2 Chapter 3 Educational Goals 1. Understand where electrons are located in atoms and how the locations of electrons affect the energy of the atom. 2. Define the term valence electron and draw the electron dot structure of an atom or ion. 3. Define the term ion and explain how the electron dot structure of a s- or p-block element can be used to predict the charge of the monoatomic ion. 4. Given the symbol, be able to name monoatomic cations and anions (and vice versa). 5. Explain the difference between an ionic bond and a covalent bond. 6. Understand the structural difference between ionic and covalent compounds. 7. Given the name, be able to write the formulas of ionic compounds and binary covalent compounds (and vice versa). 8. Define the terms molar mass, formula mass, and molecular mass and use these values in unit conversions involving moles and mass. 9. Given the formula, draw the line bond structures of diatomic molecules.
3 The Arrangement of Electrons Before we learn about compound, we must build on our understanding of atoms and electrons. Specifically, in the beginning of chapter 3 you will learn: 1) Where electrons are located in atoms. 2) How the location of electrons effect the energy of the atom.
4 Scientists used light to study how electrons are arranged around the nucleus. Energy, in the form of light or heat, can be absorbed by atoms. Energy is absorbed by moving an electron to a new area. Atoms release energy when electrons move back to low energy areas. This can happen when an atom collides with another particle. Another way this can happen is by an atom emitting light.
5 atom Much Experimental Work Dalton s Model of the Atom: Atoms are the Smallest Particles
6 The Modern Model of the Atom New scientific laws and models of nature were needed to explain the pattern of light that was emitted by atoms. Another word for light is electromagnetic radiation. Visible light, the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be detected with the human eye, is a small part of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum. The Electromagnetic Radiation Spectrum Short wavelengths correspond to higher energy; longer wavelengths correspond to lower energy light.
7 If all energies of light could be released from excited atoms, then we would expect the pattern of emitted light to look like this (see video for color): However, light with discrete (distinct) energies is emitted. For example, the pattern of light emitted from excited hydrogen atoms is (see video for color):
8 The Modern Model of the Atom Our understanding of nature was dramatically changed when Max Planck and Albert Einstein introduced quantum mechanics. They proposed that energy is absorbed and emitted by atoms only in discrete amounts called quanta. Another word for discrete is distinct. Albert Einstein ( ) Max Planck ( )
9 Recall that the light emitted from excited atoms is generated by electrons losing energy as they move from areas further from the nucleus (high energy) to areas nearer the nucleus (low energy). To lose the energy in this process, atoms emit light. The observation that only discrete energies are emitted from excited atoms is explained using an atomic model that says that the electrons can only exist in certain areas and therefore atoms have discrete energies. We say that the energy of atoms is quantized. The first scientist to propose this model of the atom with discrete energy states was Niels Bohr. Niels Bohr (left) with Albert Einstein
10 When an atom s electron(s) are in the lowest possible energy area, we call this the ground state. At room temperature, all atoms will exist in their ground state unless temporarily excited to a higher energy area by absorbing light. Absorption of a discrete amount of energy corresponds to the worker only being able to move to particular areas (represented by posts). When hydrogen s electron is in any other region than the ground state (lowest energy), we call that an excited state of hydrogen. The excited atom will soon lose energy as the electron moves back to the ground state position. When the energy lost is in the form of light, that light will be the color (wavelength) corresponding to the energy difference between the initial excited region and the final, lower energy region.
11 The Modern Model of the Atom: The Quantum Mechanical Model You can avoid getting lost in the detail (and wonder) of nature by focusing on the following two educational goals: 1) Understand where electrons are located in atoms. 2) Understand how the location of electrons affect the energy of the atom.
12 The Hydrogen Atom Hydrogen is unique because it has only one electron. Electrons exist in certain three-dimensional regions called orbitals. p + e -
13 Orbitals can be described by these properties: 1. The average distance an electron in a particular orbital is from the nucleus. As orbitals get larger, the average distance of an electron from the nucleus increases, therefore the larger the orbital occupied by an electron, the greater the energy. p + e - Electrostatic Attraction Lowest Energy (Ground State) First Excited State Second Excited State 2. The three-dimensional shape of the orbital. Not only do the sizes of orbitals vary, the shapes of orbitals vary as well. When the shapes of orbitals are shown as three-dimensional representations, the shapes represent the region that would contain the the electron 90% of the time.
14 The Language of Quantum Mechanics The orbitals are centered on the nucleus, and are labeled by a number. In a hydrogen atom: This number is related to the orbital size and the energy of an electron in the orbital. The orbitals are numbered from lowest energy (smallest size) to higher energy (larger size). These numbers are referred to as energy level, or quantum number, or quantum level, or shell. We will use the term shell or quantum level and abbreviate it by using n. In the lowest energy state of a hydrogen atom (the ground state), the electron occupies the n=1 quantum level.
15 The n=1 quantum level has one orbital. It is called an s orbital. s represents the shape of the orbital, we use 1s because n=1). s orbitals are spherical in shape. Illustration of a 1s Orbital The nucleus is in the center of the orbital.
16 The n=2 quantum level has four orbitals. There is one 2s orbital All s orbitals are spherically shaped. We use 2s because n=2. There are three 2p orbitals. p represents the shape; we use 2p because n=2. The p orbitals all have the same shape and only differ in how they are arranged around the nucleus.
17 The n=3 quantum level has nine orbitals. There is one 3s orbital, three 3p orbitals, and five 3d orbitals. The shapes of the 3s and 3p orbitals are similar to those of the 2s and 2p orbitals, respectively, but they are larger. 3s 3p z 3p x 3p y
18 The five 3d orbitals As is the case for all orbitals, the d orbitals are centered on the nucleus.
19 The n=4 quantum level has sixteen orbitals. There is one 4s orbital, three 4p orbitals, five 4d orbitals, and seven 4f orbitals. The f orbitals have shapes that are even more complicated then the d orbitals. The shapes of the 4s, 4p,and 4d orbitals are similar to those of the 3s, 3p, and 3d orbitals, respectively, but they are larger. The n=5 level has twenty-five orbitals. This just keeps going, n= 6, 7, 8, etc. Although quantum levels with n > 4 contain orbitals other than s, p, d, and f, these other orbitals are never occupied by electrons of any element in its ground state. The only time an electron can occupy any of those orbitals will be if the atom absorbs energy.
20 Energy Level Diagram for Hydrogen In an energy level diagram, we a draw short horizontal line that is labeled for each orbital. The orbitals are arranged, from bottom to top, in order of increasing energy. An electron is depicted as an arrow above the line that represents the orbital occupied by it. higher energy lower energy
21 Let s compare the energy level diagram to a skyscraper, we will call this our skyscraper model. The different floors (levels) of the skyscraper represent the quantum levels (n). Rooms on a particular floor are analogous to the various orbitals in a particular quantum level.
22 Atomic Model for Multi-Electron Atoms
23 Energy Level Diagram for Multi-Electron Atoms
24 Skyscraper Model for Multi-Electron Atoms
25 How are the electrons configured (arranged) into these orbitals? Nature wants everything to be at the lowest possible energy. Electron Configuration Electrons are arranged (configured) into the orbitals of multi-electron atoms in the way that results in the lowest possible energy. Nature does this by obeying the following three principles: 1) The Aufbau Principle The aufbau principle states that an electron occupies the lowest energy orbital that can receive it.
26 2) The Pauli Exclusion Principle An orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons. Electrons have a quantum mechanical property called spin. We call the spin states up or down. When two electrons occupy the same orbital, one electron has spin up the other has spin down. Example: The Electron Configuration of a Helium Atom (2 electrons) e - Model of a Helium Atom 1s orbital (contains two electrons) e - nucleus (two protons) Having two electrons in the same orbital with opposite spin states is lower in energy than when both spins are the same.
27 3) Hund s Rules When electrons are configured into orbitals that all have the same energy, a single electron is placed into each of the equal-energy orbitals before a second electron is added to an occupied orbital. When electrons are configured into a set of orbitals that all have the same energy, the spins of the first electrons to be placed into each orbital are all in the same state (for example all up ). Example: Electron Configuration of a Carbon Atom 2p z z 1s 2s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 2p y 2p x 1s x y
28 Drawing of a Carbon-12 Atom
29 Drawing of a Carbon-12 Atom
30 Understanding Check: Energy Level Diagrams for Multi-Electron Atoms Draw the energy level diagram for each of these atoms: a) a neon (Ne) atom b) an Iodine (I) atom
31 Valence Electrons Valence electrons are the electrons held in the outermost shell (largest "n"). Language Reminder: shell = quantum level = energy level Valence electrons are furthest away from the nucleus. It is important to know how many valence electrons are in an atom because: These are the electrons that are involved in chemical bonding to other elements to form compounds. These are the electrons that elements lose to become ions.
32 Example: How many valence electrons do carbon (C) atoms have? 4s 3d 3d 3d 3d 3d 3s 2s 3p x 3p y 3p z 2p x 2p y 2p z four valence electrons 1s
33 Understanding Check: How many valence electrons do oxygen (O) atoms have?
34 Short-Cut for Determining the Number of Valence Electrons Elements are arranged in the periodic table according to the number of valence electrons. For s- and p-block elements, all elements in the same periodic column (group) have the same number of valence electrons as all others in that column. I 1 H 3 Li 11 Na 19 K 37 Rb 55 Cs 87 Fr II 4 Be 12 Mg 20 Ca 38 Sr 56 Ba 88 Ra 21 Sc 39 Y 57 La 89 Ac 6 Lanthanides 58 Ce Actinides 90 7 Th s-block p-block III IV V VI VII d-block f-block B C N O F Transition Metals Al Si P S Cl Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt 59 Pr 91 Pa 60 Nd 92 U 61 Pm 93 Np (Inner) Transition Metals The group numbers for the columns represent the number of valence electrons contained in those atoms. 62 Sm 94 Pu 63 Eu 95 Am 64 Gd 96 Cm 65 Tb 97 Bk 66 Dy 98 Cf 67 Ho 99 Es 68 Er 100 Fm 69 Tm 101 Md 70 Yb 102 No VIII 2 He 10 Ne 18 Ar 36 Kr 54 Xe 86 Rn 71 Lu 103 Lr
35 Different elements with the same number of valence electrons are said to be isoelectric. Example of isoelectric elements: oxygen and sulfur. Isoelectric atoms often behave in similar ways. For example, oxygen atoms often chemically bond to two hydrogen atoms to form water (H 2 O); sulfur atoms, also often bond with two hydrogen atoms to form hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S). I 1 H 3 Li 11 Na 19 K 37 Rb 55 Cs 87 Fr II 4 Be 12 Mg 20 Ca 38 Sr 56 Ba 88 Ra 21 Sc 39 Y 57 La 89 Ac s-block p-block III IV V VI VII d-block f-block B C N O F Transition Metals Al Si P S Cl Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt (Inner) Transition Metals VIII 2 He 10 Ne 18 Ar 36 Kr 54 Xe 86 Rn 6 Lanthanides 58 Ce Actinides 90 7 Th 59 Pr 91 Pa 60 Nd 92 U 61 Pm 93 Np 62 Sm 94 Pu 63 Eu 95 Am 64 Gd 96 Cm 65 Tb 97 Bk 66 Dy 98 Cf 67 Ho 99 Es 68 Er 100 Fm 69 Tm 101 Md 70 Yb 102 No 71 Lu 103 Lr
36 Understanding Check Use the periodic table to determine the number of valence electrons in each of these types of atoms: a. hydrogen (H) b. nitrogen (N) c. bromine (Br) d. krypton (Kr)
37 Electron Dot Structures Electron dot structures show the number of valence electrons that an atom carries. In these structures, valence electrons are represented by dots drawn next to an element s symbol.
38 Noble Gases and the Octet Rule The group VIII elements (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and Rn) are called noble gases. He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and Rn belong to the noble gas family, which gets it s name from the fact that these elements are resistant to change and, with few exceptions, do not lose or gain electrons. The resistance to change (stability) of the noble gases is related to having their outermost quantum level (shell) completely filled with electrons.
39 Noble Gases and the Octet Rule Helium s outermost shell (the n=1 quantum level) is completely filled with its two electrons. 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 1s
40 Noble Gases and the Octet Rule All of the other noble gas elements have completely filled outermost shells with eight electrons. eight valence electrons
41 Noble Gases and the Octet Rule This stability of the noble gas elements that have eight electrons in their outermost shell led to what chemists call the Octet Rule. The Octet Rule is quite useful in predicting and understanding bonding patterns in chemical compounds. The Octet Rule Chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom, by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons, has an octet (eight) of electrons in its outermost shell. There are exceptions to the octet rule. An important exception that we will always use is for hydrogen and helium. Hydrogen and helium have filled outer shells (are stable) with just two electrons because their outermost level (n=1) has only one orbital.
42 Ions Atoms have the same number of electrons as protons and are therefore electrically neutral. An ion is a small particle that has an electrical charge. Atoms can gain or lose electrons to become ions. Metal atoms can lose electrons to form positive ions. If an atom loses one or more electrons, it will then have more protons than electrons and have an overall positive charge. Positive ions are called cations. Nonmetal atoms can gain electrons to form negative ions. If an atom gains one or more electrons, it will then have more electrons than protons and have an overall negative charge. Negative ions are called anions.
43 Example: Let s do a Cation - Sodium (Na) 11 A sodium atom has protons and electrons. How many valence electrons does the sodium atom have? How many valence electrons does sodium want? Fill the energy level diagrams with electrons: Na atom Na ion s 3p 3s 3p 2s 2p 2s 2p 1s 1s When sodium loses an electron, it has an octet of electrons in its outer shell. Sodium will lose one electron to become a sodium ion (Na + ).
44 Sodium has one valence electron There are two ways to have an octet: 1) Add 7 electrons 2) Remove one electron It is easier to remove one electron! Na lose one electron Na + electron dot structure for a Sodium Atom electron dot structure for a Sodium Ion
45 Example: Let s do Another Cation - Magnesium (Mg) 12 A magnesium atom has protons and electrons. How many valence electrons does the magnesium atom have? How many valence electrons does magnesium want? 12 Fill the energy level diagrams with electrons: Mg atom Mg ion s 3p 3s 3p 2s 2p 2s 2p 1s 1s When magnesium loses two electrons, it has an octet of electrons in its outer shell. Magnesium will lose two electrons to become a magnesium ion (Mg 2+ ).
46 Understanding Check Based on the octet rule, what would be the charge of an aluminum ion? HINT: Begin with the energy level diagram (or the number of valence electrons) for an aluminum atom.
47 Example: Let s do an Anion - Oxygen (O) 8 A oxygen atom has protons and electrons. How many valence electrons does the oxygen atom have? How many valence electrons does oxygen want? Fill the energy level diagrams with electrons: O atom O ion s 3p 3s 3p 2s 2p 2s 2p 1s 1s When oxygen gains two electrons, it has an octet of electrons in its outer shell. Oxygen will gain two electrons to become an oxide ion (O 2- ).
48 The electron dot structure can give us the same conclusion! Draw an electron dot structure for an Oxygen Atom: gain two electrons Draw an electron dot structure for an Oxide Ion: Oxygen has 6 valence electrons, if we add two electrons, its outer shell will have a full octet.
49 Understanding Check: What would be the charge of an ion formed from a chlorine atom? Begin with the electron dot structure for a chlorine atom.
50 We can determine the charge of an ion formed from s-block elements and p-block nonmetals from the number of valence electrons in those elements, and therefore by their location on the periodic table.
52 The charge of the ions formed from the transition metals and p-block metals cannot always be predicted by their position in the periodic table. Many of these elements can form more than one type (charge) of ion. transition metals
53 Example: Iron (Fe): Iron (Fe) ions can come as Fe 2+ or Fe 3+ Fe 2+ Fe 3+
54 Example Copper (Cu): Copper (Cu) ions can come as Cu 1+ or Cu 2+ Copper(I) Cu 1+ Cu 2+ Copper(II) To differentiate the various charge states of ions when reading or writing their names, we use Roman numerals corresponding to the charge after the element name. When saying the ion s name, one would say copper one for Cu 1+ and copper two for Cu 2+. We only use the Roman numeral for ions that can exist in more than one charge state.
55 Some of the transition metals and p-block metals only exist in one charge state. For example, cadmium ions only exist as Cd 2+. Cd 2+ Roman numerals are not used when the metal cations have just one charge state.
56 Since the charges of many of the transition metal and p-block metal ions cannot be easily predicted from their positions on the periodic table, and many can have more than one charge, we must refer to tabulated list for the charges (as shown below). You do not need to memorize the metal names and charges in this table; I will give you this table for with your exams.
57 Naming Monatomic Ions A monatomic ion is an ion that is made when a single atom gains or loses electron(s). Naming Monatomic Cations Cations use the name of the element, followed by the word ion. Examples: Na + is referred to as a sodium ion. Mg 2+ is referred to as a magnesium ion. For monatomic cations that can occur with multiple charges, indicate the charge using Roman numerals after the element s name. Examples: Fe 2+ is referred to as an iron(ii) ion Fe 3+ is referred to as an iron(iii) ion
58 Naming Monatomic Anions Anions are named by changing the suffix (ending) of the name to -ide. Examples: F - is referred to as a fluoride ion. O 2- is referred to as an oxide ion.
59 Polyatomic Ions Several atoms often stick (bond) together to form a small particle. If the resulting particle has the same number of protons as electrons, then it will be electrically neutral, and we call the particle a molecule. If, on the other hand, there is an excess of protons or an excess of electrons in the particle, then it will have an overall electrical charge, and we call the particle a polyatomic ion.
60 Example of a Polyatomic Ion: Nitrate Ion O O N O Nitrogen (7 electrons, 7 protons) Oxygen (8 electrons, 8 protons) Oxygen (8 electrons, 8 protons) Oxygen (8 electrons, 8 protons) + one extra electron Nitrate Ion NO 3 -
61 The table below lists the names and charges for some polyatomic ions. You do not need to memorize this table; I will give you this table for with your exams. Some Polyatomic Ion Names and Charges
62 An Introduction to Compounds Compounds: matter that is constructed of two or more chemically bonded elements. Each compound has the same proportion of the same elements. Example: Water = 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom (Ratio H:O = 2:1)
63 Chemical Bonds Atoms can bond with other atoms, and ions can bond with other ions to form compounds such as water (H 2 O), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and table salt (sodium chloride). Chemical bonds are the electrical attractive forces that hold atoms or ions together in a compound.
64 There are three types of chemical bonding: 1) Covalent Bonding 2) Ionic Bonding 3) Metallic Bonding Chemical Bonds In this chapter, you will learn about the first two types, covalent bonding and ionic bonding. You will learn about metallic bonding in chapter 5.
65 Some Terminology
66 Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes it undergoes. Physical changes, such as melting or boiling, result in changes in physical properties and do not involve the formation of new pure substances. For example, the melting of ice is simply H 2 O being changed from the solid phase to the liquid phase. The chemical bonds between oxygen and hydrogen atoms do not change in that process.
67 Chemical changes, on the other hand, result in the formation of new pure substances. To make a new pure substance, chemical bonds must be broken and/or new chemical bonds are made. This happens in a process called a chemical reaction, which we will study in chapter 6. A major principle of chemistry is that the observed (macroscopic) properties of a substance are related to its microscopic structure. The microscopic structure entails details such as the kind of atoms/ions and the pattern in which they are bonded to each other.
68 Covalent Chemical Bonding Covalent bonding is defined as the chemical bonding force that results from the sharing of electron pair(s) between two atoms. The resulting collection of atoms results in the formation of either molecules or polyatomic ions. A molecule is an electrically neutral group of atoms held together by covalent bonds. Contrast this with a polyatomic ion, which is an electrically charged group of atoms held together by covalent bonds. Covalent bonding occurs between nonmetal atoms.
69 Formation of a Covalent Bond Covalent bonding occurs because the bound atoms are at a lower energy than the unbound atoms.
70 Why does sharing of electron pairs result in an attractive electrostatic force capable of holding atoms together? Consider the two hydrogen atoms coming together to form a covalent bond. In covalent bonding, the atoms share electron pairs. Each hydrogen atom provides one electron in the shared pair. The shared electron pair spends significantly more time in the area between the positive nuclei of the hydrogen atoms than in other regions. The electron pair between the nuclei create a positive-negative-positive electrostatic attractive sandwich and this force holds the atoms together. The dashed lines indicate the electrostatic attractive interactions.
71 The Octet Rule in the Formation of Molecules The positive-negative-positive model cannot explain why a covalent bond does not form between two helium atoms. The octet rule in the formation of molecules is: molecules tend to form such that the atoms are surrounded by an octet (eight) of valence electrons (except for hydrogen and helium that have two electrons).
72 The Octet Rule in the Formation of Molecules Example: H 2 (recall that H and He are stable with two valence electrons) H 1s H 1s covalent bonding H 1s H 1s shared electrons When a covalent bond forms, each hydrogen atom feels two electrons in its outermost shell.
73 The H 2 covalent bond can also be illustrated with electron dot structures. H H H H The two electrons between the atoms are shared in a covalent bond. Chemist use a line to represent 2 electrons in a covalent bond. These drawings are called line bond structures. H H
74 The Octet Rule in the Formation of Molecules Let s do another example: Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) Cl Cl 3s 3p covalent bonding 3s 3p H 1s H 1s shared electrons When a covalent bond forms, the hydrogen atom feels two electrons in its outermost shell, and the chlorine atom feels eight electrons in its outermost shell.
75 The HCl covalent bond can also be illustrated using electron dot structures. H H Cl Cl line bond structure H Cl
76 The Octet Rule in the Formation of Molecules Let s do another example: Cl 2 (chlorine gas). Cl Cl 3s 3p covalent bonding 3s 3p 3s Cl 3p 3s Cl 3p shared electrons When a covalent bond forms, each chlorine atom feels eight electrons in its outermost shell.
77 You try it: Draw the line bond structure for Cl 2. Start with the electron dot structure for two Cl atoms.
78 The Octet Rule in the Formation of Molecules Let s do oxygen gas (O 2 ). O O 3s 3p covalent bonding 3s 3p 3s O 3p 3s O 3p shared electrons When a covalent bond forms, each oxygen atom feels eight electrons in its outermost shell.
79 The HCl covalent bond can also be illustrated using electron dot structures. H H Cl Cl line bond structure H Cl
80 Let s draw the line bond structure for oxygen gas (O 2 ). Oxygen atoms have 6 valence electrons. We will rotate the electrons so they can form bonding pairs. O O O O We use lines to represent shared electron pairs. When atoms are bonded with 2 pairs of electrons it is called a double bond. Double Bond O O
81 Let s draw the line bond structure for nitrogen gas (N 2 ) Nitrogen atoms have 5 valence electrons. We will rotate the electrons so they can form bonding pairs. N N N N We use lines to represent shared electron pairs. When atoms are bonded with 3 pairs of electrons it is called a triple bond. Triple Bond N N
82 Naming Binary Covalent Compounds
83 The covalent bonding that we will see in this course will always involve nonmetal elements only. 1 H 3 Li 11 Na 19 K 37 Rb 55 Cs 87 Fr 4 Be 12 Mg 20 Ca 38 Sr 56 Ba 88 Ra 21 Sc 39 Y 57 La 89 Ac Metals (Green) 22 Ti 40 Zr 72 Hf 104 Rf 23 V 41 Nb 73 Ta 105 Db 58 Ce 90 Th 24 Cr 42 Mo 74 W 106 Sg 59 Pr 91 Pa Nonmetals (Blue) 25 Mn 43 Tc 75 Re 107 Bh 60 Nd 92 U 26 Fe 44 Ru 76 Os 108 Hs 61 Pm 93 Np Metalloids (Red) The nonmetal atoms can share electrons to form molecules (molecular compounds) or polyatomic ions. 27 Co 45 Rh 77 Ir 109 Mt 62 Sm 94 Pu 28 Ni 46 Pd 78 Pt 63 Eu 95 Am 29 Cu 47 Ag 79 Au 64 Gd 96 Cm 30 Zn 48 Cd 80 Hg 65 Tb 97 Bk 5 B 13 Al 31 Ga 49 In 81 Tl 66 Dy 98 Cf 6 C 14 Si 32 Ge 50 Sn 82 Pb 67 Ho 99 Es 7 N 15 P 33 As 51 Sb 83 Bi 68 Er 100 Fm 8 O 16 S 34 Se 52 Te 84 Po 69 Tm 101 Md 9 F 17 Cl 35 Br 53 I 85 At 70 Yb 102 No 2 He 10 Ne 18 Ar 36 Kr 54 Xe 86 Rn 71 Lu 103 Lr
84 Covalent Bonding: Molecular Compounds A chemical substance whose simplest units are molecules is called a molecular compound.
85 Covalent Bonding: Molecular Compounds A chemical substance whose simplest units are molecules is called a molecular compound. When discussing molecules we use a molecular formula that shows the types (elements) and numbers of atoms that make up a single molecule. The number of atoms of each element contained in the molecule is written as a subscript after the element s symbol. Examples: line bond structure molecular formula H H H 2 H O H H 2 O When there is only one atom of a particular element present in a molecule the subscripted 1 is omitted for that element.
86 Some molecules only contain one element, for example H 2, Cl 2, and O 2. These molecules often take the name of the elements they contain. Examples: molecular formula H 2 name hydrogen O 2 oxygen
87 Naming Binary Covalent (Molecular) Compounds Binary covalent compounds contain only two elements (the bi- prefix indicates two ). Examples of binary covalent compounds are HCl, H 2 O, and CO 2. Educational Goals: Given the name of a binary covalent molecule, be able to write the molecular formula. Given the molecular formula of a binary covalent molecule, be able to write the name of the molecule.
88 Method for Naming Binary Covalent (Molecular) Compounds Goal: Given the molecular formula of a binary covalent molecule, be able to write the name of the molecule. 1. List the name of the first element in the formula. 2. List the second element and add the ide suffix. 3. Use Greek prefixes to indicate the number of each atom in the formula. Exception: If there is just one atom of the first element in the formula, do not use monofor the first element in the name. Example: CO 2 monocarbon dioxide carbon dioxide The o or a at the end of the Greek prefix is omitted when the element s name begins with a vowel. Example: CO carbon monooxide carbon monoxide
89 Example: Name the following compound CCl 4 1) List the name of the first element in the formula. 2) List the second element and add the ide suffix. 3) Use Greek prefixes to indicate the number of each atom in the formula. Exception: do not use mono- for the first element in the name. mono carbon tetra chloride carbon tetra chloride
90 Understanding Check Write the names of the following molecules: CF 4 N 2 O SF 6
91 Method for Writing the Molecular Formula of a Binary Covalent Compound Goal: Given the name of a binary covalent molecule, be able to write the molecular formula of the molecule. 1. Write the symbol of the first element in the compound s name, then the symbol of the second element in the compound s name. 2. Indicate how many atoms of each element the molecule contains using subscripts after the atomic symbol. The numbers of atoms are given in the Greek prefixes in the molecule s name. NOTE: If there is no Greek prefix in front of the first element in the name, that means the number is 1. Example: Write the molecular formula for dinitrogen tetrafluoride. N 2 F 4
92 Understanding Check Write the molecular formula for the covalent compounds: nitrogen trichloride dinitrogen pentoxide sulfur dioxide
93 For covalent compounds with more than two types of atoms, we use common names or IUPAC system names. You are not responsible for knowing common names. You will learn some IUPAC system names in later chapters. Examples of common names: Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Acetone (C 3 H 6 O)
94 Ionic Bonding Definition of ionic bonding: Chemical bonding that results from the electrostatic attraction between large numbers of cations and anions. Compounds composed of ions are called ionic compounds.
95 Example of an ionic compound: sodium chloride (NaCl) Many sodium ions combine with many chloride ions in a three-dimensional pattern that minimizes the distance between the oppositely charged cations and anions and maximizes the distance between the like-charged particles.
96 Example of an ionic compound: sodium chloride (NaCl) We call this structure a crystal or crystal lattice. It is this regular, repeating structure on the scale of the individual ions that give crystals the interesting geometrical shapes that we see on the macro-scale when we look at them with our eyes or with a microscope.
97 Ionic bonding (ionic compounds) results from: Combining metal ions with nonmetal ions. Combining polyatomic ions with other ions.
98 Ionic Compounds The cations and anions will combine in a ratio such that the total of the positive (+) and negative ( ) charges equals ZERO! Example: Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Sodium ions have a charge of 1+ Chloride ions have a charge of 1- They combine in a 1-to-1 ratio in the crystal For every sodium ion, there is one chloride ion! The charges add up to ZERO!
99 Formula Units The use of molecular formulas would not make sense for ionic compounds; they do not form molecules, instead they form crystals. We write formula units (as apposed to molecular formulas) for ionic compounds. The formula unit looks like the molecular formula used for covalent compounds, however it means something entirely different. The formula unit uses subscripted numbers after the ion s symbol that indicate the ratio that the cations and anions combine in the ionic crystal. As in the case of molecular formula, when a subscript would have a value of 1, the subscript is omitted. We write the cation symbol first followed by a numerical subscript (if needed), then we write the anion symbol followed by a numerical subscript (if needed). Example: For sodium chloride, since sodium ions and chloride ions combine in a oneto-one ratio, we write the formula unit of sodium chloride as: NaCl
100 Example: Calcium ions combine with fluoride ions to form an ionic compound. The cations and anions will combine in a ratio such that the total of the positive (+) and negative ( ) charges equals ZERO! Calcium ions have a charge of 2+ Fluoride ions have a charge of 1- They combine in a 1-to-2 ratio in the crystal For every calcium ion, there are two fluoride ions. We write the formula unit for calcium fluoride as: CaF 2
101 Understanding Check: Write the formula unit for the compound formed by combining magnesium and chloride ions. Mg Cl??
102 Understanding Check: Write the formula unit for the compound formed by combining potassium and oxide ions. K O??
103 Understanding Check: Write the formula unit for the compound formed by combining magnesium and nitride ions. Mg N??
104 Dr. Zoval s Caveman Style, Works Every Time Method: Mg N 3 2 The Criss-Cross Method
105 Formula Units Write the formula for the ionic compound formed between each of the following pairs of ions: Cu + and O 2- Fe 3+ and S 2- Cu 2+ and Cl - Mg 2+ and O 2- Sn 4+ and S 2- V 3+ and Cl -
106 Formula Unit vs. Molecular Formula Formula Unit = Lowest RATIO of ions Example: NaCl Ratio of Na + to Cl - = 1 to 1 Molecular Formula = Actual number of atoms Example: H 2 O two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom H AO H
107 Naming Ionic Compounds Educational Goals: Given the name of an ionic compound, be able to write the formula unit. Given the formula unit of an ionic compound, be able to write the name.
108 Goal: Given the name of an ionic compound, be able to write the formula unit.. Method for Writing Formula Units for Ionic Compounds 1) Write the symbol of the first ion (the cation) in the compound s name, then the symbol of the second ion (the anion) in the compound s name. 2) Indicate the ratio of the ions in the compound using subscripts after each ion. The ratio of the ions is deduced by balancing the charges of the ions so that the total charge in the crystal is equal to zero. We find the ion s charge from its position on the periodic table or, for polyatomic ions, we look it up in a table. You will know the charge for the metals that occur with various charges because the charge will be written in the compound s name in Roman numerals. For polyatomic ions: When the subscript for a polyatomic ion is greater than 1, the polyatomic ion formula is written in parenthesis and the subscript is written after/outside of the parenthesis.
109 Example: Write the formula unit for iron(iii) bromide. You will know the charge for the metals that occur with various charges because the charge will be written in the compound s name in Roman numerals. iron(iii) bromide Fe Br 3 Fe Br 3
110 Example: Write the formula unit for magnesium nitrate Mg (NO 3 ) Mg (NO 3 ) For polyatomic ions: When the subscript for a polyatomic ion is greater than 1, the polyatomic ion formula is written in parenthesis and the subscript is written after/outside of the parenthesis.
111 Understanding Check Write the formula unit for each of the following compounds: a. sodium bicarbonate b. sodium fluoride c. iron(iii) chloride d. sodium carbonate e. copper(ii) sulfate f. magnesium hydroxide
112 Goal: Given the formula unit of an ionic compound, be able to write the name. Method for Writing the Names of Ionic Compounds 1. Write the cation name first, then the anion name. Monoatomic anions (anions composed of one element) use the ide suffix. We get the names of polyatomic ions from the polyatomic ion table. 2. If the cation is one of the metals with various charges, write the charge using parenthesis and Roman numerals after the metal s name.
113 Example: Name the following compound: MgCl 2 Name the metal ion first. Name the anion next. magnesium chlor ide
114 Example: Name the following compound: CuBr 2 Name the metal ion first. Name the anion next. magnesium chloride
115 Example: Name the following compound: CuBr 2 Name the metal ion first What must the charge of the copper ion be? 2+ Name the anion next. What is the charge of the bromide ion? copper( II ) brom ide
116 Complete the names of the following ionic compounds with variable charge metal ions: FeBr 2 CuCl SnO 2 Fe 2 O 3 iron ( ) bromide copper ( ) chloride ( )
117 Name the following ionic compounds NaCl ZnI 2 Al 2 O 3
118 Naming Compound Summary
119 Given the Molecular Formula, Write the Name
120 Given the Name, Write the Molecular Formula
121 Molar Mass of Compounds In this video, you will learn how to calculate the molar mass of a compound and how to use the molar mass of a compound to do mole-mass conversions. 1) Molar Mass of Covalent Compounds (Molecules) 2) Molar Mass of Ionic Compounds
122 Molar Mass of Covalent Compounds (Molecules) The molar mass of a molecule tells us the mass (grams) of 1 mole of the molecules. The molar mass of a molecule is also called the molecular mass. To calculate the molar mass of a molecule we add up the atomic molar masses of all atoms in the molecule.
123 Example: Let s calculate the molar mass of H 2 O. H O H oxygen hydrogen g/mole g/mole g/mole 2.02 g/mole Molar Mass of H 2 O = g/mole One mole of H 2 O (6.022 x molecules) has a mass of grams
124 Understanding Check: Calculate the molar mass of CH 4 (methane). H H C H H
125 Mass-Mole-Molecules Conversions Note that, as in the case of atoms, the molar mass of a compound is the relationship between moles and mass (grams), therefore we can convert between moles and grams of compounds.
126 Mass-Mole Conversion Example: Example: How many grams of CH 4 is contained in 3.65 moles? Use the molar mass to write an equivalence statement: 1 mole CH 4 = grams The equivalence statements can be written as conversion factors: 3.65 moles CH grams CH 4 1 mole CH 4 = 58.6 grams CH 4
127 You have just learned how to convert between moles and mass of a compound and vice versa. We do a two-step calculation to convert between mass and number of molecules. We can convert between molecules and moles since Avogadro s Number applies to molecules; one mole of a molecular compound contains x molecules.
128 Find You try one: How many H 2 O molecules are contained in 237 grams?
129 Molar Mass of Ionic Compounds When using the molar mass of ionic compounds, we calculate the mass of a compound based on the number of each ion as it appears in the formula unit. For this reason, the molar mass of an ionic compound is also called formula mass.
130 Example: The molar mass of sodium chloride (NaCl) The formula unit for sodium chloride is NaCl because there is a 1:1 ratio of sodium ions to chloride ions in the crystal. One mole of sodium chloride contains one mole of sodium ions and one mole of chloride ions. Although ions have extra or missing elections, their molar masses are calculated by adding the atomic molar masses of the elements they contain. The reason we can do this is because the mass of electrons is negligible compared to the mass of protons and neutrons
131 Example: What is the molar mass of iron(ii) phosphate, Fe 3 (PO 4 ) 2? One mole of iron(ii) phosphate contains three moles of iron(ii) ions and two moles of phosphate ions. three moles of iron(ii) ions two moles of phosphate ions Fe 3 (PO 4 ) 2 The molar mass of each iron(ii) ion is: g/mole. each phosphate ion contains: one mole of phosphorus four moles of oxygen The molar mass of each phosphate ion is: g/mole. continued on next slide
132 Example: What is the molar mass of iron(ii) phosphate, Fe 3 (PO 4 ) 2? The molar mass (or formula mass) is calculated by adding the molar masses of the ions:
133 An Alternative Method: Example: What is the molar mass of iron(ii) phosphate, Fe 3 (PO 4 ) 2? Fe 3 (PO 4 ) 2 three moles of iron(ii) ions two moles of phosphate ions contain: two moles of phosphorous eight (2 x 4) moles of oxygen Three moles of Fe: 3 x g/mole = g/mole Two moles of P: 2 x g/mole = g/mole Eight moles of O: 8 x g/mole = g/mole The molar mass of Fe 3 (PO 4 ) 2 is g/mole
134 Understanding Check What is the molar mass of magnesium nitrate, Mg(NO 3 ) 2?
135 Mole-Mass Conversions for Ionic Compounds Mole-Mass conversions for ionic compounds are done exactly as we did for covalent compounds; use the molar mass as a conversion factor.
136 You try one: What is the mass (grams) of 4.95 moles of Mg(NO 3 ) 2?
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