# What is dynamic electricity?

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1 Dynamic Electricity

2 What is dynamic electricity? Has to do with charges in motion So we re talking about moving electrons Think about any electronic device

3 Dynamic electricity Think back to properties of metals: What is an important property that wires need to have in order to work in an electronic device? Electrical conductivity!

4 Conductors and Insulators What is a conductor? A material or substance through which an electric current can flow What is an insulator? A material or substance through which an electric current does not flow

5 Conducting Electricity How/why does electricity move through a conductor? Recall when we talked about ions and valence electrons Certain elements hold onto their valence electrons with very little force and are very happy to give them away Think metals! It is these valence electrons that play a key role in dynamic electricity!

6 How does electricity move through a conductor? Copper is a good conductor. Start with electrons at one end, and a positive charge at the other. + Electrons are attracted to the positive side (opposites attract). Electrons are transferred from one copper atom to another, through the wire.

7 How does electricity move through a conductor? What happens with like charges? They repel! + On the negative side the electrons are pushing against each other (repelling) Just like people on the metro, one gets bumped and then so do all the others This causes a chain reaction that moves through the material!

8 Where do the electrons come from? (We need a device that can supply electrons) A Battery or a Power Supply

9 Where do the electrons come from? + Batteries have 2 terminals. One terminal has a positive charge. (where the electrons would like to go) One terminal has a negative charge. (the supply of electrons)

10 How does this work? Electrons would like to leave the negative side of the battery, and travel to the positive side. (they cannot travel through the battery) The electrons need a material and a path through which they can travel. The electrons need a conductor and a circuit.

11 Circuits A circuit is a closed path through which electricity can travel. e e e e A conductor e e e

12 How does this work? The electrons flowing through a circuit carry energy, which can be used to do work.

13 How does this work? When the circuit is complete the electrons travel through the wire, and through the light.

14 How does this work? When the circuit is complete the electrons travel through the wire, and through the light.

15 Conductance What is conductance? A measure of the ability to carry electric charge High conductance: A good conductor; electricity travels through the material easily Low conductance: Poor conductor

16 Conductance What factors affect conductance? Material Some materials conduct electricity better than others (ex: copper and gold) Length A shorter distance, means the charge doesn t have to move as far

17 Conductance What factors affect conductance? Diameter Need space for the electrons to move through Temperature Affects how the material is structured

18 Good conductors What makes a good conductor? Short Fat Cold Atoms are more structured; Decreases random motion Gold/copper are the best! Think about a pipe filled with water - Easier to travel a short distance - More flow if there s a bigger diameter to flow through

19

20 Resistance What is resistance? A measure of the opposition of the flow of electrons How difficult it is for the electrons to flow through The opposite of conductance

21 Resistance What is resistance? High resistance: A poor conductor; difficult for the electrons to travel through Low resistance: Good conductor

22 The higher the resistance value, the less electric current there is flowing through the circuit. Lower Resistor Value Higher Resistor Value

23 The higher the resistance value, the less electric current there is flowing through the circuit. Higher resistance dimmer light. Lower Resistor Value Higher Resistor Value

24 Resistance Symbol used: R Unit used to measure: Ohms (Ω)

25 Example: Measure Value Unit R = 270 Ω Resistance equal to 270 ohms Same idea as: V = 750 ml Measure Value Unit

26 Resistance A Resistor (in an electric circuit) is a component that limits the flow of electric charge (electrons). Schematic symbol for a resistor:

27 Resistance What resistors look like in real life:

28 Resistors What are resistors used for? They help limit current flow which can help the proper functioning of components Ex: LEDs are generally quite sensitive to current; too much or too little can prevent them from working properly Resistors allow for current regulation

29 Resistors What are resistors used for? They are also great for creating heat! By limiting the flow of electrons they increase friction Friction = heat!

30 Resistors What are resistors used for? Use resistors in heating elements (ex: toasters) This is also how incandescent lights work! The wire filament is heated to such a high temperature that the filament begins to glow

31 Summary A good conductor is a poor resistor A good resistor is a poor conductor

32 Summary Resistors (insulators) Materials which slow down or stop the flow of electrons Examples: Resistors, plastic, ceramic, tungsten, wood, and distilled water Conductors Materials which allow the flow of electrons Examples: Metals, acids, bases, salt solutions

33 Summary Factors that affect conductance: Material type Length Diameter Temperature

34 There are six electrical wires made of the same substance and having the same length : three have a diameter of 1.5 mm while the other three have a diameter of 3.0 mm. They are placed either end to end to increase the length of the wire or parallel to one another to increase the surface area of the wire. Which three wire arrangement offers the least resistance to the flow of electric current

35 A) B) C) D) Largest diameter Shortest distance

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