary Suppose D is a UFD. Then product of finitely many premitive polynomials in D[x] is primitive. Proof. Use Induction. Before we proceed, let me remind you again, for a field F, the polynomial ring F[x] is a UFD (in fact a PID). 8

9 Lemma (45.27). Let D be a UFD and F be the field of fractions of D. Let f(x) D[x] be a nonconstant polynomial. 1. If f(x) is irreducible in D[x], then f(x) is also irreducible in F[x]. 2. If f(x) is premitive in D[x] and is irreducible in F[x], then f(x) is irreducible in D[x]. Proof. To prove the first point, assume f(x) is irreducible in D[x]. Now suppose f(x) = r(x)s(x) where r(x),s(x) F[x]; deg(r) < deg(f), deg(s) < deg(f). We do the process of "clearing denominators" as follows: Write r(x) = a 0 +a 1 x+a 2 x 2 + +a t x t d 1 = r 1(x) d 1 = c 1r 2 (x) d 1 where a i,d 1 D and r 1 is the numerator, c 1 = content(r 1 ) and r 2 is a primitive polynomial. Similarly, s(x) = c 2s 2 (x) d 2 where c 2,d 2 D, s 2 (x) D[x] is primitive. Write f(x) = cg(x), where c = content(f) and g is primitive. So, we have or f(x) = cg(x) = r(x)s(x) = (c 1c 2 )r 2 (x)s 2 (x) d 1 d 2 (cd 1 d 2 )g(x) = (c 1 c 2 )(r 2 (x)s 2 (x)). Since 2 (x),s 2 (x) are primitive, so is the product r 2 (x)s 2 (x). Since the content of two sides must be associates, There fore c 1 c 2 = ucd 1 d 2 for some unit u D. (cd 1 d 2 )g(x) = (ucd 1 d 2 )(r 2 (x)s 2 (x)). or f(x) = cg(x) = ucr 2 (x)s 2 (x). 9

10 So, we have shown that f(x) is has a nontrivial factorization in D[x], which contradicts the hypothesis. So, f(x) is irreducible in F[x]. This completes the proof of (1). Remark. In fact, f(x) factors in to polynomials of same degree in D[x]. To prove (2), assume that f is primitive and irreducible in F[x]. Let f(x) = r(x)s(x) be non trivial factorization in F[x]. Since f is primitive, neither r nor s are constant (in fact both are premitive. This means 0 < deg(r) < deg(f),0 < deg(s) < deg(f). So, f(x) factors into two polynomials of degree less than deg(f) in F[x], which is a contradiction. The proof is complete. Corollary (45.28). Suppose D is a UFD and F is the field of its fractions. Let f(x) D[x] be a nonconstant polynomial. Suppose f(x) = r(x)s(x) for some r,s F[x] with deg(r) < deg(f),deg(s) < deg(f). Then f(x) = r 1 (x)s 1 (x) for some r 1,s 1 D[x] with deg(r 1 ) = deg(r),deg(s 1 ) = deg(s). Proof. See the remark in the proof of Before we state our main theorem, I want to settle Who are the irreducible elements in D[x]. Lemma (Extra). Let D be a UFD. 1. Suppose p D is irreducible in D. Then, p is irreducible in D[x]. 2. Let F be the field of fractions of D. Suppose f(x) D[x] with deg(f) > 0. Then, f is irreducible in D[x] if and only if f is premitive and f is irreducible in F[x]. Proof. Suppose p D is irreducible. If p has a nontrivial factorization in D[x], by degree comparison, factor must be constants. So, that will give a nontrivial factorization of p in D. So, p is irreducible in D[x]. 10

11 To prove (2), first suppose f is irreducible in D[x]. Write f(x) = cg(x) where c = content(f) D and g is premitive. If c is nonunit, then f(x) = cg(x) is a nontrivial factorization. So, c is a unit. This means f is premitive. Now if f(x) has a nontrivial factorization in F[x], it factors into polynomials of smaller degree. By (45.21), then f will also factors into polynomials of smaller degree in D[x]. Which would contradicts the hypothesis. So, f is irreducible in F[x]. Now, we prove the converse. Suppose f is premitive and f is irreducible in F[x]. Suppose f(x) = r(x)s(x) be a nontrivial factorization of f in D[x]. Since f is premitive, r(x),s(x) are nonconstant polynomials. So, f(x) = r(x)s(x) is a nontrivial factorization of f in F[x]. This would be a contradicts the hypothesis. So, f is irreducible in D[x]. The proof is complete. Theorem (45p29). Suppose D is a UFD. Then, the polynomial ring D[x] is a UFD. Proof. (Existance of factorization): Suppose f D[x] be nonunit. Write f(x) = cg(x) where c = content(f) D and g is a premitive polynomials. Since D is UFD c = p 1 p 2 p m where p i D is irreducible in D and hence irreducible in D[x]. Again, let F be the field of fractions of F. Since F[x] is a UFD g(x) = q 1 (x)q 2 (x) q n (x) where q i are irreducible in F[x]. By (45.21), g(x) = P 1 (x)p 2 (x) P n (x) P i D[x] and deg(p i ) = deg(q i ). Since g is premitive, P i are premitive. By uniqueness of factorization in F[x], P i,q i are associates. So, P i is irreducible in F[x]. By (45.22), 11

12 P i are irreducible in D[x]. So, f(x) = cg(x) = p 1 p 2 p m P 1 (x)p 2 (x) P n (x) is a factorization of f(x) in to irreducible elements in D[x]. Uniqueness of Factorization: Let f(x) = cg(x) D[x] where c = content(f) and g is premitive. Suppose f(x) = p 1 p 2 p m P 1 (x)p 2 (x) P n (x) = q 1 q 2 q s Q 1 (x)q 2 (x) Q r (x) where p i,q i, D are irreducible and P i,q i D[x] are irreducible polynomials of positive degree. Comparing contents c = up 1 p 2 p m = vq 1 q 2 q s for some units u,v. Since D is a UFD, after relabeling (and adjusting the units), we have m = s and p i = q i. So, we have g(x) = P 1 (x)p 2 (x) P n (x) = Q 1 (x)q 2 (x) Q r (x). Since g(x) is premitive, P i,q i are premitive. So, P i,q i are irreducible in F[x]. Since F[X] is a UFD, r = m and after relabeling, P i = a i b i Q i, where a i,b i D. So, b i P i = a i Q i. Comparing contents, b i = u i a i. So, u i a i P i = a i Q i. or u i P i = Q i. So, P i,q i are associates. The proof is complete. Corollary (45.30). Let F be a field and x 1,...,x n be indeterminates. Then the polynomial ring F[x 1,...,x n ] is a UFD. Proof. Inductively, F[x 1,...,x r ] = F[x 1,...,x r 1 ][x r ] is a UFD, by thoerem Exercise Let F be a field and R = F[x,y] be the polynomial ring. Prove that the ideal (x, y) := Rx + Ry is not principal. 12

13 46 Euclidain Domain Intuitively, a Euclidian Domain is a commutative ring where Division Algorithm works. We prove any Euclidian Domain is a PID. Definition 46.1 (46.1). A Euclidian norm on an integral domain D is a function ν : D \{0} {0,1,2,3,...} such that 1. For a,b D with b 0, there exist q,r D such that a = bq +r where r = 0 or ν(r) < ν(b). 2. For a,b D, where a 0,b 0, we have ν(a) ν(ab). An integral domain with an Euclidian norm is called a Euclidian domain. Example For n Z and n 0 define ν(n) = n. Then, ν is an Euclidian norm on Z. So, Z is an Euclidian domain. 2. Let F be a field and F[x] be the polynomial ring. For f F[x] and f 0 define ν(n) = deg(f). Then, ν is an Euclidian norm on F[x]. So, F[x] is an Euclidian domain. Theorem 46.3 (46.4). Every Euclidean domain D is a PID. Proof. Let D be an Euclidean domain with Euclidean norm ν. Let I is an ideal. We will prove that I is principal. If I = {0}, then it is principal. So, assume I has nonzero elements. Let n = min{ν(x) : x I,x 0}. Let b I be such that ν(b) = n. We will prove I = Db (We follow the same argument we used for polynomial rings.) 13

14 Since b D, we have Rb I. Now, let a I. a = bq +r where r = 0 or ν(r) < ν(b). But r = a bq I. So, by minimality of ν(b), we have r = 0. So, a = bq Db. So, I = Db. The proof is complete. Corollary Every Euclidean domain D is a UFD. Proof. By above theorem O is a PID, hence a UFD Units in Euclidean Domains Theorem 46.5 (46.6). Let D be an Euclidean domain with Euclidean norm ν. 1. Then, ν(1) = min{ν(x) : x D,x 0}. 2. For u D we have u is a unit ν(u) = ν(1). Proof. (1) follows from the second property of nu as follows: a D,a 0 ν(1) ν(1a) = ν(a). To prove (2) suppose u D is a unit. Then, ν(1) ν(u) ν(uu 1 ) = ν(1). So ν(u) = ν(1). Conversely, suppose ν(1) = ν(u). Se divide! by u, we have 1 = uq +r for some q,r D r = 0 or ν(r) < ν(u). Since ν(u) = ν(1) is minimum, r = 0. So, 1 = uq. So, u is a unit. The proof is complete. Theorem 46.6 (46.9). (Euclidean Algorithm): Suppose D is an Euclidean domain. Then the Euclidean Algorithm of computing gcd(a, b) by long division works. Proof. Exercise/skip. 14

15 47 Gaussian Integers Definition A complex numbers a + bi with a, b Z is called a Gaussian Integer. 1. The set Z+Zi of all Gaussian Integers forms anintegral domain. 2. For x = a+bi Z+Zi define N(x) = a 2 +b 2. This function N will be called a/the norm on Z+Zi. N has the following properties: For x, y Z + Zi (a) N(x) 0 (b) (c) n(x) = 0 x = 0 N(xy) = N(x)N(y). 3. Theorem 47.2 (47.4). N is an Euclidean norm. Proof. skip. 15

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