# Astronomy 1 Fall 2016

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Astronomy 1 Fall 2016 Comet Halley Edmund Halley, a friend of Newton s used Newton s math to predict the return of a comet seen at intervals of 76 years. Lecture 3; September 29, 2016

2 Previously on Astro-1 Earth s Rotation Diurnal motion of stars Earth s Orbit Seasonal motion of stars The moon s orbit Lunar eclipses Solar eclipses UCSB Astro 1 - Martin 2

3 Today on Astro-1 The motion of planets Geocentric Models Evidence for a heliocentric solar system Newton s laws of dynamics Newtonian gravity The motion of planets explained by Newton s gravity Tides

4 The ancient Greek (wrong) notion of planetary motion

5 But sometimes the motion of planets is retrograde Can t explain this with simple perfect circular motion of the planets

6 The Geocentric explanation of retrograde motion: circles within circles epicycles.

7

8

9 Copernican Revolution

10 Nicolaus Copernicus ( ): revolutionized our understanding of our place in the universe by introducing the heliocentric (suncentered) model of the solar system. De Revolutionibus was published in 1543, but he had been circulating the ideas for 30 years. Aristarchus suggested a heliocentric model in the 3 rd century BC, but it didn t catch on.

11 Heliocentric explanation of retrograde motion

12 Maximum greatest elongation for Venus is 45, and for Mercury 28, so they can never be farther than that from the sun.

13 iclicker Question You see a very bright planet at midnight. Is it Venus? Assume Venus is 45 o from the Sun at greatest eastern elongation. A. Venus will set 45 minutes after sunset. It cannot be seen at midnight. B. Venus will rise 45 minutes before sunrise. It cannot be seen at midnight. C. Venus will set 3 hours after sunset. It cannot be seen at midnight. D. Yes, Venus is visible all night at greatest eastern elongation. E. Venus will set 3 hours before sunrise. It cannot be seen at midnight. Note: You know the bright object is a planet because the object does not twinkle like stars do. UCSB Astro 1 - Martin 13

14 Iclicker Answer You see a very bright planet at midnight. Is it Venus? Assume Venus is 45 o from the Sun at greatest eastern elongation. A. Venus will set 45 minutes after sunset. It cannot be seen at midnight. B. Venus will rise 45 minutes before sunrise. It cannot be seen at midnight. C. Venus will set 3 hours after sunset. It cannot be seen at midnight. D. Yes, Venus is visible all night at greatest eastern elongation. E. Venus will set 3 hours before sunrise. It cannot be seen at midnight. Note: You know the bright object is a planet because the object does not twinkle like stars do. UCSB Astro 1 - Martin 14

15 iclicker Question Copernicus used the fact that Mars can sometimes be seen high in our sky at midnight to conclude that A. Earth can come between Mars and the Sun B. Mars and the Sun can never be on the same side of Earth at the same time C. Mars can come between Earth and the Sun D. The Sun can come between Earth and Mars UCSB Astro 1 - Martin 15

16 Iclicker Answer Copernicus used the fact that Mars can sometimes be seen high in our sky at midnight to conclude that A. Earth can come between Mars and the Sun B. Mars and the Sun can never be on the same side of Earth at the same time C. Mars can come between Earth and the Sun D. The Sun can come between Earth and Mars UCSB Astro 1 - Martin 16

17 Tycho Brahe ( ) Here shown at Uraniborg, one of the two observatories that he built under the patronage of Frederik II of Denmark (though the telescope had not yet been invented). Kepler later used Tycho s exquisite measurements.

18 From Tycho s Stella Nova

19 Parallax: Tycho Brahe argued that if an object is near the Earth, an observer would have to look in different directions to see that object over the course of a night and its position relative to the background stars would change. Tycho failed to measure such changes for a supernova in 1572 and a comet in 1577, and concluded that these objects were far from the Earth.

20 Kepler s Laws

21 Johannes Kepler ( ) By analyzing Tycho Brahe s detailed records of planetary positions, Kepler developed three general principles, called Kepler s laws, that describe how the planets move about the Sun. Kepler was the first to realize that the orbits of the planets are ellipses and not circles.

22

23 Kepler s first law: The orbit of a planet about the Sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus.

24 Kepler s second law: A line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time.

25

26 Iclicker Question Which of the following statements is true according to Kepler s third law? A. The smaller the orbit, the longer it takes for the planet to complete one revolution B. The smaller the radius of a planet the more rapidly it rotates on its axis C. The larger the orbit the longer it takes for the planet to complete one revolution D. The time to complete one revolution of its orbit depends on the size or radius of the planet

27 Iclicker Answer Which of the following statements is true according to Kepler s third law? A. The smaller the orbit, the longer it takes for the planet to complete one revolution B. The smaller the radius of a planet the more rapidly it rotates on its axis C. The larger the orbit the longer it takes for the planet to complete one revolution D. The time to complete one revolution of its orbit depends on the size or radius of the planet

28 Significance of Kepler s Laws Could describe the motions of the planets more accurately than any scheme before. Simpler than epicycles (so satisfies Occam s Razor). Occam s razor: simpler explanations of phenomena are more likely to be correct. ( Razor refers to shaving extraneous details from an argument) Helped justify the heliocentric model. Turned out to be a direct consequence of more fundamental physical laws of nature.

29 But What Observations Proved that the Earth Orbits the Sun?

30 Galileo Galilei ( ) Galileo was one of the first people to use a telescope to observe the heavens. He discovered craters on the Moon, sunspots on the Sun, the phases of Venus, and four moons orbiting Jupiter. His observations strongly suggested that the Earth orbits the Sun, not vice versa.

31 Numbers are angular size of Venus in arcsec, but mistakenly labeled as degrees in figure.

32

33 Galilean Satellites with a Small Telescope In 1610 Galileo discovered four stars that move back and forth across Jupiter from one night to the next. He concluded that these are four moons that orbit Jupiter, much as our Moon orbits the Earth.

34 Question 4.5 (iclickers!) The most significant observation Galileo made through his home-built telescope that convinced him that the planets revolved around the Sun was A. The appearance of the Milky Way as a mass of individual stars B. The discovery of rings around the planet Saturn C. The appearance of mountains and craters on the Moon D. That the appearance of Venus followed a cycle of phases, from crescent through quarter and gibbous phases to full phase

35 Question 4.5 (iclickers!) The most significant observation Galileo made through his home-built telescope that convinced him that the planets revolved around the Sun was A. The appearance of the Milky Way as a mass of individual stars B. The discovery of rings around the planet Saturn C. The appearance of mountains and craters on the Moon D. That the appearance of Venus followed a cycle of phases, from crescent through quarter and gibbous phases to full phase

36 Arguments favoring Heliocentrism over Geocentrism Observations: Phases of Venus Stellar Parallax Against specific feature of Ptolemy s model Moons of Jupiter Sun spots Moon spots

37 Newtonian Gravity

38 Isaac Newton ( ) Explained Kepler s Laws as direct consequence of fundamental physical laws. Established that the laws of physics on earth extend up into the heavens, Epitaph by Alexander Pope: Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night; God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. Newton in a letter to Robert Hooke: If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants

39 Newton s First Law (Inertia) 1. An object remains at rest or moves in a straight line at a constant speed unless acted upon by a net outside force. Example: Voyager 1 -- launched in 1977, it is now on its way out of the solar system, forever traveling in a straight line (unless it encounters something).

40 Level Air Track Experiment iclicker Question What will happen to the cart when the professor turns the air off? A. Car will stop suddenly. B. Car will slowly come to a stop. C. Car will slowly speed up. D. Car will rapidly speed up. E. Car will continue to move at a constant speed along the track.

41 Newton s Second Law (acceleration) F = ma F = net outside force on a object m = mass of object a = acceleration of object It requires more force to accelerate more massive objects. OR If you push two objects of different masses with the same force, the less massive object will accelerate more

42 Skateboard Experiment iclicker Question When the skateboarders push off, who will accelerate more? A. Their accelerations are equal B. The more massive person C. The less massive person. D. Neither person will move E. It is impossible to predict with certainty.

43 Newton s Third Law Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts and equal and opposite force on the first object.

44 Skateboard Experiment icliker Question When the less massive person pulls on the rope what will happen? A. Both people move inwards toward the center of mass. B. The less massive person is pulled towards the more massive person. C. The more massive person is pulled towards the less massive person. D. The distance between the skateboarders increases due to Newton s third law.. E. Neither person will move

45 The Law of Universal Gravitation Two objects attract each other with a force that is directly proportional to the mass of each object and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. F=Gm 1 m 2 /r 2 F = gravitational force between two objects m 1 = mass of first object m 2 = mass of second object r = distance between objects G = universal constant of gravitation G = newton m 2 /kg 2

46 Difference between weight and mass Mass describes how much matter is in an object (measured in kg) Weight is a force (F=ma) that describes how gravity affects a mass (measured in Newtons: 1 N = 1 kg m /s 2 ) 100 kg on the surface of the Earth weighs 980 N Example: If the Earth were the same mass, but twice the radius, what would a 100 kg person weigh? F=Gm e m p /r 2 m e = kg and m p =100 kg r = 2 radius of Earth = m = m F = 245 Newtons = ¼ 980 Newtons

47 The fall of bodies in a gravitational field does not depend on their mass

48 Professor s Dinner iclicker Question Why doesn t her dinner fall on the ground?. A. Objects at rest stay at rest unless acted upon by a net outside force. B. The tablecloth was removed very quickly, so the force of friction did not last long. C. The acceleration occurred over such a brief period, that the table setting did not reach a velocity much larger than zero D. All of the above. E. None of the above. Gravity keeps the objects on the table regardless of the speed of the pull.

49 The orbits of planets

50 Ball Rolling Along Curved Track iclicker Question What trajectory will the ball take when it rolls out of the loop? A. It will continue around the circle back to where it first touched the loop. B. It will continue on a curved path for a brief period, but its path will eventually straighten out. C. It will go around the loop two more times. D. It will roll along a straight line. E. Really, I have no idea. Let s find out!

51 When a body moves in a circle, there must be a outside force acting on that body!

52 Newton s form of Kepler s Third Law # P 2 4" 2 = % \$ G m + m 1 2 ( ) & ( a 3 ' P = period of orbit, in seconds m 1 = mass of first object, in kg m 2 = mass of second object, in kg a = semimajor axis of orbit, in meters G = universal constant of gravitation G = newton m 2 /kg 2 Note that Kepler s form is only valid for objects orbiting the sun. Newton s form can be applied to any two objects in the universe.

53 Energy of Orbits

54 Different Forms of Energy

55 Energy of Orbits

56 Energy is Conserved The first American in space, Alan Shepard, did not orbit the Earth, because his Redstone rocket (a ballistic missile) was not powerful enough. John Glenn would later orbit Earth after being launched from an Atlas rocket.

57 Discovery of Neptune Le Verrier 1846 noticed Uranus was not in the right place. Predicted the existence of Neptune. Neptune was found where predicted to within one degree!

58 Tides

59

60

61

62 Tides are a difference in gravitational forces over a body of finite size.

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70 Summary In the modern Heliocentric model, the planets go around the sun (Copernican model) What pieces of evidence show that the Geocentric model is false? How did the Geocentric model explain retrograde motion of the planets? Kepler s Laws 1. The orbits of planets are ellipses 2. A planet s speed varies along the orbit 3. The period of the orbit is related to the size of the orbit Newton s Laws of Motion 1. Inertia 2. Relation between force and acceleration 3. Action/Reaction Newton s Law of gravity (orbits, tides, inertial vs. gravitational mass)

71 Homework #2 Due 10/06/16 On your own: answer all the review questions in chapters 3 & 4 To TAs: answer questions 3.31 diurnal motion of moon relative to stars 3.43 application of angular sizes to eclipses 4.46 gravitational force orbital periods

### Astronomy 1 Winter 2011

Astronomy 1 Winter 2011 Lecture 5; January 12 2011 Previously on Astro-1 Planets appear to move on the sky mostly West to East but occasionally with retrograde motions The ancients thought that the Earth

### Introduction To Modern Astronomy I

ASTR 111 003 Fall 2006 Lecture 03 Sep. 18, 2006 Introduction To Modern Astronomy I Introducing Astronomy (chap. 1-6) Planets and Moons (chap. 7-17) Ch1: Astronomy and the Universe Ch2: Knowing the Heavens

### Gravitation and the Motion of the Planets

Gravitation and the Motion of the Planets 1 Guiding Questions 1. How did ancient astronomers explain the motions of the planets? 2. Why did Copernicus think that the Earth and the other planets go around

### Gravitation and the Waltz of the Planets

Gravitation and the Waltz of the Planets Chapter Four Guiding Questions 1. How did ancient astronomers explain the motions of the planets? 2. Why did Copernicus think that the Earth and the other planets

### Gravitation and the Waltz of the Planets. Chapter Four

Gravitation and the Waltz of the Planets Chapter Four Guiding Questions 1. How did ancient astronomers explain the motions of the planets? 2. Why did Copernicus think that the Earth and the other planets

### How big is the Universe and where are we in it?

Announcements Results of clicker questions from Monday are on ICON. First homework is graded on ICON. Next homework due one minute before midnight on Tuesday, September 6. Labs start this week. All lab

### 9/12/2010. The Four Fundamental Forces of Nature. 1. Gravity 2. Electromagnetism 3. The Strong Nuclear Force 4. The Weak Nuclear Force

The Four Fundamental Forces of Nature 1. Gravity 2. Electromagnetism 3. The Strong Nuclear Force 4. The Weak Nuclear Force The Universe is made of matter Gravity the force of attraction between matter

### Introduction To Modern Astronomy II

ASTR 111 003 Fall 2006 Lecture 03 Sep. 18, 2006 Introduction To Modern Astronomy II Introducing Astronomy (chap. 1-6) Planets and Moons (chap. 7-17) Ch1: Astronomy and the Universe Ch2: Knowing the Heavens

### Announcements. Topics To Be Covered in this Lecture

Announcements! Tonight s observing session is cancelled (due to clouds)! the next one will be one week from now, weather permitting! The 2 nd LearningCurve activity was due earlier today! Assignment 2

### PHYS 160 Astronomy Test #1 Fall 2017 Version B

PHYS 160 Astronomy Test #1 Fall 2017 Version B 1 I. True/False (1 point each) Circle the T if the statement is true, or F if the statement is false on your answer sheet. 1. An object has the same weight,

### 18. Kepler as a young man became the assistant to A) Nicolaus Copernicus. B) Ptolemy. C) Tycho Brahe. D) Sir Isaac Newton.

Name: Date: 1. The word planet is derived from a Greek term meaning A) bright nighttime object. B) astrological sign. C) wanderer. D) nontwinkling star. 2. The planets that were known before the telescope

### Lecture #5: Plan. The Beginnings of Modern Astronomy Kepler s Laws Galileo

Lecture #5: Plan The Beginnings of Modern Astronomy Kepler s Laws Galileo Geocentric ( Ptolemaic ) Model Retrograde Motion: Apparent backward (= East-to-West) motion of a planet with respect to stars Ptolemy

### Gravitation Part I. Ptolemy, Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler

Gravitation Part I. Ptolemy, Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler Celestial motions The stars: Uniform daily motion about the celestial poles (rising and setting). The Sun: Daily motion around the celestial

### Astronomy Notes Chapter 02.notebook April 11, 2014 Pythagoras Aristotle geocentric retrograde motion epicycles deferents Aristarchus, heliocentric

Around 2500 years ago, Pythagoras began to use math to describe the world around him. Around 200 years later, Aristotle stated that the Universe is understandable and is governed by regular laws. Most

### BROCK UNIVERSITY. 1. The observation that the intervals of time between two successive quarter phases of the Moon are very nearly equal implies that

BROCK UNIVERSITY Page 1 of 10 Test 1: November 2014 Number of pages: 10 Course: ASTR 1P01, Section 2 Number of students: 961 Examination date: 7 November 2014 Time limit: 50 min Time of Examination: 17:00

### Astronomy- The Original Science

Astronomy- The Original Science Imagine that it is 5,000 years ago. Clocks and modern calendars have not been invented. How would you tell time or know what day it is? One way to tell the time is to study

### In so many and such important. ways, then, do the planets bear witness to the earth's mobility. Nicholas Copernicus

In so many and such important ways, then, do the planets bear witness to the earth's mobility Nicholas Copernicus What We Will Learn Today What did it take to revise an age old belief? What is the Copernican

### BROCK UNIVERSITY. 1. The observation that the intervals of time between two successive quarter phases of the Moon are very nearly equal implies that

BROCK UNIVERSITY Page 1 of 10 Test 1: November 2014 Number of pages: 10 Course: ASTR 1P01, Section 2 Number of students: 30 Examination date: 10 November 2014 Time limit: 50 min Time of Examination: 9:00

### Occam s Razor: William of Occam, 1340(!)

Reading: OpenStax, Chapter 2, Section 2.2 &2.4, Chapter 3, Sections 3.1-3.3 Chapter 5, Section 5.1 Last time: Scales of the Universe Astro 150 Spring 2018: Lecture 2 page 1 The size of our solar system,

### Practice Test DeAnza College Astronomy 04 Test 1 Spring Quarter 2009

Practice Test DeAnza College Astronomy 04 Test 1 Spring Quarter 2009 Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Mark answer on Scantron.

### 4. Gravitation & Planetary Motion. Mars Motion: 2005 to 2006

4. Gravitation & Planetary Motion Geocentric models of ancient times Heliocentric model of Copernicus Telescopic observations of Galileo Galilei Systematic observations of Tycho Brahe Three planetary laws

### ASTR 1010 Spring 2016 Study Notes Dr. Magnani

The Copernican Revolution ASTR 1010 Spring 2016 Study Notes Dr. Magnani The Copernican Revolution is basically how the West intellectually transitioned from the Ptolemaic geocentric model of the Universe

### Planetary Orbits: Kepler s Laws 1/18/07

Planetary Orbits: Kepler s Laws Announcements The correct link for the course webpage http://www.lpl.arizona.edu/undergrad/classes/spring2007/giacalone_206-2 The first homework due Jan 25 (available for

### BROCK UNIVERSITY. 1. About 2300 years ago, Aristotle argued that the Earth is spherical based on a number of observations, one of which was that

BROCK UNIVERSITY Page 1 of 10 Test 2: November 2015 Number of pages: 10 Course: ASTR 1P01, Section 2 Number of students: 861 Examination date: 7 November 2015 Time limit: 50 min Time of Examination: 13:00

### Most of the time during full and new phases, the Moon lies above or below the Sun in the sky.

6/16 Eclipses: We don t have eclipses every month because the plane of the Moon s orbit about the Earth is different from the plane the ecliptic, the Earth s orbital plane about the Sun. The planes of

### Ancient Cosmology: A Flat Earth. Alexandria

Today Competing Cosmologies Geocentric vs. Heliocentric Ptolemy vs. copernicus Retrograde Motion Phases of Venus Galileo FIRST HOMEWORK DUE How d it work? Ancient Cosmology: A Flat Earth Here there be

### Chapter 1 The Copernican Revolution

Chapter 1 The Copernican Revolution The Horse Head nebula in the Orion constellation (Reading assignment: Chapter 1) Learning Outcomes How the geocentric model accounts for the retrograde motion of planets?

### 7.4 Universal Gravitation

Circular Motion Velocity is a vector quantity, which means that it involves both speed (magnitude) and direction. Therefore an object traveling at a constant speed can still accelerate if the direction

### Chapter 4. The Origin Of Modern Astronomy. Is okay to change your phone? From ios to Android From Android to ios

Chapter 4 The Origin Of Modern Astronomy Slide 14 Slide 15 14 15 Is Change Good or Bad? Do you like Homer to look like Homer or with hair? Does it bother you when your schedule is changed? Is it okay to

### Chapter 2 The Science of Life in the Universe

In ancient times phenomena in the sky were not understood! Chapter 2 The Science of Life in the Universe The Ancient Greeks The Scientific Method Our ideas must always be consistent with our observations!

### History of Astronomy. PHYS 1411 Introduction to Astronomy. Tycho Brahe and Exploding Stars. Tycho Brahe ( ) Chapter 4. Renaissance Period

PHYS 1411 Introduction to Astronomy History of Astronomy Chapter 4 Renaissance Period Copernicus new (and correct) explanation for retrograde motion of the planets Copernicus new (and correct) explanation

The History of Astronomy Please pick up your assigned transmitter. When did mankind first become interested in the science of astronomy? 1. With the advent of modern computer technology (mid-20 th century)

### Exam #1 Study Guide (Note this is not all the information you need to know for the test, these are just SOME of the main points)

Exam #1 Study Guide (Note this is not all the information you need to know for the test, these are just SOME of the main points) Moon Phases Moon is always ½ illuminated by the Sun, and the sunlit side

### How Astronomers Learnt that The Heavens Are Not Perfect

1 How Astronomers Learnt that The Heavens Are Not Perfect Introduction In this packet, you will read about the discoveries and theories which changed the way astronomers understood the Universe. I have

### Astronomy A BEGINNER S GUIDE TO THE UNIVERSE EIGHTH EDITION

Astronomy A BEGINNER S GUIDE TO THE UNIVERSE EIGHTH EDITION CHAPTER 1 The Copernican Revolution Lecture Presentation 1.0 Have you ever wondered about? Where are the stars during the day? What is the near

### Lecture 13. Gravity in the Solar System

Lecture 13 Gravity in the Solar System Guiding Questions 1. How was the heliocentric model established? What are monumental steps in the history of the heliocentric model? 2. How do Kepler s three laws

### Early Models of the Universe. How we explained those big shiny lights in the sky

Early Models of the Universe How we explained those big shiny lights in the sky The Greek philosopher Aristotle (384 322 BCE) believed that the Earth was the center of our universe, and everything rotated

### Claudius Ptolemaeus Second Century AD. Jan 5 7:37 AM

Claudius Ptolemaeus Second Century AD Jan 5 7:37 AM Copernicus: The Foundation Nicholas Copernicus (Polish, 1473 1543): Proposed the first modern heliocentric model, motivated by inaccuracies of the Ptolemaic

### Chapter 2. The Rise of Astronomy. Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Chapter 2 The Rise of Astronomy Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Periods of Western Astronomy Western astronomy divides into 4 periods Prehistoric

### Evidence that the Earth does not move: Greek Astronomy. Aristotelian Cosmology: Motions of the Planets. Ptolemy s Geocentric Model 2-1

Greek Astronomy Aristotelian Cosmology: Evidence that the Earth does not move: 1. Stars do not exhibit parallax: 2-1 At the center of the universe is the Earth: Changeable and imperfect. Above the Earth

### Planets & The Origin of Science

Planets & The Origin of Science Reading: Chapter 2 Required: Guided Discovery (p.44-47) Required: Astro. Toolbox 2-1 Optional: Astro. Toolbox 2-2, 2-3 Next Homework Due. Sept. 26 Office Hours: Monday,

### Physics Unit 7: Circular Motion, Universal Gravitation, and Satellite Orbits. Planetary Motion

Physics Unit 7: Circular Motion, Universal Gravitation, and Satellite Orbits Planetary Motion Geocentric Models --Many people prior to the 1500 s viewed the! Earth and the solar system using a! geocentric

### History of Astronomy. Historical People and Theories

History of Astronomy Historical People and Theories Plato Believed he could solve everything through reasoning. Circles and Spheres are good because they are perfect (never ending) and pleasing to the

### Gravity. Newton s Law of Gravitation Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion Gravitational Fields

Gravity Newton s Law of Gravitation Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion Gravitational Fields Simulation Synchronous Rotation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ozib_l eg75q Sun-Earth-Moon System https://vimeo.com/16015937

### Earth Science, 13e Tarbuck & Lutgens

Earth Science, 13e Tarbuck & Lutgens Origins of Modern Astronomy Earth Science, 13e Chapter 21 Stanley C. Hatfield Southwestern Illinois College Early history of astronomy Ancient Greeks Used philosophical

### Test Bank for Life in the Universe, Third Edition Chapter 2: The Science of Life in the Universe

1. The possibility of extraterrestrial life was first considered A) after the invention of the telescope B) only during the past few decades C) many thousands of years ago during ancient times D) at the

### 1. The Moon appears larger when it rises than when it is high in the sky because

2-1 Copyright 2016 All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of 1. The Moon appears larger when it rises than when it is high in the sky because A. you are

### The following notes roughly correspond to Section 2.4 and Chapter 3 of the text by Bennett. This note focuses on the details of the transition for a

The following notes roughly correspond to Section 2.4 and Chapter 3 of the text by Bennett. This note focuses on the details of the transition for a geocentric model for understanding the universe to a

### Gat ew ay T o S pace AS EN / AS TR Class # 19. Colorado S pace Grant Consortium

Gat ew ay T o S pace AS EN / AS TR 2500 Class # 19 Colorado S pace Grant Consortium Announcements: - Launch Readiness Review Cards - 11 days to launch Announcements: - Launch Readiness Review Cards - 11

### Chapter 02 The Rise of Astronomy

Chapter 02 The Rise of Astronomy Multiple Choice Questions 1. The moon appears larger when it rises than when it is high in the sky because A. You are closer to it when it rises (angular-size relation).

### Things to do today. Terminal, Astronomy is Fun. Lecture 24 The Science of Astronomy. Scientific Thinking. After this lecture, please pick up:

Things to do today After this lecture, please pick up: Review questions for the final exam Homework#6 (due next Tuesday) No class on Thursday (Thanksgiving) Final exam on December 2 (next Thursday) Terminal,

### Astronomy Lesson 8.1 Astronomy s Movers and Shakers

8 Astronomers.notebook Astronomy Lesson 8.1 Astronomy s Movers and Shakers Aristotle 384 322 BCE Heavenly objects must move on circular paths at constant speeds. Earth is motionless at the center of the

### Copernican Revolution. ~1500 to ~1700

~1500 to ~1700 Copernicus (~1500) Brahe (~1570) Kepler (~1600) Galileo (~1600) Newton (~1670) The Issue: Geocentric or Heliocentric Which model explains observations the best? Copernicus (~1500) Resurrected

### Learning Objectives. one night? Over the course of several nights? How do true motion and retrograde motion differ?

Kepler s Laws Learning Objectives! Do the planets move east or west over the course of one night? Over the course of several nights? How do true motion and retrograde motion differ?! What are geocentric

### Intro to Astronomy. Looking at Our Space Neighborhood

Intro to Astronomy Looking at Our Space Neighborhood Astronomy: The Original Science Ancient cultures used the movement of stars, planets and the moon to mark time Astronomy: the study of the universe

### Ast ch 4-5 practice Test Multiple Choice

Ast ch 4-5 practice Test Multiple Choice 1. The distance from Alexandria to Syene is about 500 miles. On the summer solstice the sun is directly overhead at noon in Syene. At Alexandria on the summer solstice,

### The Puzzle of Planetary Motion versus

The Puzzle of Planetary Motion versus Finding Earth s place in the Universe Observing the Planets Five of the planets are bright enough to be seen by the unaided eye. This view shows the sky after sunset

### Today. Planetary Motion. Tycho Brahe s Observations. Kepler s Laws Laws of Motion. Laws of Motion

Today Planetary Motion Tycho Brahe s Observations Kepler s Laws Laws of Motion Laws of Motion In 1633 the Catholic Church ordered Galileo to recant his claim that Earth orbits the Sun. His book on the

### January 19, notes.notebook. Claudius Ptolemaeus Second Century AD. Jan 5 7:37 AM

8.1 notes.notebook Claudius Ptolemaeus Second Century AD Jan 5 7:7 AM Copernicus: The Foundation Nicholas Copernicus (Polish, 147 154): Proposed the first modern heliocentric model, motivated by inaccuracies

### PHYS 155 Introductory Astronomy

PHYS 155 Introductory Astronomy - observing sessions: Sunday Thursday, 9pm, weather permitting http://www.phys.uconn.edu/observatory - Exam - Tuesday March 20, - Review Monday 6:30-9pm, PB 38 Marek Krasnansky

### Ch. 22 Origin of Modern Astronomy Pretest

Ch. 22 Origin of Modern Astronomy Pretest Ch. 22 Origin of Modern Astronomy Pretest 1. True or False: Early Greek astronomers (600 B.C. A.D. 150) used telescopes to observe the stars. Ch. 22 Origin of

### Chapter 2 The Copernican Revolution

Chapter 2 The Copernican Revolution Units of Chapter 2 2.1 Ancient Astronomy 2.2 The Geocentric Universe 2.3 The Heliocentric Model of the Solar System The Foundations of the Copernican Revolution 2.4

### Motions of the Planets ASTR 2110 Sarazin

Motions of the Planets ASTR 2110 Sarazin Motion of Planets Retrograde Motion Inferior Planets: Mercury, Venus Always near Sun on Sky Retrograde motion when very close to Sun on sky (Every other time) Superior

### Early Theories. Early astronomers believed that the sun, planets and stars orbited Earth (geocentric model) Developed by Aristotle

Planetary Motion Early Theories Early astronomers believed that the sun, planets and stars orbited Earth (geocentric model) Developed by Aristotle Stars appear to move around Earth Observations showed

### Today. Planetary Motion. Tycho Brahe s Observations. Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion. Laws of Motion. in physics

Planetary Motion Today Tycho Brahe s Observations Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion Laws of Motion in physics Page from 1640 text in the KSL rare book collection That the Earth may be a Planet the seeming

### Astr 2320 Tues. Jan. 24, 2017 Today s Topics Review of Celestial Mechanics (Ch. 3)

Astr 2320 Tues. Jan. 24, 2017 Today s Topics Review of Celestial Mechanics (Ch. 3) Copernicus (empirical observations) Kepler (mathematical concepts) Galileo (application to Jupiter s moons) Newton (Gravity

### Newton s Three Law of Motion

Born in England on Christmas day 1643. Overview Chapter 2b Copernican Revolution Bubonic Plague 1665 While home for 2 years with nothing to do he made his most profound discoveries and proposed his most

### ASTR 150. Planetarium Shows begin Sept 9th. Register your iclicker! Last time: The Night Sky Today: Motion and Gravity. Info on course website

Planetarium Shows begin Sept 9th Info on course website Register your iclicker! Last time: The Night Sky Today: Motion and Gravity ASTR 150 Hang on tight! Most math all semester-- get it over with right

### The History of Astronomy. Theories, People, and Discoveries of the Past

The History of Astronomy Theories, People, and Discoveries of the Past Early man recorded very little history. Left some clues in the form of petrographs. Stone drawings that show eclipses, comets, supernovae.

### Earth Science, 11e. Origin of Modern Astronomy Chapter 21. Early history of astronomy. Early history of astronomy. Early history of astronomy

2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 21 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors

### Planets & The Origin of Science

Planets & The Origin of Science Reading: Chapter 2 Required: Guided Discovery (p.44-47) Required: Astro. Toolbox 2-1 Optional: Astro. Toolbox 2-2, 2-3 Next Homework Due. Feb. 26 Office Hours: Monday, 12-2

### Days of the week: - named after 7 Power (moving) objects in the sky (Sun, Moon, 5 planets) Models of the Universe:

Motions of the Planets ( Wanderers ) Planets move on celestial sphere - change RA, Dec each night - five are visible to naked eye Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn Days of the week: - named after 7

### ASTR-1010: Astronomy I Course Notes Section III

ASTR-1010: Astronomy I Course Notes Section III Dr. Donald G. Luttermoser Department of Physics and Astronomy East Tennessee State University Edition 2.0 Abstract These class notes are designed for use

### D. A system of assumptions and principles applicable to a wide range of phenomena that has been repeatedly verified

ASTRONOMY 1 EXAM 1 Name Identify Terms - Matching (20 @ 1 point each = 20 pts.) 1 Solar System G 7. aphelion N 14. eccentricity M 2. Planet E 8. apparent visual magnitude R 15. empirical Q 3. Star P 9.

### THE SUN AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM

Chapter 26 THE SUN AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM CHAPTER 26 SECTION 26.1: THE SUN S SIZE, HEAT, AND STRUCTURE Objectives: What is the Sun s structure and source of energy? Key Vocabulary: Fusion Photosphere Corona

### The History of Astronomy

The History of Astronomy The History of Astronomy Earliest astronomical record: a lunar calendar etched on bone from 6500 B.C. Uganda. Also we find early groups noted the Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Earth,

### Eclipses and Forces. Jan 21, ) Review 2) Eclipses 3) Kepler s Laws 4) Newton s Laws

Eclipses and Forces Jan 21, 2004 1) Review 2) Eclipses 3) Kepler s Laws 4) Newton s Laws Review Lots of motion The Moon revolves around the Earth Eclipses Solar Lunar the Sun, Earth and Moon must all be

### Kepler, Newton, and laws of motion

Kepler, Newton, and laws of motion First: A Little History Geocentric vs. heliocentric model for solar system (sec. 2.2-2.4)! The only history in this course is this progression: Aristotle (~350 BC) Ptolemy

### 2. See FIGURE B. This person in the FIGURE discovered that this planet had phases (name the planet)?

ASTRONOMY 2 MIDTERM EXAM PART I SPRING 2019 60 QUESTIONS 50 POINTS: Part I of the midterm constitutes the Take-Home part of the entire Midterm Exam. Additionally, this Take-Home part is divided into two

### Next Homework Due. Feb. 20

This week: Chapter 2 Required: Guided Discovery (p.44-47) Required: Astro. Toolbox 2-1 Optional: Astro. Toolbox 2-2, 2-3 Next Homework Due. Feb. 20 Office Hours: Monday, 3-4 Did you see the Lunar Eclipse?

### Today. Review. Momentum and Force Consider the rate of change of momentum. What is Momentum?

Today Announcements: HW# is due Wednesday 8:00 am. HW#3 will be due Wednesday Feb.4 at 8:00am Review and Newton s 3rd Law Gravity, Planetary Orbits - Important lesson in how science works and how ultimately

### Module 3: Astronomy The Universe Topic 6 Content: The Age of Astronomy Presentation Notes

Module 3: Astronomy The Universe The Age of Astronomy was marked by the struggle to understand the placement of Earth in the universe and the effort to understand planetary motion. Behind this struggle

### ,.~ Readlng ~ What,~,~~ is a geocentric system? Chapter3 J 73

Earth at the Center When the ancient Greeks watched the stars move across the sky, they noticed that the patterns of the stars didn t change. Although the stars seemed to move, they stayed in the same

### 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity

Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity 4.1 Describing Motion: Examples from Daily Life Some of the topics we will explore: How do we describe motion? (Speed,

### Contents: -Information/Research Packet. - Jumbled Image packet. - Comic book cover page. -Comic book pages. -Example finished comic

Contents: -Information/Research Packet - Jumbled Image packet - Comic book cover page -Comic book pages -Example finished comic Nicolaus Copernicus Nicholas Copernicus was a Polish astronomer who lived

### AP Physics-B Universal Gravitation Introduction: Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion: Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation: Performance Objectives:

AP Physics-B Universal Gravitation Introduction: Astronomy is the oldest science. Practical needs and imagination acted together to give astronomy an early importance. For thousands of years, the motions

### Astronomy 101 Exam 2 Form Akey

Astronomy 101 Exam 2 Form Akey Name: Lab section number: (In the format M0**. See back page; if you get this wrong you may not get your exam back!) Exam time: one hour and twenty minutes Please put bags

### Astronomy 101 Exam 2 Form Bkey

Astronomy 101 Exam 2 Form Bkey Name: Lab section number: (In the format M0**. See back page; if you get this wrong you may not get your exam back!) Exam time: one hour and twenty minutes Please put bags

### Chapter 3 The Solar System

Name: Date: Period: Chapter 3 The Solar System Section 1 Observing the Solar System (pp. 72-77) Key Concepts What are the geocentric and heliocentric systems? How did Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler contribute

### Astronomy 101 Exam 2 Form Dkey

Astronomy 101 Exam 2 Form Dkey Name: Lab section number: (In the format M0**. See back page; if you get this wrong you may not get your exam back!) Exam time: one hour and twenty minutes Please put bags

### Chapter. Origin of Modern Astronomy

Chapter Origin of Modern Astronomy 22.1 Early Astronomy Ancient Greeks Astronomy is the science that studies the universe. It includes the observation and interpretation of celestial bodies and phenomena.

### The Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Revolution What is a Revolution? A Revolution is a complete change, or an overthrow of a government, a social system, etc. The Scientific Revolution In the 1500s and 1600s the Scientific

### Lecture Fall 2005 Astronomy 110 1

Lecture 9 + 10 Fall 2005 Astronomy 110 1 Isaac Newton and the birth of Physics If I have seen farther than others, it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants. Sir Isaac Newton (1642 1727) Nature

### Monday, October 3, 2011

We do not ask for what useful purpose the birds do sing, for song is their pleasure since they were created for singing. Similarly, we ought not ask why the human mind troubles to fathom the secrets of

### Lecture 3: History of Astronomy. Astronomy 111 Monday September 4, 2017

Lecture 3: History of Astronomy Astronomy 111 Monday September 4, 2017 Reminders Labs start this week Homework #2 assigned today Astronomy of the ancients Many ancient cultures took note of celestial objects

### Homework #2 is online and is due next Friday! Planetarium shows are getting full. Solar Observing starts Monday!

Homework #1 was due at 11:50am! Now it s too late! Homework #2 is online and is due next Friday! New format for lectures 4 sheets per page PDF. Planetarium shows are getting full. Solar Observing starts

### Chapter 2. The Rise of Astronomy. Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Chapter 2 The Rise of Astronomy Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 2.1: Early Ideas of the Heavens: Classical Astronomy As far as we know, the

### Was Ptolemy Pstupid?

Was Ptolemy Pstupid? Why such a silly title for today s lecture? Sometimes we tend to think that ancient astronomical ideas were stupid because today we know that they were wrong. But, while their models