1. Which of the following correctly lists our cosmic address from small to large?

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "1. Which of the following correctly lists our cosmic address from small to large?"

Transcription

1 1. Which of the following correctly lists our cosmic address from small to large? (a) Earth, solar system, Milky Way Galaxy, Local Group, Local Super Cluster, universe (b) Earth, solar system, Milky Way Galaxy, Local Super Cluster, Local Group, universe (c) universe, Local Super Cluster, Local Group, Milky Way Galaxy, solar system, Earth (d) universe, Local Group, Local Super Cluster, Milky Way Galaxy, solar system, Earth (e) Earth, Local Group, Local Super Cluster, Milky Way Galaxy, solar system, universe (a) is the right answer. 2. How long is a light-second? (a) m (b) m (c) m (d) m (e) m (a) is the right answer. The speed of light is c = m/s. So one light-second is c (1 sec) = m. 3. If you are looking at a star that is 4 light-years away from Earth, you are looking at: (a) The star as it is right now (b) The star as it was 4 years ago (c) The star as it will be 4 years in the future (d) The star as it was years ago (e) The star as it will be years in the future (b). The light has to travel for 4 years to get to Earth. 4. Which one of the following is the correct description or the right usage of the Astronomical Unit (AU)? (a) 1 AU is the average distance of the most distant planet in the solar system from our sun. (b) When the parallax angle of an astronomical object is a small angle p, then the distance to that object is given by 1 AU/p. (c) 1 AU equals 1.3 light-second. (d) 1 AU equals km. (e) None of the above (b). It s the distance of Earth from the sun. 500 light-seconds or km. Distance measurement using parallax relies on our knowing 1 AU accurately. 1

2 5. What is the current estimate of the age of the universe? (a) years (b) years (c) years (d) years (e) years (e). 14 billion years. 6. Which one of the following is a false description of an astronomical object? (a) A star is a hot ball of gas powered by nuclear reaction at its core. (b) A galaxy is an island of stars in space containing stars held by gravity. (c) The observable universe may not be the whole universe. (d) The star systems can form a cluster, but galaxies do not form clusters. (e) A star system can have more than one star in the system. (d). For instance, the Local Super Cluster is a cluster of galaxies including our galaxy. 7. Where or when is the star stuff formed? (a) Only during the first 300,000 years of the universe (b) Only inside relatively light stars like our sun (c) Only inside stars much heavier than our sun (d) Only when a supernovae explosion occurs (e) Inside any bright star (e). Star stuff means heavier elements of which we are made. It is made inside bright stars. See the summary of Chapter 1. NOTE ADDED: Although (a-d) are clearly wrong since star stuff cannot be generated only in those times or places, I can see that one can conceivably be confused by the qualifier any in (e). Hence, I am going to give everyone full mark for this one. 2

3 8. If the distance to galaxy A from us is the farther than the the distance to galaxy B from us, which of the following is right? (a) If the two galaxies are within our Local Group, they can move in any directions, but the speed of A must be greater than the speed of B. (b) If the two galaxies are within our Local Group, they can move in any directions, but the speed of B must be greater than the speed of A. (c) If the two galaxies are within our Local Group, they can only move away from us but their speed can be essentially random. (d) If the two galaxies are outside of our Local Group, they can move in any directions, but the speed of B must be greater than the speed of A. (e) If the two galaxies are outside our Local Group, they only move away from us and the speed of A is greater than the speed of B. (e). Universe expands. Farther galaxies receed faster. This is the raisin problem in the homework. 9. Which one of the following falsely describes a part in scientific method? (a) Making a hypothesis (b) Performing experiments to test the hypothesis (c) Analyzing the experimental outcome to determine the validity of the hypothesis (d) Deciding that the hypothesis will apply to all physical situations when it is confirmed (e) Making a new hypothesis based on the experimental outcome (d). One can never be sure that one s hypothesis will apply to all physical situations. One cannot decide what a law of nature should be. 10. Which of the following correctly describes Kepler s first law? (a) There are comets that goes around the sun only once. (b) The moon is pulled by Earth just as Earth is pulled by the moon. (c) The sun sits at one of the two foci in Earth s elliptic orbit. (d) A moving object will keep its velocity unless there is a force acting on it. (e) All forces are attractive. (c). Kepler s first law states a planet s orbit is an ellipse with the sun at one focus. Earth is a planet. 3

4 11. Which conservation law directly explains Kepler s second law? (a) Energy conservation (b) Power conservation (c) Angular momentum conservation (d) Linear momentum conservation (e) Force conservation (c). When a planet is closer to the sun, it moves faster, just like the spinning figure skater spins faster when the arms are drawn closer. NOTE ADDED: Energy conservation tells you that when a planet is closer to the sun, it must move faster since kinetic energy has to increase. However, energy conservation does not tell you how the orbit should change. In particular, energy conservation is not enough to get the equal area sweep in equal time law of Kepler. This is due to angular momentum conservation. Thus strictly speaking only (c) is the right answer. However, I realize that this distinction may be too much for an introductory course like ours. I will allow both (a) and (c) to be right. 12. Suppose a new planet is found at 16 AU from our sun. What will its period be? (a) 32 years (b) 64 years (c) 128 years (d) 256 years (e) 512 years (b). Use p 2 = a 3. p = 16 3 = 64. 4

5 13. Which one of the following about Newton s three laws of motion is true? (a) If the speed of the object is close to the speed of light, Newton s first law does not apply. False. The law of inertia applies to all speed. (b) When the speed of an object stays the same, there cannot be a net force acting on this object. False. The object can change direction. That cannot happen without a force. (c) When the velocity of an object stays the same, there cannot be a net force acting on this object. True. This is Newton s first law. (d) The laws apply only to objects on Earth. They do not apply to astronomical objects. False. The laws are universal. (e) The laws apply only to a moving object. They do not apply to a stationary object. False. 14. According to Newton s second law, (a) The acceleration caused by a force is inversely proportional to the mass of the object. True. F = ma means a = F/m. (b) The acceleration caused by the same amount of force depends not only on the mass of the object but also on the shape of the object. False. There is no shape information in F = ma. (c) Friction force does not count as a real force. False. Friction is a real force. (d) Every mass attracts every other mass. This is Newton s law of gravity, not the second law. (e) The magnitude of the gravitational force between two objects is proportional to the product of the two masses. This is Newton s law of gravity, not the second law. 15. What is the force that is directly responsible for propelling a rocket when its engine is fully on? (a) The gravitational force of large objects in space, such as galaxies, collectively acting on the rocket (b) The chemical composition of the exhaust gas (c) The reaction force exerted by the exhaust gas (d) Earth s gravity (e) Earth s angular momentum (c). This is Newton s third law. Action and Reaction. 5

6 16. What is a parsec? (a) The same as 1 light-year. (b) The same as 500 light-second. (c) The size of the observable universe. (d) The size of our solar system. (e) The distance of an object that has 1/3600 degree parallax angle (e). This is the definition. 17. Which one of the following people championed the geocentric view of the solar system? (a) Ptolemy (b) Copernicus (c) Galileo (d) Kepler (e) Newton (a). All others are advocates of the heliocentric (sun-centered) view. 18. The radius of the sun is known to be R = m. The density of the sun is known to be about kg/m 3, that is, 1 m 3 volume of the sun contains about 1, 400 kg of material. Assuming the sun is a sphere (volume = 4πR 3 /3), which of the following is a good estimate of the mass of the sun? (a) kg (b) kg (c) kg (d) kg (e) kg (e). Volume is V = 4πR 3 /3 = m 3. Multiply this by the density to get M = m kg/m 3 = kg (1) 6

7 19. Visible colors correspond to the wavelength range of nm nm. Which one of the following is the equivalent frequency range? (Hz = 1/s) (a) Hz Hz (b) Hz Hz (c) Hz Hz (d) Hz Hz (e) Hz Hz (e). Use λf = c. f = m/s/( m) = Hz and f = m/s/( m) = Hz 20. When the frequency of a light wave is f, what is the energy of the corresponding energy of the photon? (h is the Planck constant.) (a) E = hf (b) E = hf 2 (c) E = hf 3 (d) E = h/f (e) E = h/f 2 (a). 7

How big is the Universe and where are we in it?

How big is the Universe and where are we in it? Announcements Results of clicker questions from Monday are on ICON. First homework is graded on ICON. Next homework due one minute before midnight on Tuesday, September 6. Labs start this week. All lab

More information

Motion, Energy, and Gravity. Reminder to take out your clicker and turn it on!

Motion, Energy, and Gravity. Reminder to take out your clicker and turn it on! Motion, Energy, and Gravity Reminder to take out your clicker and turn it on! Attendance Quiz Are you here today? Here! (a) yes (b) no (c) Opening Day is here! x Clickers I have not been able to download

More information

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. GRAVITY. Chapter 12

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. GRAVITY. Chapter 12 GRAVITY Chapter 12 Units of Chapter 12 Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion Gravitational Potential Energy Energy Conservation

More information

7.4 Universal Gravitation

7.4 Universal Gravitation Circular Motion Velocity is a vector quantity, which means that it involves both speed (magnitude) and direction. Therefore an object traveling at a constant speed can still accelerate if the direction

More information

A = 6561 times greater. B. 81 times greater. C. equally strong. D. 1/81 as great. E. (1/81) 2 = 1/6561 as great Pearson Education, Inc.

A = 6561 times greater. B. 81 times greater. C. equally strong. D. 1/81 as great. E. (1/81) 2 = 1/6561 as great Pearson Education, Inc. Q13.1 The mass of the Moon is 1/81 of the mass of the Earth. Compared to the gravitational force that the Earth exerts on the Moon, the gravitational force that the Moon exerts on the Earth is A. 81 2

More information

How do we describe motion?

How do we describe motion? Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity How do we describe motion? Precise definitions to describe motion: Speed: Rate at which object moves example: speed of

More information

Gravitation and the Motion of the Planets

Gravitation and the Motion of the Planets Gravitation and the Motion of the Planets 1 Guiding Questions 1. How did ancient astronomers explain the motions of the planets? 2. Why did Copernicus think that the Earth and the other planets go around

More information

Gravity. Newton s Law of Gravitation Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion Gravitational Fields

Gravity. Newton s Law of Gravitation Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion Gravitational Fields Gravity Newton s Law of Gravitation Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion Gravitational Fields Simulation Synchronous Rotation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ozib_l eg75q Sun-Earth-Moon System https://vimeo.com/16015937

More information

Basics of Kepler and Newton. Orbits of the planets, moons,

Basics of Kepler and Newton. Orbits of the planets, moons, Basics of Kepler and Newton Orbits of the planets, moons, Kepler s Laws, as derived by Newton. Kepler s Laws Universal Law of Gravity Three Laws of Motion Deriving Kepler s Laws Recall: The Copernican

More information

Gravity & The Distances to Stars. Lecture 8. Homework 2 open Exam on Tuesday in class bring ID and #2 pencil

Gravity & The Distances to Stars. Lecture 8. Homework 2 open Exam on Tuesday in class bring ID and #2 pencil 1 Gravity & The Distances to Stars Lecture 8 Homework 2 open Exam on Tuesday in class bring ID and #2 pencil 2 Preparing for the Exam 1 Exams in this class are multiple choice, but the questions can be

More information

AY2 Winter 2017 Midterm Exam Prof. C. Rockosi February 14, Name and Student ID Section Day/Time

AY2 Winter 2017 Midterm Exam Prof. C. Rockosi February 14, Name and Student ID Section Day/Time AY2 Winter 2017 Midterm Exam Prof. C. Rockosi February 14, 2017 Name and Student ID Section Day/Time Write your name and student ID number on this printed exam, and fill them in on your Scantron form.

More information

2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity

2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity 4.1 Describing Motion: Examples from Daily Life Some of the topics we will explore: How do we describe motion? (Speed,

More information

In this chapter, you will consider the force of gravity:

In this chapter, you will consider the force of gravity: Gravity Chapter 5 Guidepost In this chapter, you will consider the force of gravity: What were Galileo s insights about motion and gravity? What were Newton s insights about motion and gravity? How does

More information

How do we describe motion?

How do we describe motion? Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity How do we describe motion? Precise definitions to describe motion: Speed: Rate at which object moves $ speed = distance!#"units

More information

ASTRONOMY 1010 Exam 1 September 21, 2007

ASTRONOMY 1010 Exam 1 September 21, 2007 ASTRONOMY 1010 Exam 1 September 21, 2007 Name Please write and mark your name and student number in the Scantron answer sheet. FILL THE BUBBLE IN THE "TEST FORM" BOX CORRESPONDING TO YOUR TEST VERSION

More information

Exam # 3 Tue 12/06/2011 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti

Exam # 3 Tue 12/06/2011 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti Exam # 3 Tue 12/06/2011 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti INSTRUCTIONS: Please, use the `bubble sheet and a pencil # 2 to answer the exam questions, by marking

More information

By; Jarrick Serdar, Michael Broberg, Trevor Grey, Cameron Kearl, Claire DeCoste, and Kristian Fors

By; Jarrick Serdar, Michael Broberg, Trevor Grey, Cameron Kearl, Claire DeCoste, and Kristian Fors By; Jarrick Serdar, Michael Broberg, Trevor Grey, Cameron Kearl, Claire DeCoste, and Kristian Fors What is gravity? Gravity is defined as the force of attraction by which terrestrial bodies tend to fall

More information

PHYS 155 Introductory Astronomy

PHYS 155 Introductory Astronomy PHYS 155 Introductory Astronomy - observing sessions: Sunday Thursday, 9pm, weather permitting http://www.phys.uconn.edu/observatory - Exam - Tuesday March 20, - Review Monday 6:30-9pm, PB 38 Marek Krasnansky

More information

4.3 Conservation Laws in Astronomy

4.3 Conservation Laws in Astronomy 4.3 Conservation Laws in Astronomy Our goals for learning: Why do objects move at constant velocity if no force acts on them? What keeps a planet rotating and orbiting the Sun? Where do objects get their

More information

4.1 Describing Motion. How do we describe motion? Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity

4.1 Describing Motion. How do we describe motion? Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity 4.1 Describing Motion Our goals for learning: How do we describe motion? How is mass different from weight? How do we describe

More information

ASTR 150. Planetarium Shows begin Sept 9th. Register your iclicker! Last time: The Night Sky Today: Motion and Gravity. Info on course website

ASTR 150. Planetarium Shows begin Sept 9th. Register your iclicker! Last time: The Night Sky Today: Motion and Gravity. Info on course website Planetarium Shows begin Sept 9th Info on course website Register your iclicker! Last time: The Night Sky Today: Motion and Gravity ASTR 150 Hang on tight! Most math all semester-- get it over with right

More information

o Terms to know o Big Bang Theory o Doppler Effect o Redshift o Universe

o Terms to know o Big Bang Theory o Doppler Effect o Redshift o Universe Standard 1: Students will understand the scientific evidence that supports theories that explain how the universe and the solar system developed. They will compare Earth to other objects in the solar system.

More information

Lecture 13. Gravity in the Solar System

Lecture 13. Gravity in the Solar System Lecture 13 Gravity in the Solar System Guiding Questions 1. How was the heliocentric model established? What are monumental steps in the history of the heliocentric model? 2. How do Kepler s three laws

More information

Planetary Orbits: Kepler s Laws 1/18/07

Planetary Orbits: Kepler s Laws 1/18/07 Planetary Orbits: Kepler s Laws Announcements The correct link for the course webpage http://www.lpl.arizona.edu/undergrad/classes/spring2007/giacalone_206-2 The first homework due Jan 25 (available for

More information

Properties of Motion. Force. Examples of Forces. Basics terms and concepts. Isaac Newton

Properties of Motion. Force. Examples of Forces. Basics terms and concepts. Isaac Newton Properties of Motion It took about 2500 years to different generations of philosophers, mathematicians and astronomers to understand Aristotle's theory of Natural Motion and Violent Motion: Falling bodies

More information

Chapter 02 The Rise of Astronomy

Chapter 02 The Rise of Astronomy Chapter 02 The Rise of Astronomy Multiple Choice Questions 1. The moon appears larger when it rises than when it is high in the sky because A. You are closer to it when it rises (angular-size relation).

More information

4π 2 G(M1+M2 ) p2 = Newton s 3 Laws of Motion AST 105. Introduction to Astronomy: The Solar System. Newton's Version of Kepler's Third Law

4π 2 G(M1+M2 ) p2 = Newton s 3 Laws of Motion AST 105. Introduction to Astronomy: The Solar System. Newton's Version of Kepler's Third Law REVIEW Newton s 3 Laws of Motion AST 105 Introduction to Astronomy: The Solar System Announcement: First Midterm this Thursday 02/25 Newton's Version of Kepler's Third Law Newton's Version of Kepler's

More information

9/12/2010. The Four Fundamental Forces of Nature. 1. Gravity 2. Electromagnetism 3. The Strong Nuclear Force 4. The Weak Nuclear Force

9/12/2010. The Four Fundamental Forces of Nature. 1. Gravity 2. Electromagnetism 3. The Strong Nuclear Force 4. The Weak Nuclear Force The Four Fundamental Forces of Nature 1. Gravity 2. Electromagnetism 3. The Strong Nuclear Force 4. The Weak Nuclear Force The Universe is made of matter Gravity the force of attraction between matter

More information

Astronomy- The Original Science

Astronomy- The Original Science Astronomy- The Original Science Imagine that it is 5,000 years ago. Clocks and modern calendars have not been invented. How would you tell time or know what day it is? One way to tell the time is to study

More information

Today. Planetary Motion. Tycho Brahe s Observations. Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion. Laws of Motion. in physics

Today. Planetary Motion. Tycho Brahe s Observations. Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion. Laws of Motion. in physics Planetary Motion Today Tycho Brahe s Observations Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion Laws of Motion in physics Page from 1640 text in the KSL rare book collection That the Earth may be a Planet the seeming

More information

9/13/ Describing Motion: Examples from Everyday Life. Chapter 4: Making Sense of the Universe Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity

9/13/ Describing Motion: Examples from Everyday Life. Chapter 4: Making Sense of the Universe Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity 9/13/17 Lecture Outline 4.1 Describing Motion: Examples from Everyday Life Chapter 4: Making Sense of the Universe Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity Our goals for learning: How do we describe motion?

More information

1. The Moon appears larger when it rises than when it is high in the sky because

1. The Moon appears larger when it rises than when it is high in the sky because 2-1 Copyright 2016 All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of 1. The Moon appears larger when it rises than when it is high in the sky because A. you are

More information

Beyond the Solar System 2006 Oct 17 Page 1 of 5

Beyond the Solar System 2006 Oct 17 Page 1 of 5 I. Stars have color, brightness, mass, temperature and size. II. Distances to stars are measured using stellar parallax a. The further away, the less offset b. Parallax angles are extremely small c. Measured

More information

Agenda Announce: 4.1 Describing Motion. Tests. How do we describe motion?

Agenda Announce: 4.1 Describing Motion. Tests. How do we describe motion? Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity Agenda Announce: Stony Brook talk this Friday on Precision Cosmology Project Part I due in one week before class: one paragraph

More information

Today. Laws of Motion. Conservation Laws. Gravity. tides

Today. Laws of Motion. Conservation Laws. Gravity. tides Today Laws of Motion Conservation Laws Gravity tides Newton s Laws of Motion Our goals for learning: Newton s three laws of motion Universal Gravity How did Newton change our view of the universe? He realized

More information

Astronomy, PART 2. Vocabulary. A. Universe - Our Milky Way Galaxy is one of of galaxies in an expanding universe.

Astronomy, PART 2. Vocabulary. A. Universe - Our Milky Way Galaxy is one of of galaxies in an expanding universe. Astronomy, PART 2 Vocabulary Aphelion Asteroid Astronomical Unit Comet Constellation Crater Eccentricity Eclipse Equinox Geocentric model Gravitation Heliocentric model Inertia Jovian Perihelion Revolution

More information

AP Physics C Textbook Problems

AP Physics C Textbook Problems AP Physics C Textbook Problems Chapter 13 Pages 412 416 HW-16: 03. A 200-kg object and a 500-kg object are separated by 0.400 m. Find the net gravitational force exerted by these objects on a 50.0-kg object

More information

Kepler Galileo and Newton

Kepler Galileo and Newton Kepler Galileo and Newton Kepler: determined the motion of the planets. Understanding this motion was determined by physicists like Galileo and Newton and many others. Needed to develop Physics as a science:

More information

Answer Key for Exam C

Answer Key for Exam C Answer Key for Exam C 2 points each Choose the answer that best completes the question. Read each problem carefully and read through all the answers. Take your time. If a question is unclear, ask for clarification

More information

Chapter 12 Gravity. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 12 Gravity. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 12 Gravity Units of Chapter 12 Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion Gravitational Potential Energy Energy Conservation

More information

Planetary Mechanics:

Planetary Mechanics: Planetary Mechanics: Satellites A satellite is an object or a body that revolves around another body due to the gravitational attraction to the greater mass. Ex: The planets are natural satellites of the

More information

GRAVITY IS AN ATTRACTIVE FORCE

GRAVITY IS AN ATTRACTIVE FORCE WHAT IS GRAVITY? Gravity: force of attraction between objects due to their mass Gravity is a noncontact force that acts between two objects at any distance apart GRAVITY IS AN ATTRACTIVE FORCE Earth s

More information

The Hertzsprung Russell Diagram. The Main Sequence

The Hertzsprung Russell Diagram. The Main Sequence The Hertzsprung Russell Diagram H R diagram plots stellar luminosity against surface temperature Luminosity ranges 10-4 10 4 L. Temperature ranges by a factor of 10 increases to the left spectral sequence

More information

Space Notes Covers Objectives 1 & 2

Space Notes Covers Objectives 1 & 2 Space Notes Covers Objectives 1 & 2 Space Introduction Space Introduction Video Celestial Bodies Refers to a natural object out in space 1) Stars 2) Comets 3) Moons 4) Planets 5) Asteroids Constellations

More information

AP Physics-B Universal Gravitation Introduction: Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion: Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation: Performance Objectives:

AP Physics-B Universal Gravitation Introduction: Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion: Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation: Performance Objectives: AP Physics-B Universal Gravitation Introduction: Astronomy is the oldest science. Practical needs and imagination acted together to give astronomy an early importance. For thousands of years, the motions

More information

FORCE AND MOTION CHAPTER 3

FORCE AND MOTION CHAPTER 3 FORCE AND MOTION CHAPTER 3 Review: Important Equations Chapter 2 Definitions Average speed: Acceleration: v = d t v = Δd a = Δv Δt = v v 0 t t 0 Δt = d d 0 t t 0 Derived Final velocity: Distance fallen:

More information

Finding Extrasolar Planets. I

Finding Extrasolar Planets. I ExtraSolar Planets Finding Extrasolar Planets. I Direct Searches Direct searches are difficult because stars are so bright. How Bright are Planets? Planets shine by reflected light. The amount reflected

More information

Chapter 3 Celestial Sphere Movie

Chapter 3 Celestial Sphere Movie Chapter 3 Celestial Sphere Movie Gravity and Motion Projects I moved due-date for Part 1 to 10/21 I added a descriptive webpage about the projects. Preview Ch 1 Ch 2 Galileo Movie Essay 1: Backyard Astronomy

More information

Newton s Laws of Motion. Newton s Second Law

Newton s Laws of Motion. Newton s Second Law Newton s Laws of Motion What is the reason for Kepler s three descriptive laws? Newton s Law of Gravity Modern view of Kepler s Laws 1 & 3 can be derived from Newton s laws of motion Emmy Noether: 2 can

More information

Exam 1 Astronomy 114. Part 1

Exam 1 Astronomy 114. Part 1 Exam 1 Astronomy 114 Part 1 [1-40] Select the most appropriate answer among the choices given. 1. If the Moon is setting at 6AM, the phase of the Moon must be (A) first quarter. (B) third quarter. (C)

More information

Astronomy. Study of objects in space such as the Sun, stars, planets, comets, gas, & galaxies. *Also, the Earth s place in the universe.

Astronomy. Study of objects in space such as the Sun, stars, planets, comets, gas, & galaxies. *Also, the Earth s place in the universe. Astronomy Study of objects in space such as the Sun, stars, planets, comets, gas, & galaxies. *Also, the Earth s place in the universe. Universe = everything that exists Disclaimer: Astrology is NOT science!!!

More information

ASTRONOMY QUIZ NUMBER 1

ASTRONOMY QUIZ NUMBER 1 ASTRONOMY QUIZ NUMBER. You read in an astronomy atlas that an object has a negative right ascension. You immediately conclude that A) the object is located in the Southern Sky. B) the object is located

More information

Astron 104 Laboratory #4 Gravity and Orbital Motion

Astron 104 Laboratory #4 Gravity and Orbital Motion Name: Date: Section: Astron 104 Laboratory #4 Gravity and Orbital Motion Section 5.5, 5.6 Introduction No astronomical object can stand still gravity makes certain of this. Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation

More information

How do we describe motion?

How do we describe motion? Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity If I have seen farther than others, it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants. Sir Isaac Newton (1642 1727)

More information

Test Bank for Life in the Universe, Third Edition Chapter 2: The Science of Life in the Universe

Test Bank for Life in the Universe, Third Edition Chapter 2: The Science of Life in the Universe 1. The possibility of extraterrestrial life was first considered A) after the invention of the telescope B) only during the past few decades C) many thousands of years ago during ancient times D) at the

More information

Chapter 16 Dark Matter, Dark Energy, & The Fate of the Universe

Chapter 16 Dark Matter, Dark Energy, & The Fate of the Universe 16.1 Unseen Influences Chapter 16 Dark Matter, Dark Energy, & The Fate of the Universe Dark Matter: An undetected form of mass that emits little or no light but whose existence we infer from its gravitational

More information

Chapter 9 Lecture. Pearson Physics. Gravity and Circular Motion. Prepared by Chris Chiaverina Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 9 Lecture. Pearson Physics. Gravity and Circular Motion. Prepared by Chris Chiaverina Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 9 Lecture Pearson Physics Gravity and Circular Motion Prepared by Chris Chiaverina Chapter Contents Newton's Law of Universal Gravity Applications of Gravity Circular Motion Planetary Motion and

More information

Understanding Motion, Energy & Gravity

Understanding Motion, Energy & Gravity Speed, Velocity & Acceleration Understanding Motion, Energy & Gravity Chapter 4 speed: distance traveled per unit time (e.g., m/s, mph, km/ hr) velocity: speed & direction acceleration: change in velocity

More information

AP Physics Multiple Choice Practice Gravitation

AP Physics Multiple Choice Practice Gravitation AP Physics Multiple Choice Practice Gravitation 1. Each of five satellites makes a circular orbit about an object that is much more massive than any of the satellites. The mass and orbital radius of each

More information

AST 301 Introduction to Astronomy

AST 301 Introduction to Astronomy AST 301 Introduction to Astronomy John Lacy RLM 16.332 471-1469 lacy@astro.as.utexas.edu Myoungwon Jeon RLM 16.216 471-0445 myjeon@astro.as.utexas.edu Bohua Li RLM 16.212 471-8443 bohuali@astro.as.utexas.edu

More information

Which letter on the timeline best represents the time when scientists estimate that the Big Bang occurred? A) A B) B C) C D) D

Which letter on the timeline best represents the time when scientists estimate that the Big Bang occurred? A) A B) B C) C D) D 1. The red shift of light from most galaxies is evidence that A) most galaxies are moving away from Earth B) a majority of stars in most galaxies are red giants C) the light slows down as it nears Earth

More information

Recap: Solid Rotational Motion (Chapter 8) displacement velocity acceleration Newton s 2nd law τ = I.α N.s τ = F. l moment of inertia mass size

Recap: Solid Rotational Motion (Chapter 8) displacement velocity acceleration Newton s 2nd law τ = I.α N.s τ = F. l moment of inertia mass size Recap: Solid Rotational Motion (Chapter 8) We have developed equations to describe rotational displacement θ, rotational velocity ω and rotational acceleration α. We have used these new terms to modify

More information

Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity Pearson Education, Inc.

Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity Pearson Education, Inc. Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity 4.1 Describing Motion: Examples from Daily Life Our goals for learning: How do we describe motion? How is mass different from weight?

More information

Chapter 5 Part 2. Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation, Satellites, and Weightlessness

Chapter 5 Part 2. Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation, Satellites, and Weightlessness Chapter 5 Part 2 Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation, Satellites, and Weightlessness Newton s ideas about gravity Newton knew that a force exerted on an object causes an acceleration. Most forces occurred

More information

FIFTH MIDTERM -- REVIEW PROBLEMS

FIFTH MIDTERM -- REVIEW PROBLEMS Physics 2210 Fall 2005 Paolo Gondolor FIFTH MIDTERM -- REVIEW PROBLEMS A solution set is available on the course web page in pdf format (no solutions for 27-29). 7 1. Assume that the planet Uranus has

More information

Name Period Date Earth and Space Science. Solar System Review

Name Period Date Earth and Space Science. Solar System Review Name Period Date Earth and Space Science Solar System Review 1. is the spinning a planetary object on its axis. 2. is the backward motion of planets. 3. The is a unit less number between 0 and 1 that describes

More information

Exam #1 Covers material from first day of class, all the way through Tides and Nature of Light Supporting reading chapters 1-5 Some questions are

Exam #1 Covers material from first day of class, all the way through Tides and Nature of Light Supporting reading chapters 1-5 Some questions are Exam #1 Covers material from first day of class, all the way through Tides and Nature of Light Supporting reading chapters 1-5 Some questions are concept questions, some involve working with equations,

More information

The Scientific Method

The Scientific Method Chapter 1 The Scientific Method http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/physical/bookpage/ Chapter 1 Outline: Main Ideas Scientists make science work The Scientific Method Science is a process Exploring Nature An

More information

James T. Shipman Jerry D. Wilson Charles A. Higgins, Jr. Chapter 3 Force and Motion

James T. Shipman Jerry D. Wilson Charles A. Higgins, Jr. Chapter 3 Force and Motion James T. Shipman Jerry D. Wilson Charles A. Higgins, Jr. Chapter 3 Force and Motion Force and Motion Cause and Effect In chapter 2 we studied motion but not its cause. In this chapter we will look at both

More information

Describing Motion. Newton Newton s Laws of Motion. Position Velocity. Acceleration. Key Concepts: Lecture 9

Describing Motion. Newton Newton s Laws of Motion. Position Velocity. Acceleration. Key Concepts: Lecture 9 Key Concepts: Lecture 9 Newton Newton s Laws of Motion More on Kepler s Laws Describing Motion Position Velocity Rate of change of position (speed & direction) 80 km/hr Acceleration 40 km/hr Rate of change

More information

Kepler Galileo and Newton

Kepler Galileo and Newton Kepler Galileo and Newton Kepler: determined the motion of the planets. Understanding this motion was determined by physicists like Galileo and Newton and many others. Needed to develop Physics as a science:

More information

Physics Mechanics Lecture 30 Gravitational Energy

Physics Mechanics Lecture 30 Gravitational Energy Physics 170 - Mechanics Lecture 30 Gravitational Energy Gravitational Potential Energy Gravitational potential energy of an object of mass m a distance r from the Earth s center: Gravitational Potential

More information

Ast ch 4-5 practice Test Multiple Choice

Ast ch 4-5 practice Test Multiple Choice Ast ch 4-5 practice Test Multiple Choice 1. The distance from Alexandria to Syene is about 500 miles. On the summer solstice the sun is directly overhead at noon in Syene. At Alexandria on the summer solstice,

More information

Universal Gravitation

Universal Gravitation Universal Gravitation Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and key figure in the 17th century Scientific revolution. He is best known for his laws of planetary

More information

Study Guide Solutions

Study Guide Solutions Study Guide Solutions Table of Contents Chapter 1 A Physics Toolkit... 3 Vocabulary Review... 3 Section 1.1: Mathematics and Physics... 3 Section 1.2: Measurement... 3 Section 1.3: Graphing Data... 4 Chapter

More information

Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due on Tuesday, Jan. 19, 2016

Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due on Tuesday, Jan. 19, 2016 Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due on Tuesday, Jan. 19, 2016 Why are celestial motions and forces important? They explain the world around us.

More information

Coriolis Effect - the apparent curved paths of projectiles, winds, and ocean currents

Coriolis Effect - the apparent curved paths of projectiles, winds, and ocean currents Regents Earth Science Unit 5: Astronomy Models of the Universe Earliest models of the universe were based on the idea that the Sun, Moon, and planets all orbit the Earth models needed to explain how the

More information

Classical mechanics: conservation laws and gravity

Classical mechanics: conservation laws and gravity Classical mechanics: conservation laws and gravity The homework that would ordinarily have been due today is now due Thursday at midnight. There will be a normal assignment due next Tuesday You should

More information

Chapter 9-10 Test Review

Chapter 9-10 Test Review Chapter 9-10 Test Review Chapter Summary 9.2. The Second Condition for Equilibrium Explain torque and the factors on which it depends. Describe the role of torque in rotational mechanics. 10.1. Angular

More information

Newton s Gravitational Law

Newton s Gravitational Law 1 Newton s Gravitational Law Gravity exists because bodies have masses. Newton s Gravitational Law states that the force of attraction between two point masses is directly proportional to the product of

More information

If Earth had no tilt, what else would happen?

If Earth had no tilt, what else would happen? A more in depth explanation from last week: If Earth had no tilt, what else would happen? The equator would be much hotter due to the direct sunlight which would lead to a lower survival rate and little

More information

Chapter 2. The Rise of Astronomy. Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Chapter 2. The Rise of Astronomy. Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 2 The Rise of Astronomy Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Periods of Western Astronomy Western astronomy divides into 4 periods Prehistoric

More information

Please turn on your clickers

Please turn on your clickers Please turn on your clickers HW #1, due 1 week from today Quiz in class Wednesday Sections meet in Planetarium Honors meeting tonight in my office Sterling 5520 at 5:30-6pm Newton s First Law An object

More information

Which of the following planets are all made up of gas? When a planets orbit around the Sun looks like an oval, it s called a(n)

Which of the following planets are all made up of gas? When a planets orbit around the Sun looks like an oval, it s called a(n) When a planets orbit around the Sun looks like an oval, it s called a(n) - ellipse - circle - axis - rotation Which of the following planets are all made up of gas? - Venus, Mars, Saturn and Pluto - Jupiter,

More information

Chapter 3 - Gravity and Motion. Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Chapter 3 - Gravity and Motion. Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 3 - Gravity and Motion Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. In 1687 Isaac Newton published the Principia in which he set out his concept

More information

Exam #1 Study Guide (Note this is not all the information you need to know for the test, these are just SOME of the main points)

Exam #1 Study Guide (Note this is not all the information you need to know for the test, these are just SOME of the main points) Exam #1 Study Guide (Note this is not all the information you need to know for the test, these are just SOME of the main points) Moon Phases Moon is always ½ illuminated by the Sun, and the sunlit side

More information

Radial Acceleration. recall, the direction of the instantaneous velocity vector is tangential to the trajectory

Radial Acceleration. recall, the direction of the instantaneous velocity vector is tangential to the trajectory Radial Acceleration recall, the direction of the instantaneous velocity vector is tangential to the trajectory 1 Radial Acceleration recall, the direction of the instantaneous velocity vector is tangential

More information

Newton s Law of Gravity. Isaac Newton ( ) Newton s Law of Gravity. Newton s Laws of Motion. Newton s Laws of Motion 2/17/17

Newton s Law of Gravity. Isaac Newton ( ) Newton s Law of Gravity. Newton s Laws of Motion. Newton s Laws of Motion 2/17/17 Isaac Newton (1642-1727) English physicist and mathematician Studied motion, light, and gravity Newton puts all the pieces together Key idea: Mass Mass is the amount of matter in an object NOT the same

More information

AP Physics QUIZ Gravitation

AP Physics QUIZ Gravitation AP Physics QUIZ Gravitation Name: 1. If F1 is the magnitude of the force exerted by the Earth on a satellite in orbit about the Earth and F2 is the magnitude of the force exerted by the satellite on the

More information

Where do objects get their energy?

Where do objects get their energy? Where do objects get their energy? Energy makes matter move. Energy is always 'conserved' Conservation of Energy Energy can neither be created nor destroyed The total energy content of the universe was

More information

Lecture 29. Our Galaxy: "Milky Way"

Lecture 29. Our Galaxy: Milky Way Lecture 29 The Milky Way Galaxy Disk, Bulge, Halo Rotation Curve Galactic Center Apr 3, 2006 Astro 100 Lecture 29 1 Our Galaxy: "Milky Way" Milky, diffuse band of light around sky known to ancients. Galileo

More information

PHYS 106 Fall 2151 Homework 3 Due: Thursday, 8 Oct 2015

PHYS 106 Fall 2151 Homework 3 Due: Thursday, 8 Oct 2015 PHYS 106 Fall 2151 Homework 3 Due: Thursday, 8 Oct 2015 When you do a calculation, show all your steps. Do not just give an answer. You may work with others, but the work you submit should be your own.

More information

Unit 3 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 3 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Florida Benchmarks SC.8.N.1.4 Explain how hypotheses are valuable if they lead to further investigations, even if they turn out not to be supported by the data. SC.8.N.1.5 Analyze the methods used to develop

More information

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION (The Universe) A. THE UNIVERSE: The universe encompasses all matter in existence. According to the Big Bang Theory, the universe was formed 10-20 billion years ago from a

More information

PSI AP Physics C Universal Gravity Multiple Choice Questions

PSI AP Physics C Universal Gravity Multiple Choice Questions PSI AP Physics C Universal Gravity Multiple Choice Questions 1. Who determined the value of the gravitational constant (G)? (A) Newton (B) Galileo (C) Einstein (D) Schrödinger (E) Cavendish 2. Who came

More information

outline 1. in the beginning. The Big Bang 2. galaxies -- different types 3. stars -- life cycle 4. the solar system -- sun and planets

outline 1. in the beginning. The Big Bang 2. galaxies -- different types 3. stars -- life cycle 4. the solar system -- sun and planets Earth s Place in the Universe outline 1. in the beginning. The Big Bang 2. galaxies -- different types 3. stars -- life cycle 4. the solar system -- sun and planets the big bang the universe is expanding

More information

1 Forces. 2 Energy & Work. GS 104, Exam II Review

1 Forces. 2 Energy & Work. GS 104, Exam II Review 1 Forces 1. What is a force? 2. Is weight a force? 3. Define weight and mass. 4. In European countries, they measure their weight in kg and in the United States we measure our weight in pounds (lbs). Who

More information

5 th Grade Force and Motion Study Guide

5 th Grade Force and Motion Study Guide Name: Date of Test: Vocabulary 5 th Grade Force and Motion Study Guide Motion- a change in position relative to a point of reference, a change in speed, or a change in distance. Point of Reference (Reference

More information

First exam next Wednesday. Today in class Review: Motion, Gravity. Gravity and Orbits. Review: Motion. Newton s Laws of Motion. Gravity and Orbits

First exam next Wednesday. Today in class Review: Motion, Gravity. Gravity and Orbits. Review: Motion. Newton s Laws of Motion. Gravity and Orbits Review: s of First exam next Wednesday Today in class Review:, Gravity Gravity and Gravity and Review: s of Review: Gravity and Newton s laws of motion Review: s of 1. Momentum (qualitative) 2. Force and

More information

FORCE. The 4 Fundamental Forces of Nature

FORCE. The 4 Fundamental Forces of Nature FORCE - Force a push or pull. Results only from interaction with another object. Without interaction, forces cannot be present. - Measured in Newtons (N) 1 Newton is the amount of force required to give

More information