Linjin Zheng, Infernal Modes at Tokamak H- mode Pedestal A Physics Interpreta;on for Edge Harmonic Oscilla;on (EHO)

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1 International Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference, Austin, May 2-4, 2011 Infernal Modes at Tokamak H- mode Pedestal A Physics Interpreta;on for Edge Harmonic Oscilla;on (EHO) Linjin Zheng, M. T. Kotschenreuther, P. Valanju, P. J. Morrison, and S. Mahajan Aus$n - May, 2011 Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference 1

2 Outline I. Experimental observa;ons of edge harmonic oscilla;on (EHO)/outer modes (OMs) II. The differences between ELMs and EHO III. Current interchange tearing modes (CITMs) and ELMs IV. Infernal (or low magne;c shear) modes vs EHO V. Magne;c- surface- preserving resonant magne;c perturba;ons (RMPs) VI. Summary Aus$n - May, 2011 Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference 2

3 Outline I. Experimental observa;ons of edge harmonic oscilla;on (EHO)/outer modes (OMs) II. The differences between ELMs and EHO III. Current interchange tearing modes (CITMs) and ELMs IV. Infernal (or low magne;c shear) modes vs EHO V. Magne;c- surface- preserving resonant magne;c perturba;ons (RMPs) VI. Summary Aus$n - May, 2011 Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference 3

4 Observa;on of EHOs at DIII- 3 Burrell et al., Phys. of Plasmas 12, (2005) Aus$n - May, 2011 Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference 4

5 Observa;on of OMs (EHOs) at JET E.R. Solano, IAEA FEC, 2010 Aus$n - May, 2011 Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference 5

6 Current and safety factor reconstruc$on C.E. Kessel et al., Nucl. Fusion 47 (2007) 1274 There is a safety factor maximum q max (or reduced magnetic shear) near plasma edge Aus$n - May, 2011 Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference 6

7 Outline I. Experimental observa;ons of edge harmonic oscilla;on (EHO)/outer modes (OMs) II. The differences between ELMs and EHO III. Current interchange tearing modes (CITMs) and ELMs IV. Infernal (or low magne;c shear) modes vs EHO V. Magne;c- surface- preserving resonant magne;c perturba;ons (RMPs) VI. Summary Aus$n - May, 2011 Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference 7

8 ELM physics: posi$ve feedback process between ELMs and SOL current Edge MHD instability Radial transport to SOL SOL current surge Enhanced edge MHD instability Ampere s law: L.J. Zheng et al, PRL (2008) with Related to by transport process Aus$n - May, 2011 Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference 8

9 Charge recombina$on at plasma edge region Charge recombina;on between the nega;ve charges at plasma edge and the posi;ve charges at divertor sheath can excite a surge of the SOL saturated current and consequently trigger the posi;ve feed back process, i.e., ELMs Any effects that reduce the coupling to SOL can help ELM mitigation, e.g., RMPs: reduce edge charge, increase connection length Aus$n - May, 2011 Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference 9

10 Blob transport: naturally born blob filaments are not in force- balance The hoop force (including $re force) due to magne$c and plasma pressures can push the blob filaments toward the wall. This explains the outward transport of current- less or current- carrying blob filaments. Aus$n - May, 2011 Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference 10

11 Conclusion of Sec. II 1. Peeling ballooning can trigger ELMs, but ELMs are not peeling ballooning modes ELM frequency shoots up dramatically. This indicates ELMs are highly nonlinear positive feedback process No ELM-like modes are tied to ITB. This shows coupling to SOL is critical. 2. EHO/OMs are not tearing modes Otherwise, they will be coupled to SOL current and lead to ELMs. JET experiments show that OMs are of kink type (E.R. Solano, IAEA FEC, 2010) No frequency chirping Aus$n - May, 2011 Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference 11

12 Outline I. Experimental observa;ons of edge harmonic oscilla;on (EHO)/outer modes (OMs) II. The differences between ELMs and EHOs III. Current interchange tearing modes (CITMs) and ELMs IV. Infernal (or low magne;c shear) modes vs EHOs V. Magne;c- surface- preserving resonant magne;c perturba;ons (RMPs) VI. Summary Aus$n - May, 2011 Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference 12

13 Current interchange tearing modes (L.J. Zheng and M Furukawa, PoP 2010) Interchange- type modes interchange not only plasma and magne;c energies, but also current. The induced current sheet leads to the excita;on of the tearing modes (islands). Field line displacement Current sheet Ra$onal surface (Ohmic or bootstrap) Current gradient J Both electrosta;c (driw waves) and electromagne;c (MHD) modes can convert to CITMs Aus$n - May, 2011 Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference 13

14 Conclusion of Sec. III Conclusion: EHO/OMs tend to be infernal modes at q extremes or low magnetic shear modes Otherwise, CITMs will be excited, which connect pedestal to SOL and lead to possible positive feedback process ELMs. Aus$n - May, 2011 Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference 14

15 Outline I. Experimental observa;ons of edge harmonic oscilla;on (EHO)/outer modes (OMs) II. The differences between ELMs and EHO III. Current interchange tearing modes (CITMs) and ELMs IV. Infernal (or low magne;c shear) modes vs EHO V. Magne;c- surface- preserving resonant magne;c perturba;ons (RMPs) VI. Summary Aus$n - May, 2011 Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference 15

16 Exis;ng peeling ballooning theory Snyder et al. Nucl. Fusion 44 (2004) 320 Aus$n - May, 2011 Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference 16

17 EHO/OMs are not peeling ballooning modes Experimental observations: 1. Modes resonate at the pedestal top 2. Mode frequencies are n-multiple of rotation frequency at pedestal top Peeling mode has resonant surface in the vacuum region and therefore does not fit the experimentally observed modes. Aus$n - May, 2011 Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference 17

18 Reversed or reduced magne;c shear profile Equilibrium pressure and safety factor profiles computed by VMEC: P q Aus$n - May, 2011 Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference 18

19 Numerical results by AEGIS code n = 1 eigen mode Aus$n - May, 2011 Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference 19

20 Numerical results by AEGIS code n = 3 eigen mode structure Aus$n - May, 2011 Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference 20

21 Numerical results by AEGIS code n = 5 eigen mode structure Aus$n - May, 2011 Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference 21

22 Localized mode theory Singular layer equation with Mercier criterion no shear stabilization at q max Inertia energy for explanation of mode frequencies being proportional to toroidal mode number: n Finite magnetic shear can result in different continuum damping. Aus$n - May, 2011 Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference 22

23 Conclusion of Sec. IV Support for infernal (or low magnetic shear) modes interpretation of EHO/OMs: Infernal (or low magnetic shear) modes are more unstable, but less damaging. Infernal (or low magnetic shear) modes are localized and tend to decouple from SOL Mode frequencies are proportional to toroidal mode number n. Aus$n - May, 2011 Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference 23

24 Outline I. Experimental observa;ons of edge harmonic oscilla;on (EHO)/outer modes (OMs) II. The differences between ELMs and EHO III. Current interchange tearing modes (CITMs) and ELMs IV. Infernal (or low magne;c shear) modes vs EHO V. Magne;c- surface- preserving resonant magne;c perturba;ons (RMPs) VI. Summary Aus$n - May, 2011 Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference 24

25 Magne$c- surface- preserving RMPs C.E. Kessel et al., Nucl. Fusion 47 (2007) 1274 Burrell et al., Phys. of Plasmas 12, (2005) Proposal: to apply RMPs which resonate with q max, (or q with low magnetic shear) to pump out energy without causing the coupling to SOL modes Aus$n - May, 2011 Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference 25

26 Summary I. We find that there is possible correla$on of infernal modes at q extremes or low magne$c shear modes with EHO/OMs observed experimentally. II. Applica$on of magne$c- surface- preserving RMPs can help to mi$gate ELMs, without seriously damaging the magne$c surfaces. Aus$n - May, 2011 Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference 26

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