# Part 4: Electricity & Magnetism

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1 Part 4: Electricity & Magnetism

2 Notes: Magnetism

3 Magnetism Magnets: 1.Have a north and south pole 2.Like poles repel; opposite poles attract - The larger the distance between the magnets, the weaker the force of attraction or repulsion will be 3. If you cut a magnet in half; it will still have a north and south pole

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6 Magnetism Magnetic fields: - The area around a magnet where the attraction or repulsion are felt by another magnet - The field is always N S

7 Magnetism Earth s Magnetic field: - In the Earth s core there is a bunch of liquid iron and other ferromagnetic substances sloshing around - This produces a massive magnetic field around the whole planet

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9 Magnetism How does a compass work? - The North arrow on the compass will point to geographic north because that is a magnetic south pole

10 Example Which of the following correctly illustrates the behavior of a compass in the magnetic field of a bar magnet? A B C D

11 Magnetism Electromagnetism - When current is passed through a wire, a magnetic field around the wire is created

12 Magnetism Electromagnetism - How do we determine the direction of the magnetic field? - Left hand rule!

13 Magnetism Left Hand Rule - Thumb: in direction of current (negative to positive terminal; electron flow) - Fingers: indicate magnetic field direction

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16 Examples Which way will the arrow of the compass point? + -

17 Notes: Static Electricity

18 Electricity Electricity - Phenomena caused by positive and negative charges - Remember: - Protons = + charge - Electrons = - charge - So if an object has a charge it s because it has an imbalance of protons and electrons

19 Electricity Electricity - Similar to magnets: - Like charges repel Opposite charges attract + -

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21 Electricity Remember - Charges are neither created nor destroyed; they are transferred from on e body to another - You charge an object by creating an imbalance in the number of positive and negative charges - Only electrons move!

22 Electricity Properties of materials: - Conductor: allows for electrons to flow (usually metals and electrolytic solutions) - Insulator: prevents electrons from flowing (usually non-metals and plastics) - Semi-conductor: sometimes allows for electrons to flow, depending on the factors (usually metalloids; carbon and silicon are common semi-conductors)

23 Static Electricity - Electric charges at REST - The electrons have moved from one substance to another and now are no longer moving - Charging can happen in different ways: - 1) Friction - 2) Conduction - 3) Induction

24 Static Electricity Friction Two neutral objects are rubbed against each other One object takes electrons from the other Result: Material taking electrons = becomes negative Material giving up electrons = becomes positive Tendency for materials to give/take electrons See triboelectric series

25 Static Electricity Conduction One charged object touches a neutral object Result: Charged object gives half its charge to neutral object Both objects now share the same charge The charge on both is weaker than the original object s charge

26 Static Electricity Induction One charged object comes close (but doesn t touch) a neutral object Result: Charged object causes charges to re-arrange in neutral object This causes the creation of a positive and negative pole in the neutral object Yet, the net charge is still zero (no charge)

27 Method Before Charging Charging Process Result Friction Conduction Induction Both objects are neutral Object A is charged Object B: is neutral Object A is charged Object B: is neutral Objects are rubbed on one another Charged object touches neutral object Charged object is brought close to neutral object Objects take on opposite charges (one is +, other is ) Objects take on same charge, which is weaker than original charge. Object B s charges are re-arranged. Object A stays charged

28 Examples Friction? Induction? Conduction? Conduction Friction

29 Notes: Dynamic Electricity

30 Dynamic Electricity Dynamic electricity: - Electricity caused by the movement of electrons - Like in a circuit

31 Dynamic Electricity Good conductors: 1. Short 2. Fat 3. Cold 4. Gold/Copper

32 Dynamic Electricity Elements of a circuit: - Power supply - Wires - Various objects: - Light bulbs, resistors, switches, etc

33 Wires Battery Fuse Power supply Switch Motor Light bulb Resistor Ammeter & Voltmeter

34 Dynamic Electricity Types of circuits: - Open: - The circuit is not complete; current cannot flow through - Closed: - The circuit is complete; current can flow through

35 Open or closed? Open

36 Dynamic Electricity Types of circuits: - Series: - All elements are connected in a row - Current only has one path - Parallel: - Elements in circuit are connected so that multiple paths are possible for the current to follow

37 Series or Parallel? Parallel

38 Dynamic Electricity Current direction: - Direction of movement of the electrons - Move from - to + - Electrons are what s moving!

39 Dynamic Electricity Current intensity: - Definition: the number of charges that pass a given point in an electrical circuit every second - Basically: the speed of the electrons - Symbol: I - Unit: A (amperes) - Device used to measure: Ammeter

40 Dynamic Electricity Current intensity: - Remember: Ammeters are connected in series - Counting electron flow, so need to have electrons flow through them

41 Dynamic Electricity Potential Difference (voltage): - Definition: amount of energy transferred between two points - Symbol: V - Unit: V (volts) - Device used to measure: Voltmeter

42 Dynamic Electricity Potential Difference: - Remember: Voltmeters are co nnected in parallel

43 Ammeter connected in series A V Voltmeter connected in parallel

44 Dynamic Electricity Resistance: - Definition: ability of a material to hinder the flow of electrons (slows them down) - Think of traffic congestion - Symbol: R - Unit: Ω (ohms) - Device used to measure: none - Calculated from V and I

45 Ohm s Law V = RI

46 Examples What is the applied voltage of a telephone circuit that draws 0.017A through a resistance of 15,000Ω? V= IR V = (0.017A)(15000Ω) V = 255V

47 Examples What is the total resistance of a circuit that draws 0.06A with 12V? R = V I R = 12V 0.06A R = 200Ω

48 Examples A circuit has 1200 Ω of total resistance with 12 V as the power supply. What is the total current of this circuit? I = V R I = 12V 1200Ω = 0.01A

49 Electrical Functions Each component in a circuit plays a particular role In other words, it has a function, a job within the circuit

50 Electrical Functions 1) Power Supply Energy is needed for the current to flow in a circuit Components: batteries, outlets, power supplies

51 Electrical Functions 2) Conduction In order for the electrons to get to the different components, they need a pathway made of conductive materials that will transmit the current Components: wires, jumpers

52 Electrical Functions 3) Insulation Since electricity can be harmful (both to living things and components of a circuit) we often want to isolate the current to particular areas (ex: in the wires); prevent it from flowing Components: rubber casing around wires, plastic wire connectors

53 Electrical Functions 4) Protection Since electricity can be harmful if there is a short circuit or an overload on the system, we need devices that can help protect us and the circuit its elf by cutting the flow of current Components: breakers, fuses

54 Dynamic Electricity Protection in circuits: 1. Fuse: Contains conductive filament that melts if current exceeds a certain level 2. Breakers: Strip bends when current exceeds a certain level and opens the circuit

55 Fuse Circuit Breaker

56 Electrical Functions 5) Control We don t necessarily always want a current to be flowing through a circuit (think of the lights in your room) so we ne ed a way to be able to open and close a circuit at will Components: switches

57 Electrical Functions 6) Energy Transformation The role of many components in a circuit is to transform electrical energy into some other form of energy (heat, sound, light, mechanical, etc) Components: lights, speakers, heating elements, electromagnet, buzzer, motors, resistors, etc.

58 Examples What is the electrical function of: 1) A light bulb 2) A resistor 3) A battery 4) The plastic covering on wires 5) The metal in wires Energy transformation Energy transformation Power supply Conduction Insulation

59 Dynamic Electricity Electrical Power: - Definition: the rate of energy transfer in an electrical device - Amount of energy it can transform - Symbol: P - Unit: W (Watts) - Device used to measure: none - Calculated using V and I

60 P = VI

61 Examples If a blender is plugged into a 110 V outlet that supplies 2.7 A of current, what amount of power is used by the blender? V = 110V I = 2.7A P=? P= IV = 2.7A (110V) = 297W

62 Examples If a clock expends 2W of power from a 1.5V battery, what amount of current is passing through the clock? V = 1.5V I =? P = 2W P = IV I = P V = 2W 1.5V = 1.33A

63 Dynamic Electricity Electrical Energy: - Definition: ability to do work - Symbol: E - Unit: J (Joules) when using Watts and s econds - Can also use KWh if power is in kw and time is in hours - Device used to measure: none - Calculated using power and time

64 Energy Measured in J Power Measured in W E = P t Time (measured in s)

65 Examples What is the energy consumed by a 2.5 kw toy car after 3 hours of use? P = 2.5kW t = 3h E=? E = P t E = (2.5kW)(3h) E = 7.5kWh

66 Examples How much energy will a blender have consumed after 15 mins of use if the current flowing through it has an intensity of 15 A and the potential difference is 120 V? I = 15A V = 120V t = 15mins E=? E = P t E = IV t P = IV 900s E = (15A)(120V)(15mins) E = J = 1620kJ

67 Law of Conservation of Energy Law: - Energy is never created nor destroyed, but transformed from one form to another - Main forms of energy: - Kinetic - Radiation - Magnetic - Electrical - Thermal - Acoustic (sound) - Wind - Hydro - Potential - Chemical - Nuclear - Elastic

68 Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiency: - How well a system converts energy from one form into another - Can be calculated mathematically using the following formula: Efficiency % = useful energy (J) Total energy consumed(j) x100

69 Alternative Efficiency(%) 100 = useful energy (J) Total energy consumed(j)

70 Examples What is the energy efficiency of an ipod that has 5200 J of total energy and produces 1800 J of sound? E tot = 5200J E use = 1800J E eff =? Eeff. % = E use(j) E tot (J) x100 Eeff. % = 1800J 5200J x100 Eeff. % = 34.6%

71 Examples A technician examines different electrical devices to determine the one that is the most energy efficient. While conducting a test, he notes that one of these devices consumes J of energy and loses J at the same time. What is the energy efficiency of this device? E tot = J E lost = J E eff =? E use J = E tot (J)- E lost (J) E use J = J E eff. % = E use(j) E tot (J) x100 E eff. % = J J x100 E eff. % = 42.7%

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