# Solutions of exercise sheet 8

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1 D-MATH Algebra I HS 14 Prof. Emmanuel Kowalski Solutions of exercise sheet 8 1. In this exercise, we will give a characterization for solvable groups using commutator subgroups. See last semester s (Algebra I, HS 2014) Exercise Sheet 3, Exercise 6, for the definition and some properties of the commutator subgroup. 1. Let G be a group and G 1 G a normal subgroup such that G/G 1 is abelian. Show that [G, G] G Deduce that G is solvable if and only if there exists m 1 such that G (m) = {1}, where the G (m) are subgroups defined inductively via G (0) = G G (i+1) = [G (i), G (i) ]. Solution: Recall that for a monic polynomial f Z[X] we know that f is irreducible in Z[X] if and only if it is irreducible in Q[X] 1. By Point 4 of the Exercise referred to in the problem, the commutator [G, G] lies in the kernel of the projection map G G/G 1, because G/G 1 is abelian by hypothesis. This kernel is clearly G 1, so that [G, G] G By Point 1 and 3 of the Exercise referred to in the problem, the G (i) form a subnormal series with abelian quotients, so that if G (m) is trivial for some m 1, then G is solvable. Conversely, suppose that G is solvable with a subnormal sequence with abelian quotients {1} = G m G m 1 G 1 G 0 = G. We can prove that G (m) = {1} by checking with an induction on k 0 that G (k) G k. This property is trivial for k = 0 and it is the previous point for k = 1. Moreover, whenver G (k) G k, one gets G (k+1) = [G (k), G (k) ] [G k, G k ] G k+1, where the first inclusion is immediate from the definition of commutator and the second is immediate from the first point Show that S 3 and S 4 are solvable groups. 2. Show that the group A 5 is generated by the two permutations (1 2)(3 4) and (1 3 5). Please turn over!

2 3. Show that [S 5, S 5 ] = A 5 and deduce that the group S 5 is not solvable. Solution: 1. It is clear that {1} A 3 S 3 is a subnormal sequence with abelian quotients, so that S 3 is solvable. For S 4, notice that V = {id, (1 2)(3 4), (1 4)(2 3), (1 3)(2 4)} A 4. It is indeed easy to check that it is a subgroup with the same group structure of C 2 C 2, and normality is immediate from the fact that it is the union of the permutations of cycle type and 2+2 in S 4, so that one has V 4 S 4 and in particular V 4 A 4. Then A 4 /V 4 = 12/4 = 3, so that A 4 /V 4 is cyclic and hence abelian. Then we can embed a C 2 in V 4 as C 2 = {id, (1 2)(3 4)}. In conclusion, the following is a subnormal sequence with abelian quotients: so that S 4 is solvable. {1} C 2 V 4 A 4 S 4, 2. We have that S 5 = 5!= 120, so that A 5 = 60. Let H = (1 2)(3 4), (1 3 5). Clearly H A 5 because it is generated by even permutations. Let us first notice that H contains an element of order 5: H (1 2)(3 4)(1 3 5) = ( ). This means that H is divisible by 2 (the order of (1 2)(3 4)), 3 (the order of (1 3 5)) and 5, so that H is divisible by 30. Suppose by contraddiction that H = 30. Then [A 5 : H] so that H would be a normal subgroup of A 5, which is simple, contraddiction. Hence H = A Clearly [S 5, S 5 ] because commutators are even permutation by construction. For the other inclusion, by the previous point it is enough to prove that (1 2)(3 4) and (1 3 5) lie in [S 5, S 5 ]. This is quite immediate using conjugation in S 5 (more precisely, the fact that conjugation classes consist of elements with the same cycle type): (1 2) is conjugated to (3 4), so that for some g S 5 we have g(1 2)g 1 = (3 4), so that [(1 2), g] = (1 2)g(1 2)g 1 = (1 2)(3 4) [S 5, S 5 ]. (1 3) is conjugated to (3 5), so that for some g S 5 we have g(1 3)g 1 = (3 5), so that [(1 3), g] = (1 3)g(1 3)g 1 = (1 3)(3 5) = (1 3 5) [S 5, S 5 ]. This proves that [S 5, S 5 ] = A 5. Since A 5 is simple, [A 5, A 5 ] is either trivial or equal to A 5. If we prove that it is non-trivial, then we can conclude that A 5 and S 5 are not solvable because of Exercise 1. See next page!

3 3. Let K be a field and consider the group {( ) a x B 2 = a, b K, x K} GL 0 b 2 (K). Show that B 2 is solvable. Can you find a generalization to the subgroup B n of upper-triangular matrices in GL n (K), for n 2? Solution: For n 1, we consider the invertible upper-triangular matrices B n = {(a ij ) 1 i,j n : a ij = 0 for j < i, a ii K } GL n (K). We claim that B n is solvable (and consider n fixed). It is easy to check that the map π 0 : B n (K ) n (λ ij ) i,j (λ ii ) is a surjective group homomorphism. Let M 0 = ker(π 0 ). Then B n /M 0 = (K ) n is abelian. Notice that M 0 consists of the upper-triangular matrices with 1 in all entries of the diagonal. We know find a normal subsequence of M 0 by considering matrices with more and more zeroes. Define, for k = 0, 1,..., n 1, N k = {(a ij ) i,j M 0 a ij = 0 for 1 j i k}. Those are easily seen to be subgroups of M 0 satisfying N k N k 1 for all k. Moreover, N 0 = M 0 and N n 1 = {1}. Indeed, N k is the subgroup of matrices with 1 in the principal diagonal, and zeroes in the first k upper partial diagonals. We want to prove that N k is a normal subgroup of N k 1 with abelian quotient for each k = 1,..., n in order to conclude. This is easily done by observing that for k = 1,..., n the maps p k : N k 1 K n k (λ ij ) i,j (λ i,j+k ) are surjective group homomorphisms. Indeed, those maps just copy out the first upper partial diagonal which is not required to be vanishing, so that N k = ker(p k ) for each k, implying normality and commutativity of the quotient (which is just isomorphic to a power of K). In conclusion, we have a subnormal sequence with abelian quotients {1} = N n 1 N n 2 N 1 N 0 = M 0 B n. 4. (Gauss s Lemma) Let R be a UFD and K = Frac(R). We say that the elements a 1,..., a n R are coprime if whenever u a i for each i, then u R. We call a nonzero polynomial p R[X] primitive if its coefficients are coprime. Prove the following statements: Please turn over!

4 1. Each irreducible element in R (i.e., a non-zero non-unit in R which cannot be written as product of two non-units) is prime in R (i.e., whenever it divides a product bc, then it divides b or c). 2. If a, b R are coprime and b ac for some c R, then b c. 3. Any element λ K can be written as a quotient λ = a/b, with a, b R coprime elements. 4. The product of two primitive polynomials p, q R[X] is a primitive polynomial. [Hint: For d an irreducible element, notice that there is an isomorphism of rings R[X]/dR[X] = (R/dR)[X], and deduce that R[X]/dR[X] is an integral domain.] 5. If f R[X] can be factored as f = gh with g, h K[X], then there exist g, h R[X] such that f = g h and g = λg for some λ K. [Hint: Prove that one can write g = γ G for some γ K and G R[X] primitive polynomial. You main need to use the three previous points.] 6. A polynomial f R[X] is irreducible in R[X] if and only if it is primitive and it is irreducible in K[X]. The last three statements are usually referred to as Gauss s Lemma. Solution: 1. Let d R be an irreducible element, and suppose that d ac for some a, c R. Then we can write de = ac. Decomposing a, c and e into irreducible and applying uniqueness (up to reordering and multiplication by units) of the decomposition we get that d necessarily divides one of the irreducible factors of ac, and such a factor is either a divisor of a or c, so that d a or d c. 2. This is a slight generalization of the previous point. Under the given hypothesis we can write be = ac for some e R. Decomposing a, b, c and e into irreducibles and applying uniqueness (up to reordering and multiplication by units) of the decomposition we see that each of the irreducible factors of b can be associated to a divisor of c to which it is equivalent (where d, d are said to be equivalent if d = ud for some d R ), since an irreducible factor of b cannot divide a by hypothesis, so that it cannot divide a divisor of a. Writing each irreducible factor d of c which has been associated to some irreducible factor d of c as d = uc for some u R, and denoting by v R the product of all the units u obtained this way and by t R the product of the remaining divisors of c we get c = vbt, so that b c. 3. Each λ K can be written as α/β for some α, β R by definition of fraction field. Decomposing β into irreducible factors, we can proceed by induction on the number n α,β of irreducible factors - counted with multiplicity - appearing in this decomposition which divide α (this quantity is actually indipendent on the chosen decomposition) in order to prove that α/β is equivalent to a fraction with coprime numerator and denominator. The case n α,β = 0 is immediate because there we can conclude that α and β are coprime. For n α,β > 0, pick an irreducible factor d of β dividing α. Then by uniqueness of decomposition α = udα for some u R See next page!

5 and α R, and α/β is equivalent to uα /β, where β = β/d. It is immediate to see that n α,β = n α,β 1, so that we can make the induction work. 4. Saying that f R[X] is primitive is equivalent to saying that for each irreducible element of R one has that f + dr[x] R[X]/dR[X] is non trivial. Indeed, f is primitive if and only if it is not divisible by any non-unit in R, if and only if it is not divisible by any irreducible element in R (since non-units in R are all divisible by some irreducible element in R). Following the hint, one easily check that the unique ring homomorphism γ d : R[X] (R/dR)[X] sending X X and R r r + dr is surjective and has kernel dr[x], so that R[X]/dR[X] = (R/dR)[X], which is a domain because d is prime in R by Point 1, and as such generates a prime ideal in R. The claim follows them immediately by testing primitivity of p, q and pq via the given characterization on the quotient rings R[X]/dR[X]. 5. Collecting all the irreducible factors in the numerators separately by those in the denominators, we can write g = a a ḡ and h = c c h, for some a, a, c, c R with a coprime with c and a coprime with c (Point 3), and some primitive polynomials ḡ, h R[X]. Then f = aa cc ḡ h, where ḡ h is primitive by Point 4. We write α/β = aa /cc for some coprime α and β. Since α β t R for each coefficient t of ḡ h, by Point 2 applied for each t we obtain that β divides each coefficient of ḡ h, so that β R because ḡ h is primitive, and α/β R. Then we can conclude that f = g h for and g, h R[X]. g = a c g and h = c a h, 6. Suppose that f is irreducible in R[X]. Then it needs to be primitive (since R[X] = R ), and it is irreducible in K[X] by the previous point. Conversely, suppose that f is irreducible in K[X] and primitive. Irreducibility of f in K[X] excludes decompositions of f into non-constant factors of R[X], while primitivity excludes factorizations of f with a constant factor. Hence f is irreducible in R[X].

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