# By; Jarrick Serdar, Michael Broberg, Trevor Grey, Cameron Kearl, Claire DeCoste, and Kristian Fors

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "By; Jarrick Serdar, Michael Broberg, Trevor Grey, Cameron Kearl, Claire DeCoste, and Kristian Fors"

## Transcription

1 By; Jarrick Serdar, Michael Broberg, Trevor Grey, Cameron Kearl, Claire DeCoste, and Kristian Fors

2 What is gravity? Gravity is defined as the force of attraction by which terrestrial bodies tend to fall toward the center of the earth. Means by which all things with mass are attracted to each other, including planets, stars, and galaxies. Fg=Gm₁m₂ r^2 G = ^-11 Nm2/kg2 The Gravitational constant is always the same no matter where you are in the Universe.

3 The force of gravity between two objects depends on 3 quantities: 1. Distance between the two objects: r 2. How big the first object is: m₁ 3. How big the second object is: m₂

4 Gravitational Potential Energy PEg = -Gm1m2 r WHY it s negative? Because a negative amount of work is done to bring an object closer to the Earth. The gravitational potential is the energy that an object has, based on where it is in a gravitational field The gravitational acceleration on the surface of the earth is 9.8 m/s^2

5 Orbital Velocity Objects that already have velocity come into the gravity field of an object begin to fall into their orbit ex.) When a satellite is put into space, it maintains a current speed while it travels in earths orbit, just as the moon does The equation for Orbital Velocity relies on the mass of the object, the gravitational pull, and the radius of the planet

6 Escape Velocity Escape Velocity is the lowest velocity that a body must have in order to escape the gravitational attraction of a particular planet or other object. ex.)in order for NASA to put satellites into space, they must first find the escape velocity of the satellite so they can overcome earth's gravity The equation of escape velocity depends on the gravitational pull of the planet, the mass of the planet and the radius of the planet Vesc = (2GM/R)

7 Kepler s 3 Laws of Planetary Motion 1. The orbit of a planet is an ellipse with the sun at one of the two focus points. 2. A line segment joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time. 3. The square of the orbital period of a planet is proportional to the cube of its average distance from the Sun. T^2 = 4π^2r^3 r = the average distance from the Sun GM

8

9

10

11 Major Contributions Eratosthenes was the first to measure the circumference of Earth. Ptolemy created the idea of a Geocentric Universe. Nicolaus Copernicus was the father of the Heliocentric Theory, and often thought to spark the Scientific Revolution. Tycho Brahe discovered that our universe is dynamic and ever changing. Galileo Galilei discovered that in the absence of air resistance, all objects accelerate toward the Earth at the same rate, regardless of mass. Albert Einstein proposed that gravity is the universal attraction between all mass, and, since E = mc2, all forms of energy Gravity is the curvature of spacetime the four dimensional fabric of the universe Edwin Hubble believed that the Universe goes beyond the Milky Way, and that is was expanding ever so rapidly.

12 Newton s Theory of Gravity Explained the motion of falling objects In 1821, Alexis Bouvard observed disturbances in the orbit of Uranus Newton s theory of gravity predicted these disturbances were due to the presence of an unknown gravitational source and eventually led to the discovery of Neptune

13 Common Misconceptions The shape of an orbit is an ellipse, not a circle Weight changes, mass is constant. Make sure to convert to the appropriate units before making any calculations. Gravitational potential energy is negative Doesn't have constant velocity, has constant speed In acceleration due to gravity, all objects fall in free fall, this means that no matter what the mass is, in a vacuum they would fall at the same velocity, the only reason some objects fall faster is due to air resistance. Remember when calculation how strong the force of gravity is to measure the distance from the CORE not from the surface of the Earth i.e. If an apple tree is doubled in height Isaac Newton did not discover gravity because of an apple tree Earth is not a perfect sphere and that s why Eratosthenes messed up when calculating the circumference of the Earth

14 Multiple Choice Review

15 Question 1 What is the force of gravity between Jupiter and it s moon that are 670, 000 kilometers apart? The mass of Jupiter is 1.9 x 10^27 kg, and the mass of moon is 4.8 x 10^22 kg. A x 10^22 C. 9.0 x 10^30 B. 9.1 x 10^22 D x 10^30

17 Question 2) Question 2) Kepler's 1st law The orbit of a planet is an with the sun at one of the two focus points. A. Sphere B. circle C. Ellipse D. Oval

19 Question 3 The sun weighs ^30 kg. If it takes 365 days to orbit the sun, on average how far is the earth from the sun? a) 1.62 x 10^11 b) 1.49 x 10^11 c) d) 1.28 x 10^ x 10^11

21 Question 4 How is your mass on Earth compared to your mass on the moon? A. 2x greater B. Same C. 2x smaller D. 4x greater

22 Question 4 Answer B. Same

23 Question 5 Calculate the escape velocity of Planet B, which has a mass of 1.38 x 10^25 kg, and a radius of 6.32 x 10^7 m. a) m/s c) m/s b) m/s d) m/s

### GRAVITY. You can t blame gravity for falling in love. Albert Einstein

You can t blame gravity for falling in love. Albert Einstein LITTLE PLANET If an asteroid was very small but supermassive, could you really live on it like the Little Prince? WHAT IS GRAVITY? Gravity is

### Gravity and the Orbits of Planets

Gravity and the Orbits of Planets 1. Gravity Galileo Newton Earth s Gravity Mass v. Weight Einstein and General Relativity Round and irregular shaped objects 2. Orbits and Kepler s Laws ESO Galileo, Gravity,

### PHYSICS. Chapter 13 Lecture FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS A STRATEGIC APPROACH 4/E RANDALL D. KNIGHT Pearson Education, Inc.

PHYSICS FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS A STRATEGIC APPROACH 4/E Chapter 13 Lecture RANDALL D. KNIGHT Chapter 13 Newton s Theory of Gravity IN THIS CHAPTER, you will learn to understand the motion of satellites

### Gravity. Newton s Law of Gravitation Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion Gravitational Fields

Gravity Newton s Law of Gravitation Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion Gravitational Fields Simulation Synchronous Rotation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ozib_l eg75q Sun-Earth-Moon System https://vimeo.com/16015937

Chapter 13. Newton s Theory of Gravity The beautiful rings of Saturn consist of countless centimeter-sized ice crystals, all orbiting the planet under the influence of gravity. Chapter Goal: To use Newton

### Physics Unit 7: Circular Motion, Universal Gravitation, and Satellite Orbits. Planetary Motion

Physics Unit 7: Circular Motion, Universal Gravitation, and Satellite Orbits Planetary Motion Geocentric Models --Many people prior to the 1500 s viewed the! Earth and the solar system using a! geocentric

### Planetary Mechanics:

Planetary Mechanics: Satellites A satellite is an object or a body that revolves around another body due to the gravitational attraction to the greater mass. Ex: The planets are natural satellites of the

### Chapter 12 Gravity. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 12 Gravity Units of Chapter 12 Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion Gravitational Potential Energy Energy Conservation

### 7.4 Universal Gravitation

Circular Motion Velocity is a vector quantity, which means that it involves both speed (magnitude) and direction. Therefore an object traveling at a constant speed can still accelerate if the direction

### 7 Study Guide. Gravitation Vocabulary Review

Date Period Name CHAPTER 7 Study Guide Gravitation Vocabulary Review Write the term that correctly completes the statement. Use each term once. Kepler s second law Newton s law of universal gravitation

### Gravitation and the Motion of the Planets

Gravitation and the Motion of the Planets 1 Guiding Questions 1. How did ancient astronomers explain the motions of the planets? 2. Why did Copernicus think that the Earth and the other planets go around

### Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. GRAVITY. Chapter 12

GRAVITY Chapter 12 Units of Chapter 12 Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion Gravitational Potential Energy Energy Conservation

### Kepler, Newton, and laws of motion

Kepler, Newton, and laws of motion First: A Little History Geocentric vs. heliocentric model for solar system (sec. 2.2-2.4)! The only history in this course is this progression: Aristotle (~350 BC) Ptolemy

Chapter 4 Thrills and Chills +Math +Depth Acceleration of the Moon +Concepts The Moon is 60 times further away from the center of Earth than objects on the surface of Earth, and moves about Earth in an

### January 19, notes.notebook. Claudius Ptolemaeus Second Century AD. Jan 5 7:37 AM

8.1 notes.notebook Claudius Ptolemaeus Second Century AD Jan 5 7:7 AM Copernicus: The Foundation Nicholas Copernicus (Polish, 147 154): Proposed the first modern heliocentric model, motivated by inaccuracies

### Chapter 12 Gravity. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 12 Gravity Units of Chapter 12 Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion Gravitational Potential Energy Energy Conservation

### Astronomy- The Original Science

Astronomy- The Original Science Imagine that it is 5,000 years ago. Clocks and modern calendars have not been invented. How would you tell time or know what day it is? One way to tell the time is to study

### 9/12/2010. The Four Fundamental Forces of Nature. 1. Gravity 2. Electromagnetism 3. The Strong Nuclear Force 4. The Weak Nuclear Force

The Four Fundamental Forces of Nature 1. Gravity 2. Electromagnetism 3. The Strong Nuclear Force 4. The Weak Nuclear Force The Universe is made of matter Gravity the force of attraction between matter

### Newton s Gravitational Law

1 Newton s Gravitational Law Gravity exists because bodies have masses. Newton s Gravitational Law states that the force of attraction between two point masses is directly proportional to the product of

### Announcements. Topics To Be Covered in this Lecture

Announcements! Tonight s observing session is cancelled (due to clouds)! the next one will be one week from now, weather permitting! The 2 nd LearningCurve activity was due earlier today! Assignment 2

### Claudius Ptolemaeus Second Century AD. Jan 5 7:37 AM

Claudius Ptolemaeus Second Century AD Jan 5 7:37 AM Copernicus: The Foundation Nicholas Copernicus (Polish, 1473 1543): Proposed the first modern heliocentric model, motivated by inaccuracies of the Ptolemaic

### Chapter 5 Part 2. Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation, Satellites, and Weightlessness

Chapter 5 Part 2 Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation, Satellites, and Weightlessness Newton s ideas about gravity Newton knew that a force exerted on an object causes an acceleration. Most forces occurred

### Practice Test DeAnza College Astronomy 04 Test 1 Spring Quarter 2009

Practice Test DeAnza College Astronomy 04 Test 1 Spring Quarter 2009 Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Mark answer on Scantron.

### Introduction To Modern Astronomy I

ASTR 111 003 Fall 2006 Lecture 03 Sep. 18, 2006 Introduction To Modern Astronomy I Introducing Astronomy (chap. 1-6) Planets and Moons (chap. 7-17) Ch1: Astronomy and the Universe Ch2: Knowing the Heavens

### Chapter 2. The Rise of Astronomy. Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Chapter 2 The Rise of Astronomy Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Periods of Western Astronomy Western astronomy divides into 4 periods Prehistoric

### Universal Gravitation

Universal Gravitation Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and key figure in the 17th century Scientific revolution. He is best known for his laws of planetary

### Contents: -Information/Research Packet. - Jumbled Image packet. - Comic book cover page. -Comic book pages. -Example finished comic

Contents: -Information/Research Packet - Jumbled Image packet - Comic book cover page -Comic book pages -Example finished comic Nicolaus Copernicus Nicholas Copernicus was a Polish astronomer who lived

### Occam s Razor: William of Occam, 1340(!)

Reading: OpenStax, Chapter 2, Section 2.2 &2.4, Chapter 3, Sections 3.1-3.3 Chapter 5, Section 5.1 Last time: Scales of the Universe Astro 150 Spring 2018: Lecture 2 page 1 The size of our solar system,

### Unit 5 Gravitation. Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion

Unit 5 Gravitation Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion Into to Gravity Phet Simulation Today: Make sure to collect all data. Finished lab due tomorrow!! Universal Law

### PHYS 155 Introductory Astronomy

PHYS 155 Introductory Astronomy - observing sessions: Sunday Thursday, 9pm, weather permitting http://www.phys.uconn.edu/observatory - Exam - Tuesday March 20, - Review Monday 6:30-9pm, PB 38 Marek Krasnansky

### Early Theories. Early astronomers believed that the sun, planets and stars orbited Earth (geocentric model) Developed by Aristotle

Planetary Motion Early Theories Early astronomers believed that the sun, planets and stars orbited Earth (geocentric model) Developed by Aristotle Stars appear to move around Earth Observations showed

### Gravitation and the Waltz of the Planets

Gravitation and the Waltz of the Planets Chapter Four Guiding Questions 1. How did ancient astronomers explain the motions of the planets? 2. Why did Copernicus think that the Earth and the other planets

### Gravitation and the Waltz of the Planets. Chapter Four

Gravitation and the Waltz of the Planets Chapter Four Guiding Questions 1. How did ancient astronomers explain the motions of the planets? 2. Why did Copernicus think that the Earth and the other planets

### Gravitation. Objectives. The apple and the Moon. Equations 6/2/14. Describe the historical development of the concepts of gravitational force.

Gravitation Objectives Describe the historical development of the concepts of gravitational force. Describe and calculate how the magnitude of the gravitational force between two objects depends on their

### Circular Motion and Gravitation. Centripetal Acceleration

Circular Motion and Gravitation Centripetal Acceleration Recall linear acceleration 3. Going around a curve, at constant speed 1. Speeding up vi vi Δv a ac ac vi ac 2. Slowing down v velocity and acceleration

### Astronomy Lesson 8.1 Astronomy s Movers and Shakers

8 Astronomers.notebook Astronomy Lesson 8.1 Astronomy s Movers and Shakers Aristotle 384 322 BCE Heavenly objects must move on circular paths at constant speeds. Earth is motionless at the center of the

### Physics 12. Unit 5 Circular Motion and Gravitation Part 2

Physics 12 Unit 5 Circular Motion and Gravitation Part 2 1. Newton s law of gravitation We have seen in Physics 11 that the force acting on an object due to gravity is given by a well known formula: F

### 1. Which of the following correctly lists our cosmic address from small to large?

1. Which of the following correctly lists our cosmic address from small to large? (a) Earth, solar system, Milky Way Galaxy, Local Group, Local Super Cluster, universe (b) Earth, solar system, Milky Way

### Universal gravitation

Universal gravitation Physics 211 Syracuse University, Physics 211 Spring 2015 Walter Freeman February 22, 2017 W. Freeman Universal gravitation February 22, 2017 1 / 14 Announcements Extra homework help

### Intro to Astronomy. Looking at Our Space Neighborhood

Intro to Astronomy Looking at Our Space Neighborhood Astronomy: The Original Science Ancient cultures used the movement of stars, planets and the moon to mark time Astronomy: the study of the universe

### Welcome back to Physics 211. Physics 211 Spring 2014 Lecture Gravity

Welcome back to Physics 211 Today s agenda: Newtonian gravity Planetary orbits Gravitational Potential Energy Physics 211 Spring 2014 Lecture 14-1 1 Gravity Before 1687, large amount of data collected

### ASTR 1010 Spring 2016 Study Notes Dr. Magnani

The Copernican Revolution ASTR 1010 Spring 2016 Study Notes Dr. Magnani The Copernican Revolution is basically how the West intellectually transitioned from the Ptolemaic geocentric model of the Universe

### 6. Summarize Newton s Law of gravity and the inverse square concept. Write out the equation

HW due Today. 1. Read p. 175 180. 2. Summarize the historical account of Brahe and Kepler 3. Write out Kepler s 3 laws. 1) Planets in orbit follow an elliptical path, the Sun is located at a focus of the

### Today. Planetary Motion. Tycho Brahe s Observations. Kepler s Laws Laws of Motion. Laws of Motion

Today Planetary Motion Tycho Brahe s Observations Kepler s Laws Laws of Motion Laws of Motion In 1633 the Catholic Church ordered Galileo to recant his claim that Earth orbits the Sun. His book on the

### Standard units of mass, length and 7me. Kilograms (kg) Meters (m) Seconds (s)

Standard units of mass, length and 7me Kilograms (kg) Meters (m) Seconds (s) Astronomical masses and distances are o?en very large, e.g. the mass of the Sun is: 2,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

### Cosmology is the study of the universe. What is it s structure? How did it originate? How is it evolving? What is its eventual fate?

Cosmology Cosmology is the study of the universe. What is it s structure? How did it originate? How is it evolving? What is its eventual fate? ANCIENT COSMOLOGIES The Ptolemaic Universe Claudius Ptolemy

### AP Physics-B Universal Gravitation Introduction: Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion: Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation: Performance Objectives:

AP Physics-B Universal Gravitation Introduction: Astronomy is the oldest science. Practical needs and imagination acted together to give astronomy an early importance. For thousands of years, the motions

### 4π 2 G(M1+M2 ) p2 = Newton s 3 Laws of Motion AST 105. Introduction to Astronomy: The Solar System. Newton's Version of Kepler's Third Law

REVIEW Newton s 3 Laws of Motion AST 105 Introduction to Astronomy: The Solar System Announcement: First Midterm this Thursday 02/25 Newton's Version of Kepler's Third Law Newton's Version of Kepler's

### Physics Test 7: Circular Motion page 1

Name Physics Test 7: Circular Motion page 1 hmultiple Choice Read each question and choose the best answer by putting the corresponding letter in the blank to the left. 1. The SI unit of angular speed

### Early Models of the Universe. How we explained those big shiny lights in the sky

Early Models of the Universe How we explained those big shiny lights in the sky The Greek philosopher Aristotle (384 322 BCE) believed that the Earth was the center of our universe, and everything rotated

### Chapter 14 Satellite Motion

1 Academic Physics Mechanics Chapter 14 Satellite Motion The Mechanical Universe Kepler's Three Laws (Episode 21) The Kepler Problem (Episode 22) Energy and Eccentricity (Episode 23) Navigating in Space

### CIRCULAR MOTION AND UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION

CIRCULAR MOTION AND UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION Uniform Circular Motion What holds an object in a circular path? A force. String Friction Gravity What happens when the force is diminished? Object flies off in

### Lesson 2 - The Copernican Revolution

Lesson 2 - The Copernican Revolution READING ASSIGNMENT Chapter 2.1: Ancient Astronomy Chapter 2.2: The Geocentric Universe Chapter 2.3: The Heliocentric Model of the Solar System Discovery 2-1: The Foundations

### Welcome back to Physics 215

Welcome back to Physics 215 Today s agenda: More rolling without slipping Newtonian gravity Planetary orbits Gravitational Potential Energy Physics 215 Spring 2018 Lecture 13-1 1 Rolling without slipping

### Circular Motion and Gravitation. Centripetal Acceleration

Circular Motion and Gravitation Centripetal Acceleration Recall linear acceleration! Δv! aavg t 3. Going around urve, at constant speed 1. Speeding up vi vi Δv a ac ac vi ac. Slowing down v velocity and

### Welcome back to Physics 215

Welcome back to Physics 215 Today s agenda: Gravity 15-2 1 Current assignments HW#15 due Monday, 12/12 Final Exam, Thursday, Dec. 15 th, 3-5pm in 104N. Two sheets of handwritten notes and a calculator

### The History of Astronomy

The History of Astronomy The History of Astronomy Earliest astronomical record: a lunar calendar etched on bone from 6500 B.C. Uganda. Also we find early groups noted the Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Earth,

### Today. Planetary Motion. Tycho Brahe s Observations. Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion. Laws of Motion. in physics

Planetary Motion Today Tycho Brahe s Observations Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion Laws of Motion in physics Page from 1640 text in the KSL rare book collection That the Earth may be a Planet the seeming

### What is the solar system?

Notes Astronomy What is the solar system? 11.1 Structure of the Solar System Our solar system includes planets and dwarf planets, their moons, a star called the Sun, asteroids and comets. Planets, dwarf

### AST 105. Introduction to Astronomy: The Solar System. Announcement: First Midterm this Thursday 02/25

AST 105 Introduction to Astronomy: The Solar System Announcement: First Midterm this Thursday 02/25 REVIEW Newton s 3 Laws of Motion 1. An object moves at constant velocity if there is no net force acting

### Chapter. Origin of Modern Astronomy

Chapter Origin of Modern Astronomy 22.1 Early Astronomy Ancient Greeks Astronomy is the science that studies the universe. It includes the observation and interpretation of celestial bodies and phenomena.

### The Acceleration of Gravity (g)

The Acceleration of Gravity (g) Galileo demonstrated that g is the same for all objects, regardless of their mass! Confirmed by Apollo astronauts on the Moon, where there is no air resistance. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5c5_doeyafk

### How Astronomers Learnt that The Heavens Are Not Perfect

1 How Astronomers Learnt that The Heavens Are Not Perfect Introduction In this packet, you will read about the discoveries and theories which changed the way astronomers understood the Universe. I have

### Chapter 13: universal gravitation

Chapter 13: universal gravitation Newton s Law of Gravitation Weight Gravitational Potential Energy The Motion of Satellites Kepler s Laws and the Motion of Planets Spherical Mass Distributions Apparent

### l Register your iclicker on LON-CAPA l First exam: Feb 6 in Life Sciences A133 >95% of you have

l LON-CAPA #4 and Mastering Physics Chapter 7 due next Tuesday help room hours (Strosacker Help Room, 1248 BPS): M: 5-8 PM W: 5-8 PM F: 2-6 PM l Register for Mastering Physics >95% of you have l Register

### Observational Astronomy - Lecture 4 Orbits, Motions, Kepler s and Newton s Laws

Observational Astronomy - Lecture 4 Orbits, Motions, Kepler s and Newton s Laws Craig Lage New York University - Department of Physics craig.lage@nyu.edu February 24, 2014 1 / 21 Tycho Brahe s Equatorial

### 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity

Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity 4.1 Describing Motion: Examples from Daily Life Some of the topics we will explore: How do we describe motion? (Speed,

### What is a Satellite? A satellite is an object that orbits another object. Ex. Radio satellite, moons, planets

Planetary Orbit Planetary Orbits What shape do planets APPEAR to orbit the sun? Planets APPEAR to orbit in a circle. What shape do the planets orbit the sun??? Each planet Orbits the Sun in an ellipse

### History of Astronomy. PHYS 1411 Introduction to Astronomy. Tycho Brahe and Exploding Stars. Tycho Brahe ( ) Chapter 4. Renaissance Period

PHYS 1411 Introduction to Astronomy History of Astronomy Chapter 4 Renaissance Period Copernicus new (and correct) explanation for retrograde motion of the planets Copernicus new (and correct) explanation

### Chapter 13. Universal Gravitation

Chapter 13 Universal Gravitation Planetary Motion A large amount of data had been collected by 1687. There was no clear understanding of the forces related to these motions. Isaac Newton provided the answer.

### towards the modern view

Brief review of last time: Og through Tycho Brahe Early Science 1 Reading: Chap. 2, Sect.2.4, Ch. 3, Sect. 3.1 Homework 3: Due Tomorrow and Mon. Homework 4: Now available, due next recitation cycle, or

### Ch. 22 Origin of Modern Astronomy Pretest

Ch. 22 Origin of Modern Astronomy Pretest Ch. 22 Origin of Modern Astronomy Pretest 1. True or False: Early Greek astronomers (600 B.C. A.D. 150) used telescopes to observe the stars. Ch. 22 Origin of

### Astronomy 1 Fall 2016

Astronomy 1 Fall 2016 Comet Halley Edmund Halley, a friend of Newton s used Newton s math to predict the return of a comet seen at intervals of 76 years. Lecture 3; September 29, 2016 Previously on Astro-1

### CH 8. Universal Gravitation Planetary and Satellite Motion

CH 8 Universal Gravitation Planetary and Satellite Motion Sir Isaac Newton UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION Newton: Universal Gravitation Newton concluded that earthly objects and heavenly objects obey the same physical

### Origins of the Universe

Cosmology Origins of the Universe The study of the universe, its current nature, its origin, and evolution 1 2 The Theory Theory Expansion indicates a denser, hotter past uniform, hot gas that cools as

### LESSON 1. Solar System

Astronomy Notes LESSON 1 Solar System 11.1 Structure of the Solar System axis of rotation period of rotation period of revolution ellipse astronomical unit What is the solar system? 11.1 Structure of the

### Days of the week: - named after 7 Power (moving) objects in the sky (Sun, Moon, 5 planets) Models of the Universe:

Motions of the Planets ( Wanderers ) Planets move on celestial sphere - change RA, Dec each night - five are visible to naked eye Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn Days of the week: - named after 7

### AP Physics Multiple Choice Practice Gravitation

AP Physics Multiple Choice Practice Gravitation 1. Each of five satellites makes a circular orbit about an object that is much more massive than any of the satellites. The mass and orbital radius of each

### Circular Motion and Gravitation Notes 1 Centripetal Acceleration and Force

Circular Motion and Gravitation Notes 1 Centripetal Acceleration and Force This unit we will investigate the special case of kinematics and dynamics of objects in uniform circular motion. First let s consider

### Chapter 8 - Gravity Tuesday, March 24 th

Chapter 8 - Gravity Tuesday, March 24 th Newton s law of gravitation Gravitational potential energy Escape velocity Kepler s laws Demonstration, iclicker and example problems We are jumping backwards to

### 18. Kepler as a young man became the assistant to A) Nicolaus Copernicus. B) Ptolemy. C) Tycho Brahe. D) Sir Isaac Newton.

Name: Date: 1. The word planet is derived from a Greek term meaning A) bright nighttime object. B) astrological sign. C) wanderer. D) nontwinkling star. 2. The planets that were known before the telescope

### How big is the Universe and where are we in it?

Announcements Results of clicker questions from Monday are on ICON. First homework is graded on ICON. Next homework due one minute before midnight on Tuesday, September 6. Labs start this week. All lab

### Planetary Orbits: Kepler s Laws 1/18/07

Planetary Orbits: Kepler s Laws Announcements The correct link for the course webpage http://www.lpl.arizona.edu/undergrad/classes/spring2007/giacalone_206-2 The first homework due Jan 25 (available for

### Chapter 4. The Origin Of Modern Astronomy. Is okay to change your phone? From ios to Android From Android to ios

Chapter 4 The Origin Of Modern Astronomy Slide 14 Slide 15 14 15 Is Change Good or Bad? Do you like Homer to look like Homer or with hair? Does it bother you when your schedule is changed? Is it okay to

### 14.1 Earth Satellites. The path of an Earth satellite follows the curvature of the Earth.

The path of an Earth satellite follows the curvature of the Earth. A stone thrown fast enough to go a horizontal distance of 8 kilometers during the time (1 second) it takes to fall 5 meters, will orbit

### History of Astronomy. Historical People and Theories

History of Astronomy Historical People and Theories Plato Believed he could solve everything through reasoning. Circles and Spheres are good because they are perfect (never ending) and pleasing to the

### ,.~ Readlng ~ What,~,~~ is a geocentric system? Chapter3 J 73

Earth at the Center When the ancient Greeks watched the stars move across the sky, they noticed that the patterns of the stars didn t change. Although the stars seemed to move, they stayed in the same

### In this chapter, you will consider the force of gravity:

Gravity Chapter 5 Guidepost In this chapter, you will consider the force of gravity: What were Galileo s insights about motion and gravity? What were Newton s insights about motion and gravity? How does

### Evidence that the Earth does not move: Greek Astronomy. Aristotelian Cosmology: Motions of the Planets. Ptolemy s Geocentric Model 2-1

Greek Astronomy Aristotelian Cosmology: Evidence that the Earth does not move: 1. Stars do not exhibit parallax: 2-1 At the center of the universe is the Earth: Changeable and imperfect. Above the Earth

### Chapter 2 The Science of Life in the Universe

In ancient times phenomena in the sky were not understood! Chapter 2 The Science of Life in the Universe The Ancient Greeks The Scientific Method Our ideas must always be consistent with our observations!

### Motion in the Heavens

Motion in the Heavens Most ancient cultures believed that the earth was the centre of the universe. Most felt that the planets, stars, moon and sun revolved around the earth. This is known as a geocentric

### Copernican Revolution. ~1500 to ~1700

~1500 to ~1700 Copernicus (~1500) Brahe (~1570) Kepler (~1600) Galileo (~1600) Newton (~1670) The Issue: Geocentric or Heliocentric Which model explains observations the best? Copernicus (~1500) Resurrected

### Gravity. The Universal Force

Gravity The Universal Force Universal Gravitation What is gravity? Gravity makes things fall Gravity makes bubbles rise Gravity made the earth round, and makes the stars shine, but WHAT IS GRAVITY??? Universal

### Exam #1 Study Guide (Note this is not all the information you need to know for the test, these are just SOME of the main points)

Exam #1 Study Guide (Note this is not all the information you need to know for the test, these are just SOME of the main points) Moon Phases Moon is always ½ illuminated by the Sun, and the sunlit side

### The following notes roughly correspond to Section 2.4 and Chapter 3 of the text by Bennett. This note focuses on the details of the transition for a

The following notes roughly correspond to Section 2.4 and Chapter 3 of the text by Bennett. This note focuses on the details of the transition for a geocentric model for understanding the universe to a

### ASTR 150. Planetarium Shows begin Sept 9th. Register your iclicker! Last time: The Night Sky Today: Motion and Gravity. Info on course website

Planetarium Shows begin Sept 9th Info on course website Register your iclicker! Last time: The Night Sky Today: Motion and Gravity ASTR 150 Hang on tight! Most math all semester-- get it over with right

### 1 Astronomy: The Original Science

CHAPTER 18 1 Astronomy: The Original Science SECTION Studying Space BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: How do astronomers define a day, a month,

### Gravitation. Luis Anchordoqui

Gravitation Kepler's law and Newton's Synthesis The nighttime sky with its myriad stars and shinning planets has always fascinated people on Earth. Towards the end of the XVI century the astronomer Tycho

### 5. Universal Laws of Motion

5. Universal Laws of Motion If I have seen farther than others, it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants. Sir Isaac Newton (164 177) Physicist Image courtesy of NASA/JPL Sir Isaac Newton (164-177)

### Test 1 Review Chapter 1 Our place in the universe

Test 1 Review Bring Gator 1 ID card Bring pencil #2 with eraser No use of calculator or any electronic device during the exam We provide the scantrons Formulas will be projected on the screen You can use