SCIENCE 1206 UNIT 2 CHEMISTRY. September 2017 November 2017

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1 SCIENCE 1206 UNIT 2 CHEMISTRY September 2017 November 2017

2 UNIT OUTLINE 1. Review of Grade 9 Terms & the Periodic Table Bohr diagrams Evidence for chemical reactions Chemical Tests 2. Naming & writing formulas Ionic, molecular, acids 3. Chemical reactions Balancing chemical equations 5 Types of Reactions

3 IMPORTANT TO KNOW... You will get a PERIODIC TABLE!!! It is your best friend for this unit! You will need it each and every day. Take care of it, cherish it, appreciate it! In other words, do not leave it in a crumpled mess at the base of your locker or bookbag The Element Song Version 2

4 CHEMISTRY TERMINOLOGY MATTER DEFINITION: Anything that has mass and volume (takes up space). What is not matter? Energy In chemistry, we often discuss microscopic matter, such as atoms, ions, elements, and compounds. MASS The amount of matter, measured in grams (g)

5 PHYSICAL PROPERTY A QUALITY or CHARACTERISTIC of a substance that can be observed WITHOUT a chemical reaction. Examples of Physical Properties State of matter Hardness Colour Malleability Ductility Odor Solubility Brittleness Conductivity Melting Point and Boiling Point

6 PHYSICAL CHANGE A change in state of matter of a substance. Examples: Melting/fusion SOLID to LIQUID Freezing LIQUID to SOLID Evaporation LIQUID to GAS Condensation GAS to LIQUID Sublimation SOLID to GAS Deposition GAS to SOLID Ex: H 2 O (s) H 2 O (l)

7 CHEMICAL PROPERTY An BEHAVIOUR of a substance that can only be observed during a CHEMICAL CHANGE. Example: Magnesium ribbon burning 2 Mg (s) + O 2(g) 2 MgO (s) + light energy

8 CHEMICAL CHANGE A change in which ONE OR MORE NEW SUBSTANCES is formed. Example: Iron Rusting 4 Fe (s) + 3 O 2(g) 2 Fe 2 O 3(s)

9 INDICATORS OF A CHEMICAL CHANGE Basically, a chemical change has occurred if the change is DIFFICULT TO REVERSE. However, there are many good indicators of a chemical change. Observe the following pictures, and take a guess at what is happening to indicate a CHEMICAL CHANGE.

10 CHEMICAL CHANGE INDICATORS COLOUR CHANGE

11 CHEMICAL CHANGE INDICATORS BUBBLES OF GAS Example #2

12 CHEMICAL CHANGE INDICATORS SOLID (PRECIPITATE) FORMATION

13 CHEMICAL CHANGE INDICATORS HEAT or LIGHT GIVEN OFF

14 Test Your Understanding!!! Identify the following as a PHYSICAL PROPERTY or a CHEMICAL PROPERTY. 1. Burns in air when heated. 2. Melts at 98 degrees Celsius. 3. Reacts violently with water. 4. Can be cut with a knife. 5. Conducts electricity. Identify the following as a PHYSICAL CHANGE or a CHEMICAL CHANGE. 1. Digesting a meal. 2. Butter melting in a pan. 3. Burning gasoline. 4. Wood rotting.

15 PURE SUBSTANCE Made up of only ONE TYPE OF ATOM or ATOM COMBINATION Stays the same in response to a physical change Example: Element - O 2 Compound - H 2 O

16 TYPES OF PURE SUBSTANCES ELEMENT A pure substance that CANNOT be broken down into a simpler substance by a chemical change. It is made up of one type of atom. Examples: Na Li Ar W

17 TYPES OF PURE SUBSTANCES COMPOUND A pure substance that CAN be broken down into its elements with a CHEMICAL CHANGE. It is made up of two or more different elements are chemically joined together in fixed proportions. Examples: NaCl C 6 H 12 O 6 CH 4 H 2 O Meet The Elements

18 REACTANTS Starting Materials in a chemical reaction PRODUCTS New substances formed in a chemical reaction CHEMICAL REACTION Reactants go to form Products Example: C (s) + O 2(g) CO 2(g)

19 PERIODIC TABLE

20 PERIODIC TABLE The periodic table is arranged in rows and columns. PERIOD Horizontal rows on table 7 in total Atomic Mass and Atomic Number increase from LEFT TO RIGHT

21 PERIODIC TABLE

22 PERIODIC TABLE GROUP AKA: FAMILY Vertical columns on table Elements of the same group have similar but not identical properties. There are two number systems for groups: CURRENT: 1-18 OLD: ROMAN NUMERALS IA VIIIA IB - VIIIB

23 PERIODIC TABLE

24 PERIODIC TABLE GROUP 1 Alkali Metals Soft, silver, react violently with water GROUP 2 Alkaline Earth Metals Shiny, silver, light, reactive GROUP 17 Halogens Extremely reactive, poisonous GROUP 18 Noble Gases INERT Not reactive under normal laboratory conditions

25 PERIODIC TABLE

26 PERIODIC TABLE REPRESENTATIVE ELEMENTS AKA Group A elements Groups IA-VIIIA, or 1, 2, These elements illustrate the ENTIRE RANGE OF PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTS.

27 PERIODIC TABLE

28 PERIODIC TABLE TRANSITION ELEMENTS AKA Group B elements Group IB-VIIIB, or the lower groups Metallic elements that exhibit some different properties due to their electron arrangements.

29 PERIODIC TABLE with Valence Electrons

30 PERIODIC TABLE Elements LANTHANIDES (rare earth) Elements ACTINIDES (radioactive) NOTE: These are removed from the main table as a matter of convenience in organizing the table.

31 Periodic Table including LANTHANIDES and ACTINIDES

32 PERIODIC TABLE with Valence Electrons

33 TYPES OF ELEMENTS The periodic table is divided into: Metals Nonmetals The STAIRCASE LINE on the periodic table divides the METALS and the NONMETALS. The ratio of metals to nonmetals is about 4:1.

34 TYPES OF ELEMENTS Li 3 He 2 C 6 N 7 O 8 F 9 Ne 10 Na 11 B 5 Be 4 H 1 Al 13 Si 14 P 15 S 16 Cl 17 Ar 18 K 19 Ca 20 Sc 21 Ti 22 V 23 Cr 24 Mn 25 Fe 26 Co 27 Ni 28 Cu 29 Zn 30 Ga 31 Ge 32 As 33 Se 34 Br 35 Kr 36 Rb 37 Sr 38 Y 39 Zr 40 Nb 41 Mo 42 Tc 43 Ru 44 Rh 45 Pd 46 Ag 47 Cd 48 In 49 Sn 50 Sb 51 Te 52 I 53 Xe 54 Cs 55 Ba 56 Hf 72 Ta 73 W 74 Re 75 Os 76 Ir 77 Pt 78 Au 79 Hg 80 Tl 81 Pb 82 Bi 83 Po 84 At 85 Rn 86 Fr 87 Ra 88 Rf 104 Db 105 Sg 106 Bh 107 Hs 108 Mt 109 Mg 12 Ce 58 Pr 59 Nd 60 Pm 61 Sm 62 Eu 63 Gd 64 Tb 65 Dy 66 Ho 67 Er 68 Tm 69 Yb 70 Lu 71 Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 Am 95 Cm 96 Bk 97 Cf 98 Es 99 Fm 100 Md 101 No 102 Lr 103 La 57 Ac * W METALS Nonmetals

35 METALS Found on the Left Hand Side of the staircase on the periodic table. Physical properties include: Shiny Solids at room temperature (except Hg) Good conductors of electricity Ductile (can be stretched into wire) Malleable (can be hammered in shapes)

36 NON-METALS Substances found on the Right Hand Side of the staircase on the periodic table. Physical properties include: Dull Brittle S, L, or G at room temperature Poor conductors/good insulators

37 HYDROGEN The rebel of the periodic table! It does not really belong anywhere. Hydrogen is usually located on the top left hand corner of the table, even though it has both metallic and nonmetallic properties.

38 Metalloids Elements found along the step like line between metals and non-metals of the periodic table. Metalloids have properties of both metals and non-metals. Some of the metalloids, such as silicon and germanium, are useful in semiconductors. This property makes metalloids useful in electronic components.

39 Metalloid

40 HOMEWORK Complete questions 1 8 in your booklet.

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