Atoms and the Periodic Table

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1 Atoms and the Periodic Table

2 Parts of the Atom Proton Found in the nucleus Number of protons defines the element Charge +1, mass 1

3 Parts of the Atom Neutron Found in the nucleus Stabilizes the nucleus Charge 0, mass 1

4 Parts of the Atom Electron Found outside the nucleus in the electron cloud Does all the work in chemical reactions Charge -1, mass 0

5 ISOTOPES Atoms of a given element are not all identical They can have different masses Chlorine has atoms with masses of 35 amu and 37 amu These are called isotopes

6 ISOTOPES Atoms of a given element with different masses are called isotopes They can have different masses because they have different numbers of neutrons Chlorine has atoms with a masses of 35 amu and 37 amu Both have 17 protons, but the isotope with a mass of 35 has 18 neutrons and the one with a mass of 37 has 20 neutrons

7 ISOTOPES Name an isotope in one of these ways: 17Cl is the Mass number (# of protons + # of neutrons) 17 is the number of protons

8 ISOTOPES Name an isotope in one of these ways: Chlorine-37 Or Cl is the mass number of the isotope

9 ISOTOPES Some Isotopes are not stable When they decompose, some mass changes to energy. This energy is radiation Marie and Pierre Curie researched radioactive isotopes in 1903

10 How do we know how many? Number of protons is the same as the atomic number Number of electrons is the same as the number of protons Number of neutrons is the atomic mass minus the number of protons

11 We get these numbers from the Periodic Table Atomic Number 6 C Symbol Atomic Mass

12 Practice Time! Atomic number is the number of protons 6 Atomic Number is the number of electrons Atomic Mass C Symbol Round atomic mass to a whole number and subtract the number of protons

13 Practice 6 C Carbon Atomic number = number of or Atomic mass = the number of + # Protons = # Neutrons = # Electrons =

14 Practice 8 O Oxygen Atomic number = number of or Atomic mass = the number of + # Protons = # Neutrons = # Electrons =

15 Practice 30 Zinc Atomic number = number of or Atomic mass = the number of + # Protons = # Neutrons = # Electrons =

16 Practice- an Isotope Zn # Protons = # Neutrons = # Electrons =

17 Practice- an Isotope C -14 # Protons = # Neutrons = # Electrons =

18 Summary Fill in the parts of the atom.

19 Parts of the Atom Location in the Atom Part of the Atom Charge and Mass Number How to get that number from the periodic table The Electron Cloud- Mostly empty Space, Has most of the volume of the atom Electrons Mass =0 Charge = -1 = # of protons The Atom he Nucleus- Contains most of the mass of tthe atom Protons Neutrons Mass =1 Charge = 1 Mass =1 Charge = 0 = atomic mass = mass # of protons

20 Location in the Atom Part of the Atom and Who Found it Charge and Mass Number How to get that number from the periodic table The Electron Cloud- Mostly empty Space, Has most of the volume of the atom Electrons Mass =0 Charge = -1 = # of protons The Atom The Nucleus- Contains most of the mass of the atom Protons Neutrons Mass =1 Charge = 1 Mass =1 Charge = 0 = atomic number = mass # of protons

21 Periodic Table Important Terms Period- a row on the periodic table

22 Periodic Table Important Terms Group (also called a family) A column on the periodic table. All elements in the same group have similar properties.

23 Parts of the Periodic Table Metals, Nonmetals and Metalloids 1 H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc (98) 44 Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr (223) 88 Ra (226) 89 Ac (227) 104 Rf (261) 105 Db (262) 106 Sg (266) 107 Bh (264) 108 Hs (277) 109 Mt (268) 110 Ds (281) 111 Rg (272) 112 Cn (277) 113 Uut 114 Uuq 115 Uup 116 Uuh 117 Uus 118 Uuo 57 La Ce Pr Nd Pm (145) 62 Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Ac (227) 90 Th Pa U Np (237) 94 Pu (244) 95 Am (243) 96 Cm (247) 97 Bk (247) 98 Cf (251) 99 Es (252) 100 Fm (257) 101 Md (258) 102 No (259) 103 Lr (262)

24 Properties of Metals Good conductors of heat and electricity A clean metal surface will be shiny or lustrous Solids at room temperature (Except mercury [Hg]) Ductile- can be made into wire Malleable- can be hammered into shapes without breaking

25 Properties of Non-metals Properties vary a lot Most are gases, but the ones that are not have low melting or boiling points Poor conductors of heat or electricity (except carbon) If solid, they are brittle they break easily Usually not shiny

26 Properties of Metalloids Also called semi-metals and semiconductors Under some conditions they act like metals Under other conditions they act like nonmetals Used in computers and other electronics

27 The Individual Squares 26 Fe 55.85

28 Location on the Periodic Table Groups Elements in the same groups have similar properties

29 Elements that Don t Belong Hydrogen The smallest, lightest element. All the other elements get made from hydrogen in the cores of stars or when stars explode. Electron configuration is 1s 1

30 Groups to Know Alkalai metals (group 1 ) Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr Metals Soft Very Reactive Always found combined in nature Will react with water All solids at room temperature, but have rather low melting points Group 1 (1A) 3 Li Na K Rb Cs Fr (223)

31 Groups to Know Alkalai earth metals (group 2 ) Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba Ra Metals Soft, but not as soft as group 1 Reactive (but not as reactive as group 1) Always found combined in nature Will react with very hot water or steam All solids at room temperature Group 2 (2A) 4 Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra (226)

32 Groups to Know Halogens (group 17 ) F, Cl, Br, I, At Non-metals Change from gas to liquid to solid as you go down the group Very Reactive Always found combined in nature Name means (salt-maker) Group 17 (17A) 9 F Cl Br I At Uus

33 Groups to Know Noble Gases (group 18 (8A)) He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn Non-metals and all Gases Very non-reactive Group 18 (18A) 2 He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn Uuo

34 H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr (223) 88 Ra (226) 113 Uut 114 Uuq 115 Uup 116 Uuh 117 Uus 118 Uuo Groups to Know Main Group Elements Groups 1,2,13,14,15,16,17,18 Also called Representative Elements

35 Transition Metals Transition Metals Groups to Know Groups 3,4,5,6,7,8,9, 10,11,12 On some Tables : All the columns with B after the number Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Y La Ac (227) 40 Zr Hf Rf (261) 41 Nb Ta Db (262) 42 Mo W Sg (266) 43 Tc (98) 75 Re Bh (264) 44 Ru Os Hs (277) 45 Rh Ir Mt (268) 46 Pd Pt Ds (281) 47 Ag Au Rg (272) 48 Cd Hg Cn (277)

36 Groups to Know Transition Metals Also includes the Lanthanides and Actinides The two rows below the periodic table Called Inner Transition Metals 58 Ce Pr Nd Pm (145) 62 Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np (237) 94 Pu (244) 95 Am (243) 96 Cm (247) 97 Bk (247) 98 Cf (251) 99 Es (252) 100 Fm (257) 101 Md (258) 102 No (259) 103 Lr (262)

37 Transition Metals Groups to Know Properties are those for metals Usually high melting points Usually not very reactive Conductive

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