# How do we describe motion?

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1 Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity How do we describe motion? Precise definitions to describe motion: Speed: Rate at which object moves example: speed of 10 m/s Velocity: Speed and direction example: 10 m/s, due east Acceleration: Any change in velocity units of speed/time (m/s 2 ) 1 2 The Acceleration of Gravity All falling objects accelerate at the same rate (not counting friction of air resistance). On Earth, g 10 m/s 2 : speed increases 10 m/s with each second of falling. Galileo showed that g is the same for all falling objects, regardless of their mass. Momentum and Force Momentum = mass velocity A net force changes momentum, which generally means an acceleration Rotational momentum of a spinning or orbiting object is known as angular momentum 3 4 Thought Question: Is there a net force? Y/N 1. A car coming to a stop. 2. A bus speeding up. 3. An elevator moving up at constant speed. 4. A bicycle going around a curve. 5. A moon orbiting Jupiter. Thought Question: Is there a net force? Y/N 1. A car coming to a stop. Y 2. A bus speeding up. Y 3. An elevator moving at constant speed. N 4. A bicycle going around a curve. Y 5. A moon orbiting Jupiter. Y 5 6 1

2 How is mass different from weight? Mass the amount of matter in an object Weight the force that acts upon an object Why are astronauts weightless in space? There is gravity in space Weightlessness is due to a constant state of free-fall You are weightless in free-fall! 7 8 How did Newton change our view of the universe? Realized the same physical laws that operate on Earth also operate in the heavens one universe Discovered laws of motion and gravity Much more: Experiments with light; first reflecting telescope, calculus What are Newton s three laws of motion? Newton s first law of motion: An object moves at constant velocity unless a net force acts to change its speed or direction. Sir Isaac Newton ( ) 9 10 Newton s second law of motion Force = mass acceleration Newton s third law of motion: For every force, there is always an equal and opposite reaction force

3 Conservation of Momentum The total momentum of interacting objects cannot change unless an external force is acting on them Interacting objects exchange momentum through equal and opposite forces example: pool balls 13 What keeps a planet rotating and orbiting the Sun? 14 Conservation of Angular Momentum Angular momentum conservation also explains why objects rotate faster as they shrink in radius: angular momentum = mass x velocity x radius The angular momentum of an object cannot change unless an external twisting force (torque) is acting on it Earth experiences no torque as it orbits the Sun, so its rotation and orbit will continue indefinitely Where do objects get their energy? Energy makes matter move. Energy is conserved, but it can: Transfer from one object to another Change in form Kinetic (motion) Radiative (light) Stored or potential Energy can change type but cannot be destroyed. Basic Types of Energy

4 Conservation of Energy Energy can be neither created nor destroyed. It can change form or be exchanged between objects. The total energy content of the Universe was determined in the Big Bang and remains the same today. Thermal Energy: the collective kinetic energy of many particles Thermal energy is a measure of the total kinetic energy of all the particles in a substance. It depends on temperature AND density Temperature is the average kinetic energy of the many particles in a substance Temperature Scales Gravitational Potential Energy On Earth, depends on: object s mass (m) strength of gravity (g) distance object could potentially fall No thermal motion Gravitational Potential Energy In space, an object or gas cloud has more gravitational energy when it is spread out than when it contracts. A contracting cloud converts gravitational potential energy to thermal energy. What determines the strength of gravity? The Universal Law of Gravitation: 1. Every mass attracts every other mass. 2. Attraction is directly proportional to the product of their masses. 3. Attraction is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers

5 How does Newton s law of gravity extend Kepler s laws? Kepler s first two laws apply to all orbiting objects, not just planets Ellipses are not the only orbital paths. Orbits can be: Bound (ellipses) Unbound Parabola Hyperbola 25 Center of Mass Because of momentum conservation, orbiting objects orbit around their center of mass 26 Newton and Kepler s Third Law Newton s Version of Kepler s Third Law His laws of gravity and motion showed that the relationship between the orbital period and average orbital distance of a system tells us the total mass of the system. Examples: Earth s orbital period (1 year) and average distance (1 AU) tell us the Sun s mass. Orbital period and distance of a moon of Jupiter tell us Jupiter s mass. p = orbital period a = average orbital distance (between centers) M 1 + M 2 = sum of object masses How do gravity and energy together allow us to understand orbits? Escape Velocity More gravitational energy; Less kinetic energy Less gravitational energy; More kinetic energy Total orbital energy stays constant Total orbital energy (gravitational + kinetic) stays constant if there is no external force Orbits cannot change spontaneously. 29 If an object gains enough orbital energy, it may escape (change from a bound to unbound orbit) Escape velocity from Earth 11 km/s (about 40,000 km/hr) 30 5

6 How does gravity cause tides? Moon s gravity pulls harder on near side of Earth than on far side Difference in Moon s gravitational pull stretches Earth Tides and Phases Tidal Friction Size of tides depends on phase of Moon, due to tides from Moon and Sun Tidal friction gradually slows Earth rotation (and makes Moon get farther from Earth). Moon once orbited faster (or slower); tidal friction caused it to lock in synchronous rotation Why do all objects fall at the same rate? The gravitational acceleration of mass M rock does not depend on its mass because M rock cancels out Weight on other planets depends on mass and radius of the planet Next time: Chapter 5: Light, spectroscopy please read pages in text. 35 6

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