# Reactions. Balancing Equations. Steps for Balancing 1/13/2012

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1 Chapter 8 Reactions Balancing Equations The number of atoms of each element must be equal on each side of the equation. 4K + O 2 2K 2 O Al + ZnCl 2 Zn + AlCl 3 Steps for Balancing Write the formulas for the reactants Determine the type of reaction which will help determine the product(s) Write the formula(s) for the product(s) Use coefficients to balance the elements on both sides of the yield sign Double check that you have the same number of each element in the reactants and products 1

2 Symbols found in Equations Characteristics of Chemical Equations The following requirements will aid you in writing and reading chemical equations correctly. 1. The equation must represent known facts. 2. The equation must contain the correct formulas for the reactants and products. 3. The law of conservation of mass must be satisfied. A coefficient is a small whole number that appears in front of a formula in a chemical equation. Characteristics of Chemical Equations, The first step in writing a chemical equation is to identify the facts to be represented. A word equation is an equation in which the reactants and products in a chemical reaction are represented by words. A word equation is qualitative example: methane + oxygen carbon dioxide + water 2

3 Characteristics of Chemical Equations, The next step in writing a correct chemical equation is to replace the names of the reactants and products with appropriate symbols and formulas. A formula equation represents the reactants and products of a chemical reaction by their symbols or formulas. example: The formula equation for the reaction of methane and oxygen is CH 4 (g) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(g) (not balanced) Characteristics of Chemical Equations, To complete the process of writing a correct equation, the law of conservation of mass must be taken into account. The relative amounts of reactants and products represented in the equation must be adjusted so that the numbers and types of atoms are the same on both sides of the equation. This process is called balancing an equation and is carried out by inserting coefficients. Characteristics of Chemical Equations, To balance the equation, begin by counting atoms of elements that are combined with atoms of other elements and that appear only once on each side of the equation. CH 4 (g) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O(g) (not balanced) Begin by counting carbon atoms. Carbon is already balanced in the equation. Two additional hydrogen atoms are needed on the right side of the equation. 3

4 Characteristics of Chemical Equations, CH 4 (g) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O(g) (partially balanced) Now consider the number of oxygen atoms. Increase the number of oxygen atoms on the left side to four by placing the coefficient 2 in front of the molecular formula for oxygen. The correct chemical equation, or balanced formula equation, for the burning of methane in oxygen is CH 4 (g) + 2O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O(g) Balancing Chemical Equations The following procedure demonstrates how to master balancing equations by inspection using a step-bystep approach. 1. Identify the names of the reactants and the products, and write a word equation. water hydrogen + oxygen Balancing Chemical Equations 2. Write a formula equation by substituting correct formulas for the names of the reactants and the products. H 2 O(l) H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) (not balanced) 4

5 Balancing Chemical Equations 3. Balance the formula equation according to the law of conservation of mass. Balance the different types of atoms one at a time. First balance the atoms of elements that are combined and that appear only once on each side of the equation. Balance polyatomic ions that appear on both sides of the equation as single units. Balance H atoms and O atoms after atoms of all other elements have been balanced. Balancing Chemical Equations 3. Balance the formula equation according to the law of conservation of mass. Balance oxygen atoms by increasing the number of H 2 O molecules. 2H 2 O(l) H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) (partially balanced) Balance the hydrogen atoms by placing the coefficient 2 in front of hydrogen, H 2. 2H 2 O(l) 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) (balanced) Balancing Chemical Equations 4. Count atoms to be sure that the equation is balanced. 2H 2 O(l) 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) (4H + 2O) = (4H) + (2O) If the coefficients do not represent the smallest possible whole-number ratio of reactants and products, divide the coefficients by their greatest common factor in order to obtain the smallest possible whole-number coefficients. 5

6 REACTION TYPES Types of Chemical Reactions Purpose: to predict products of reactions. There are 5 basic types of reactions. These are synthesis, decomposition, single-replacement, doublereplacement, and combustion. 6

7 Synthesis Reaction 2 or more substances combine to form a new compound. General Equation: A + X AX Example: 2Mg + O 2 2MgO 2 elements Synthesis cont. CaO + H 2 O Ca(OH) 2 2 compounds at least 1 is a molecular compound (in this case water) Decomposition A compound undergoes a reaction that produces 2 or more simpler substances. General Equation: AX A + X Example: 2HgO 2Hg + O 2 1 compound 7

8 The Electrolysis of Water 2H 2 O 2H 2 + O 2 Decomposition Reactions cont. metal carbonate metal oxide + carbon dioxide MgCO 3 MgO + CO 2 metal hydroxide metal oxide + water Mg(OH) 2 MgO + H 2 O metal chlorate metal chloride + oxygen 2CuClO 3 2CuCl + 3O 2 Single-Replacement One element replaces a similar element in a compound. General Equation: A + BX AX + B or Y + BX BY + X 8

9 Single-Replacement cont. Cl 2 + 2KBr 2KCl + Br 2 1 element 1 compound A halogen can only replace a halogen beneath it on the periodic table. Does this reaction occur? I 2 + KCl Double-Replacement The ions of 2 compounds exchange places in an aqueous solution to form 2 new compounds. General Equation: AX + BY AY + BX Ex: 2KI + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 PbI 2 + 2KNO 3 2 ionic compounds Combustion Reactions A substance combines with oxygen, releasing a large amount of energy in the form of light and heat. Ex: methanol + oxygen carbon dioxide + water CH 3 OH + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 9

10 Neutralization A special case of a double replacement reaction. The combination of an acid (H + ) with a base (OH - ) resulting in a salt and water. KOH + HCl KCl + HOH 10

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