A Detailed Comparative Study of ABC and Symmetrical Component Classification for Fault Analysis

 Harvey Franklin
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1 The 2 nd Interntionl Power Engineering nd Optimiztion onferene (PEOO28), Shh lm, Selngor, MLYSI. 45 June 28. Detiled omprtive Study of nd Symmetril omponent lssifition for Fult nlysis Muhmmd Sufi Kmrudin, Shmsul izm ulkifli, Erwn Sulimn, Nur Hidyh Mokhtr strt  This pper is study out symmetril nd unsymmetril fults. Symmetril fult whih is lso known s lned fult while unsymmetril fult is representing n unlned fult. Generlly this pper is foused on modeling the usr network systems whih onerns numeril studies of IEEE usr stndrd system testing. The +5% of industril network will e onsidered in order to demonstrte the fult lotion in every different senrio of lned nd unlned ondition. Moreover, the system is modeled in Simulink Mtl softwre then the simultion results re ompred with mnul lultion. The nlysis onsists of lssifition. Therefore, t the end of this pper network will e development nd study the hrteristis of nd symmetril sequenes with the simultion dt ville. Keywords :, lned fult, symmetril, unlned fult I. INTRODTION FLT studies form n importnt prt of power system nlysis. Fults on power systems re divided into two omponents whih re lned fults nd unlned fults. There re different types of unlned fults whih re single linetoground fult, linetoline fult, nd doule linetoground fult. The dt ville re used for proper rely setting nd phse rely, while the linetoground fult is used for ground rely [2,11,14]. For the purpose of fult studies, the genertor ehvior n e divided into three periods whih re sutrnsient period, lsting only for the first few yles, the trnsient period, overing reltively longer time, nd finlly, the stedy stte period. lned fult is defined s the simultneous short iruit ross ll three phses. It ours infrequently, ut it is the most severe type of fult enountered. euse the network is lned, it is solved on per phse sis. The other two phses rry identil urrents exept for the phse shift. It is different with unlned fult whih is lso known s unsymmetril fult, whih ontins of three types of fults where exmples re[1]: Linetoline  short iruit etween lines, used y ioniztion of ir, or when lines ome into physil ontt, for exmple due to roken insultor [2]. Linetoground  short iruit etween one line nd ground, very often used y physil ontt, for exmple due to lightning or other storm dmge [2]. Trditionlly, these fults n e isolted y using relys nd iruit rekers whih re used to seprte the network from the high urrent. In fult nlysis, vlue of this urrent is lulted for the different types of fults t vrious lotions in the system. There is simple worked to mesure fult when it hppens in smll iruit rther thn in network [2]. ll the tehniques emody n urte lotion y mesuring only one lol end dt. The method provides n utomti determintion of fult lotion, rther thn requires engineer to speify them.. The lssifition II. TEHNIQES PPROH The lssifition distinguishes etween seven types of three phse unlned voltge sg. Expressions for the omplex voltges for these seven types re given in Tle I. The omplex prefult voltge in phse is indited y E 1. The voltge in the fulted phse or etween the fulted phses is indited y V * while,, re the phse voltge. TLE I SEVEN TYPES OF THREE PHSE NLNED VOLTGE SG ORDING TO LSSIFITION Voltge Phsors = V * = V * jv * = V * + jv * = V * = E 1 je 1 = E 1 + je 1 = E 1 = E 1 jv = E 1 + jv * * E F G = E 1 Voltge Phsors = V * jv * = V * + jv * = V * 1 = V * E1 + V * j = V * + E1 + V * j = E 1 + V * 1 = E1 + V * jv * = E1 + V * + jv *
2 Figure 1 to 7 show the grph for eh type indite y the Tle 1. The Symmetril omponent lssifition The symmetrilomponent lssifition does not suffer from the sme limittion s the lssifition. The symmetrilomponent lssifition distinguishes etween dips with the min voltge drop in one phse nd dips with the min voltge drop etween two phses. Fig 8 shows the voltge divider model for threephse unlned voltge sg. Fig. 1. Voltge sg type : voltge wveform hlfyle [1] Fig. 2. Voltge sg type : voltge wveform (left) hlfyle [1] Fig. 8. Voltge divider model for threephse unlned voltge sg lod Fig.. Voltge sg type : voltge wveform (left) hlfyle [1] Fig. 4. Voltge sg type D: voltge wveform (left) hlfyle [1] Fig. 5. Voltge sg type E: voltge wveform (left) hlfyle [1] dyh1 dyh4 Fig. 6. Voltge sg type F: voltge wveform (left) hlfyle [1] ThreePhse Soure1 ThreePhse VI Mesurement2 ThreePhse Fult ThreePhse VI Mesurement1 ThreePhse Series RL Lod In1Out1 Susystem D = V *, = V * je 1, = V * + je 1 ThreePhse VI Mesurement4 Fig. 7. Voltge sg type G: voltge wveform (left) hlfyle [1] Fig 9: The simulink model of the usr network system 268
3 Tle II. System Dt System Quntities Vlues Soure Voltge 11 kv System frequeny 5 Hz Soure impedne 1+8jΩ Lod power 666.5kW+ 1154kVrj Fult impedne 1+.1jΩ Fult time.5s Rted trnsformer 11/kV Trnsmission Lines L=.766Ω/km R=.561Ω/km The proess flow in determining the fults sequentil y using oth methods is shown in Fig. 1 Fig. 11. lned three phse fult Fig. 12. Single linetoground fult III RESLTS. lned Three Phse Fult Fig.1. Methodology proess. The simultion of the network in fult ondition ws onduted sed on lned nd unlned fults where the simulink model network system of the usr is shown in Fig 9. The dt used in the simultion shown in Tle II. In single line ground fult nlysis, phse is the fulted phse shown in Fig 12 nd three phse fult t Fig 11. lsifition In order to nlyze y using lssifition method, the vlue of voltge in the fulted phse t the P (point of ommon oupling etween the ustomer nd the user must e lulted using Eq. (1) + + * = 1 S V S2 + S + F + F 2 V* = kV E 1 (1) Voltge sg for eh of phses of lned three phse fult in found nd ompred with Fig
4 Therefore pek = V * = V * jv * = V * + jv * = kV, = kV pek = kV = V * jv * = k 12, = V * + jv * = k 12 pek = kV Symmetril omponents Sme s the dt otined in Fig 11. The result hs een ompred with this simultion result. F1 V = E 1 () + F1 V = kV PN ftor for lned three phse fult is F = E = 1 12kV Voltge sg for eh of phse n e lulted using Eq (2) Therefore = F = F jv = F + jv = 12kV pek rms = 2 pek = kV = V + jf = pek = kV = V jf = pek = kV (2). Single LinetoGround Fult lssifition Voltge sg for phse, phse nd phse of single phsetoground fult in this tehnique is ompred with Fig. 12 where Symmetril omponents = V * = kV pek = kV = V * je1 = 128.8k pek = kV = V * + je1 = k pek = kV The hrteristi voltge of single phsetoground fult in Fig. 12 n e desrie y Eq (4) V = = + 1 S2 E + S + F + F 2 1 (4) + 1 2=12.149kV PN ftor for single phsetoground fult is F = 1 2 = 1 S2 + S + F + F2 F = 1 2 =12kV E 1 (5) Voltge sg for phse, phse nd phse of single phsetoground fult hve een lulted nd ompre to Fig. 11 Therefore = kV pek = kV = V jf = V pek = kV = V + jf = V pek = kV 27
5 IV. ONLSION Systemti pproh overs ll ses nd is therefore preferle ove the lssifition, whih is more intuitive pproh [19,11,1,14]. The symmetril omponent lssifition does not suffer from the sme limittion s the lssifition. The symmetril omponent lssifition distinguishes etween dips with the min voltge drop etween two phses. This pper only onsidered in findings of the two other hrteristis whih re hrteristi voltge V nd the PN ftor F. The vlue of fult impedne is set to 1 Ω in order to get etter piture of the voltge sg itself. The igger vlue of fult impedne, the nerly vlue will e gined when ompred to the theory. Therefore, the etter hoie is to use symmetril omponent nlysis in order to gin the types of fult in network nlysis. The omprison study is shown in Tle III. TLE III OMPRISON ETWEEN LLTION ND SIMLTION VLE OF SYMMETRIL OMPONENT LSSIFITION ND LSSIFITION NLYSIS [7] T. Forford, J.R. Linders, pplition of high speed differentil rely for uses, mhines nd les, in presented t the rd nnul Western Protetive Rely onferene, Spokne, W, Otoer 18, [8] SungMin Woo, DeWook Kng, Woohol Lee, Dong Seok Hyun. The Distriution for Reduing the Effet of Voltge Sg nd Swell. IEEE 21. pp (Rurl Eletri Power onferene 1996) pril 1996 [9] IEEE Std on Power Qulity. IEEE Reommended Prtie for Monitoring Eletri Power Qulity. (IEEE Stndrd 1995) [1] S.. ulkifli. Design nd Simultion of 24Pulse DSttom for Voltge Sg Mitigtion. (Degree Thesis, Deprtment of Eletril nd Eletroni Engineering,Fulty of Engineering, niversiti Putr Mlysi) pril 2. [11] J.Dunn, S.Srm, Power System nlysis nd Design,ookd/ole Thompson Lerning,nited Sttes,22. [12] smrshid, Erwn,.. Kok, S.izm, Md. rfi. Eletri Power Systems, 1st Ed.Kuittho, Deemer, 26. pp [1] H.J.ollen, Y.H Irene, Signl Proessing of Power Qulity Disturnes, WileyIntersiene, nited Stte, 26. [14]. Dugn, F. MGrnghn, H.Wyne, Eletril Power Systems Qulity, MGrwHill s, New York, VII. IOGRPHIES Muhmmd Sufi Kmrudin otined his.eng degree in Eletril$ Engineering nd M Eng t TM, Mlysi in 2 nd 25, repetively. urrently he is leturer nd reserher in niversiti Tun Hussein Onn Mlysi. His interest res re high voltge engineering nd eletri motors. Shmsul izm ulkifli otined his.eng degree in Eletril & Eletroni Engineering nd Ms t niversity Putr Mlysi, Mlysi in 2 nd 26, repetively. urrently he is leturer nd reserher in niversiti Tun Hussein Onn Mlysi. His interest res re power qulity prolems, ustom power devies nd power system studies. V. REFERENES [1] P. K. Stpthy, D. Ds, nd P.. Dutt Gupt, novel fuzzy index for stedy stte voltge stility nlysis nd identifition of ritil usrs, Elet. Power Syst. Res., vol. 6, no. 2, pp , Sept. 22. Erwn Sulimn otined his.eng degree in Eletril & Eletroni Engineering nd M Eng. t M nd THM respetively. urrently he is leturer nd reserher in niversiti Tun Hussein Onn Mlysi. His interest res re renewle energy nd power system pplitions. Nur Hidyh Mokhtr urrently persuing her.eng degree in Eletril & Eletroni Engineering, t THM. Her interest res re power qulity prolems nd fults nlysis. [2] H. Sdt(22). Power System nlysis. New York: Milwukee Shool of Engineering [] S.H. Horowitz,.G.Phdke, Power System Relying, John Wiley nd Sons IN, New York, [4] R. Hughes, E. Legrnd, Numeril usr Protetion enefits of Numeril Tehnology in Eletril Susttion, Interntionl onferene on Developments in Power System Protetion, 21, IEEE Pu. No. 479, pp [5] R.M. Rifitt, onsidertions in pplying power us protetion shemes to industril nd IPP systems, Industry pplitions onferene, 22. 7th IS nnul Meeting. onferene Reord of the Industry pplition, vol., 22, pp [6] H. Hug, M. Forster, Eletroni us zone protetion, in: THE Proeedings of IGRE, Pris, June 1 2,
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