# Lecture 2. (1) Every P L A (M) has a maximal element, (2) Every ascending chain of submodules stabilizes (ACC).

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1 Lecture 2 1. Noetherian and Artinian rings and modules Let A be a commutative ring with identity, A M a module, and φ : M N an A-linear map. Then ker φ = {m M : φ(m) = 0} is a submodule of M and im φ is a submodule of N. We sometimes consider L A (M) = {M M A M}, the lattice of all A-submodules of M. Note that (L A (M), ) is, in particular, a partially ordered set under inclusion. If M = A, then L A (A) is the set of ideals of A. Definition 1.1. If every chain of A-submodules of M, N m N m+1, stabilizes, i.e., n such that N n = N n+1 =, then we say that M satisfies the Ascending Chain Condition (ACC) on submodules. Definition 1.2. Similarly, if every descending chain of A-submodules of M stabilizes, then M satisfies the Descending Chain Condition (DCC) on submodules. Proposition 1.3. Let A be a commutative ring, A M a module. Then TFAE: (1) Every P L A (M) has a maximal element, (2) Every ascending chain of submodules stabilizes (ACC). Proof. For (1) implies (2), take an ascending chain N 1 N 2. Then take P = {N 1,..., N m,...}, which has a maximal element, N n. Hence N n = N n+1 =. For (2) implies (1), take the same subset P as above, and N 1 P. If N 1 is not maximal, then there is a N 2 P such that N 1 N 2. Repeat as necessary and remark that the procedure stops since M has (ACC) on submodules. So, there is a maximal element of P. Definition 1.4. A M is Noetherian if M has (ACC) on submodules, and is Artinian if it has (DCC) on submodules. A ring A is Noetherian (Artinian) if A A is Noetherian (Artinian). Proposition 1.5. Let A, A M be as above. Then TFAE: (1) M has (ACC) on submodules, (2) Every submodule of M is finitely generated. 1

2 2 Proof. For (1) implies (2), let N be a submodule of M and take P = {L L is finitely generated and L N}. Then P is not empty since if 0 n N implies An P. Then P admits a maximal element, L 0. We claim that L 0 = N. If not, then x N such that x / L 0. Then L 0 L 0 + Ax. This contradicts the maximality of L 0. For (2) implies (1), let N = m N m. Let x, y N and r, s A. Then there exist i, j with say i < j such that x N i, y N j. Since i < j we note that N i N j which gives x, y N j. But N j is an A-submodule of M so rx + sy N j which implies that rx+sy N. This shows that N is an A-submodule of M, so it is finitely generated. Then N = (x 1,..., x k ), for some x 1,..., x k M. Take n large enough such that x 1,..., x k N n, so N n = N n+1 = = N. Proposition 1.6. Let A be a ring, and A M a module. Then TFAE: (1) M has (DCC) on submodules, (2) For every {N i } i I family of A-submodules, J I with J < such that N i = N j. i I j J Proof. For (1) implies (2), take {N i } i I, with N i M for every i. Define P = {N F M N F = N k, K <, K I}. Then M has (DCC) so P has a minimal element, k K N F0 = j J N j and J <. Take i I. Then N i N F0 P and N i N F0 N F0. The minimality of N F0 says that N i N F0 = N F0 for all i. We claim that i I since any x N F0 is in N i because N i N F0 = N F0 implies x N i. i I N i = j J N j = N F0 For (2) implies (1), take a descending chain N m N m+1. Then m N m = j J N j (with J < ). Take n the maximal integer of J. Then m N n = N n+1 =. N m = N n so (DCC) implies Example 1.7. (1) Z is Noetherian but not Artinian; Indeed, all ideal of Z are principal, so finitely generated. The (DCC) condition is not staisfied due to the chain (2 n ) (2 n 1 ) (2) Z.

3 Z[x 1, x 2,...] is neither Noetherian nor Artinian; The (ACC) condition is not satisfied due to the chain I n I n+1 Z[x 1, x 2,...], where I n = (x 1,..., x n ), for all n 1. The (DCC) condition is not satisfied due to the chain J n J n+1 Z[x 1, x 2,...], where J n = (x i : i n), for all n 1. There are examples of Artinian modules that are not Noetherian, however any Artinian ring is Noetherian. Fix p a prime integer. Let C p = {z C : there exists n such that z pn = 1}. This is a Artinian Z-module which is not Noetherian. Prove this by showing that any submodule of C p is of the form C p n = {z C : z pn = 1}.. 2. Serre Class Definition 2.1. A short exact sequence (ses) of A-modules 0 M f g M M 0 is a triple of A-modules (M, M, M ) together with a pair (f, g) of A-linear maps such that f is injective, g is surjective, and Im f = ker g. Definition 2.2. Take A a family of modules over A. Assume that A is not empty. Then A is a Serre class if and only if for every short exact sequence 0 M M M 0, M A if and only if M, M A. Proposition 2.3. Let A be a Serre class. Then the following are true: (1) 0 A; (2) M A and N = M implies N A; (3) M A and L M implies L, M/L A; n (4) M 1,..., M n A implies M i A. i=1 The proof is left as an easy exercise. 3

4 4 Proposition 2.4. The class of Noetherian (Artinian) A-modules forms a Serre class. Proof. Let 0 M M M 0 be an exact sequence of A-modules. First we will show that if M and M are Noetherian then M is Noetherian. First, M is isomorphic to its image in M and M is isomorphic to a quotient of M. The Fundamental Isomorphism Theorem for modules together with the definition of a short exact sequence allows us allows us to regard L = M M and M = M/L. Take N 1 N 2 a { chain of A-submodules } of M. Then {N i L} i IN is an ascending chain in L. Similarly, Ni + L is an ascending chain in M/L. Both chains have to stabilize due to our L i IN Noetherian assumption. Take n to be the maximum of the stabilizing index of the two chains, so that N n L = N n+1 L = and N n + L = N n+1 + L =. Let x N n+1. L L We have x N n+1 N n+1 + L, so x + L N n+1 + L, and thus x N n+1 + L L And x N n + L = N n + L L. implies z N n + L such that x z L. So x = z + l, where L z N n + L, and l L. Thus x = y + l 1, with y N n, and l 1 L. Then l 1 = x y, x N n+1, y N n N n+1, so l 1 N n+1 L = N n L. Thus x = y + l 1 with y N n, and l 1 N n which implies x N n. Therefore N n = N n+1 =. The discussion for the Artinian case can be done similarly. For the reverse implication we again consider a short exact sequence of the form 0 L M M/L 0. Any submodule of L is a submodule of M so the (ACC) (or (DCC)) condition on submodules is satisfied for L. Similarly, the lattice of submodules of M/L is naturally identified with the lattice of submodules of M containg L, so the (ACC) (or (DCC)) condition for submodules of M/L follows naturally from the (ACC) condition (or (DCC)) for M. Corollary 2.5. Let R be a Noetherian (respectively Artinian) ring and M a finitely generated R-module. Then M is a Noetherian (respectively Artinian) module. Proof. Since M is finitely generated, then there exists a R-linear surjection R n M, for some n N. But the Serre class property implies that R n is Noetherian (respectively Artinian) if R is. Applying again the Serre class property we obtain that M is Noetherian (respectively Artinian).

5 Proposition 2.6. A quotient of a Noetherian (respectively Artinian) ring is Noetherian (respectively Artinian). Proof. This is immediate because the lattice of ideals of a quotient ring R/I naturally embedds in the lattice of ideals of R via an inclusion preserving map. Theorem 2.7. (Hilbert Basis Theorem- general case) Let R be a Noetherian ring. Then R[X] is Noetherian. Proof. Let I be an ideal of R[X]. For a polynomial f(x), let us denote by lc(f) its leading coefficient. Consider I n = {a R : a = lc(f), for some polynomial f I of degree n} {0}. Note that I 0 = I R. It is easy to see that I n is an ideal in R, and since f I implies that Xf I, then we have an ascending chain {I n } of ideals in R which must stabilize. Say that we have fixed m such that I n = I m for all n m. For all i m let a 1,i,..., a ni,i be a finite set of generators for I i. Now consider a r,s = lc(f r,s ) for all 0 r n s, 1 s m with f r,s I. We claim that the set of all such f r,s generate I. Let f I. The plan is to prove that f J. We will show by induction of the degree of f that every f I belongs to J := (f r,s : 1 r n s, 0 s m). Let deg(f) = t. If t = 0, then f I 0 and so f is generated by f j,0 1 j n 0. Let a be the leading coefficient of f and assume t > 0. If t m then n t a = r i a i,t, i=1 with r i R. But then the polynomial g = f r i f i,t has degree less than t so by induction is in J. But all f i,t are in J as well, so f J. If t > m, then f I implies that since a I n = I m and we get that 5 a = n m i=1 r i a i,m,

6 6 with r i R. But then the degree of the polynomial g r i X t m f i,m is strictly less than t. Again, by the induction hypothesis, we obtain that g J, but since all f i,m are in J as well we get f J. Definition 2.8. Let R, S be commutative rings. We say that S is an R-algebra if there exists a ring homomorphism φ : R S. Note that S becomes an R-module via r s := φ(r)s, for all r R, s S. We say that S is an R-algebra generated by Γ S if every element in S is of form P (z 1,..., z m ) for some z 1,..., z m Γ and P (T 1,..., T m ) polynomial in R[T 1,..., T m ] and m N. If Γ is a finite set, then we say that S is a finitely generated algebra over R Corollary 2.9. Let R be a Noetherian ring. Then any finitely generated R-algebra is Noetherian. Proof. Let S = R[z 1,..., z m ] be a finitely generated R-algebra. Then S = R[z 1,..., z m ] for some z 1,..., z m S. Therefore we have a natural ring homomorphism R[T 1,..., T m ] S by sending P to P (z 1,..., z m ). Then S is quotient of R[T 1,..., T m ], which is Noetherian by Theorem 2.7, because R is Noetherian. Then S is Noetherian by Proposition 2.6.

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