The Periodic Table of Elements

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1 The Periodic Table of Elements 8 Uuo Uus Uuh (9) Uup (88) Uuq (89) Uut (8) Uub (8) Rg () 0 Ds (9) 09 Mt (8) 08 Hs (9) 0 h () 0 Sg () 0 Db () 0 Rf () 0 Lr () 88 Ra () 8 Fr () 8 Rn () 8 At (0) 8 Po (09) 8 i Pb 0. 8 Tl Hg Au Pt 9.08 Ir 9. Os 90. Re 8.0 W 8.8 Ta 80.9 Hf 8.9 Lu.9 a. Cs.90 Xe.9 I.90 Te.0 Sb.0 0 Sn In.88 8 Cd. Ag 0.88 Pd 0. Rh 0.90 Ru 0.0 Tc (98) Mo 9.9 Nb Zr 9. 9 Y Sr 8. Rb 8.8 Kr 8.80 r 9.90 Se 8.9 As.9 Ge. Ga 9. 0 Zn.9 9 Cu. 8 Ni 8.9 Co 8.9 Fe.8 Mn.98 Cr.99 V 0.9 Ti.8 Sc.9 0 Ca K Uuo Uus Uuh (9) Uup (88) Uuq (89) Uut (8) Uub (8) Rg () 0 Ds (9) 09 Mt (8) 08 Hs (9) 0 h () 0 Sg () 0 Db () 0 Rf () 0 Lr () 88 Ra () 8 Fr () 8 Rn () 8 At (0) 8 Po (09) 8 i Pb 0. 8 Tl Hg Au Pt 9.08 Ir 9. Os 90. Re 8.0 W 8.8 Ta 80.9 Hf 8.9 Lu.9 a. Cs.90 Xe.9 I.90 Te.0 Sb.0 0 Sn In.88 8 Cd. Ag 0.88 Pd 0. Rh 0.90 Ru 0.0 Tc (98) Mo 9.9 Nb Zr 9. 9 Y Sr 8. Rb 8.8 Kr 8.80 r 9.90 Se 8.9 As.9 Ge. Ga 9. 0 Zn.9 9 Cu. 8 Ni 8.9 Co 8.9 Fe.8 Mn.98 Cr.99 V 0.9 Ti.8 Sc.9 0 Ca K No (9) 0 Md (8) 00 Fm () 99 Es () 98 Cf () 9 k () 9 Cm () 9 Am () 9 Pu () 9 Np () 9 U Pa.0 90 Th Ac () 0 Yb.0 9 Tm Er. Ho.90 Dy.0 Tb 8.9 Gd. Eu.9 Sm 0. Pm () 0 Nd. 9 Pr Ce 0. La No (9) 0 Md (8) 00 Fm () 99 Es () 98 Cf () 9 k () 9 Cm () 9 Am () 9 Pu () 9 Np () 9 U Pa.0 90 Th Ac () 0 Yb.0 9 Tm Er. Ho.90 Dy.0 Tb 8.9 Gd. Eu.9 Sm 0. Pm () 0 Nd. 9 Pr Ce 0. La 8.90 Mg e 9.0 Li.9 Mg e 9.0 Li.9 H.008 H.008 He.00 He.00 8 Ar 9.98 Cl. S.0 P Al.98 8 Ar 9.98 Cl. S.0 P Al.98 0 Ne F O.999 N.00 C Ne F O.999 N.00 C Lanthanides Actinides

2 Periodic Periodic Law Periodic Table Something periodic occurs at regular or at least generally predictable intervals Periodic law physical and chemical properties of the elements are functions of their atomic numbers that happen at regular intervals Periodic Table of Elements a table of the elements, arranged by atomic number, that shows the patterns in their properties; based on the periodic law Can you think of anything that is periodic?

3 ELEMENT All elements are on the Periodic Table All matter is made of an element or a combination of elements Hydrogen, Oxygen, Gold A substance that consists of only one kind of atom and that cannot be chemically separated into other substances. All elements are made up of only one kind of atom There are over 00 known elements

4 Classes of Elements 8 Uuo Uus Uuh (9) Uup (88) Uuq (89) Uut (8) Uub (8) Rg () 0 Ds (9) 09 Mt (8) 08 Hs (9) 0 h () 0 Sg () 0 Db () 0 Rf () 0 Lr () 88 Ra () 8 Fr () 8 Rn () 8 At (0) 8 Po (09) 8 i Pb 0. 8 Tl Hg Au Pt 9.08 Ir 9. Os 90. Re 8.0 W 8.8 Ta 80.9 Hf 8.9 Lu.9 a. Cs.90 Xe.9 I.90 Te.0 Sb.0 0 Sn In.88 8 Cd. Ag 0.88 Pd 0. Rh 0.90 Ru 0.0 Tc (98) Mo 9.9 Nb Zr 9. 9 Y Sr 8. Rb 8.8 Kr 8.80 r 9.90 Se 8.9 As.9 Ge. Ga 9. 0 Zn.9 9 Cu. 8 Ni 8.9 Co 8.9 Fe.8 Mn.98 Cr.99 V 0.9 Ti.8 Sc.9 0 Ca K Uuo Uus Uuh (9) Uup (88) Uuq (89) Uut (8) Uub (8) Rg () 0 Ds (9) 09 Mt (8) 08 Hs (9) 0 h () 0 Sg () 0 Db () 0 Rf () 0 Lr () 88 Ra () 8 Fr () 8 Rn () 8 At (0) 8 Po (09) 8 i Pb 0. 8 Tl Hg Au Pt 9.08 Ir 9. Os 90. Re 8.0 W 8.8 Ta 80.9 Hf 8.9 Lu.9 a. Cs.90 Xe.9 I.90 Te.0 Sb.0 0 Sn In.88 8 Cd. Ag 0.88 Pd 0. Rh 0.90 Ru 0.0 Tc (98) Mo 9.9 Nb Zr 9. 9 Y Sr 8. Rb 8.8 Kr 8.80 r 9.90 Se 8.9 As.9 Ge. Ga 9. 0 Zn.9 9 Cu. 8 Ni 8.9 Co 8.9 Fe.8 Mn.98 Cr.99 V 0.9 Ti.8 Sc.9 0 Ca K No (9) 0 Md (8) 00 Fm () 99 Es () 98 Cf () 9 k () 9 Cm () 9 Am () 9 Pu () 9 Np () 9 U Pa.0 90 Th Ac () 0 Yb.0 9 Tm Er. Ho.90 Dy.0 Tb 8.9 Gd. Eu.9 Sm 0. Pm () 0 Nd. 9 Pr Ce 0. La No (9) 0 Md (8) 00 Fm () 99 Es () 98 Cf () 9 k () 9 Cm () 9 Am () 9 Pu () 9 Np () 9 U Pa.0 90 Th Ac () 0 Yb.0 9 Tm Er. Ho.90 Dy.0 Tb 8.9 Gd. Eu.9 Sm 0. Pm () 0 Nd. 9 Pr Ce 0. La 8.90 Mg e 9.0 Li.9 Mg e 9.0 Li.9 H.008 H.008 He.00 He.00 8 Ar 9.98 Cl. S.0 P Al.98 8 Ar 9.98 Cl. S.0 P Al.98 0 Ne F O.999 N.00 C Ne F O.999 N.00 C Lanthanides Actinides

5 Metals Location left of the zigzag line/staircase on the periodic table (exception Hydrogen) Chemical Properties few electrons in their outer energy level lose electrons easily Physical Properties ductile, good conductors, malleable, shiny, most are solid at room temperature 9 Au

6 NonMetals Location Most to the right of the zigzag line/staircase on the periodic table Chemical Properties almost full outer levels tend to gain electrons; noble gases have completely full outer level Physical Properties not ductile or malleable, not shiny, poor conductors, most are solid, but some are gas at room temperature Cl. S.0

7 Metalloids Location order the zigzag line/staircase on the periodic table Chemical Properties Most atoms have ½ full outer level Physical Properties have properties of both metals and nonmetals Image taken from: Image taken from:

8 each column of elements on the periodic table Important Features of the Periodic Table: Group (Family) FROM TOP TO OTTOM OR OTTOM TO THE TOP 8 Uuo Uus Uuh (9) Uup (88) Uuq (89) Uut (8) Uub (8) Rg () 0 Ds (9) 09 Mt (8) 08 Hs (9) 0 h () 0 Sg () 0 Db () 0 Rf () 0 Lr () 88 Ra () 8 Fr () 8 Rn () 8 At (0) 8 Po (09) 8 i Pb 0. 8 Tl Hg Au Pt 9.08 Ir 9. Os 90. Re 8.0 W 8.8 Ta 80.9 Hf 8.9 Lu.9 a. Cs.90 Xe.9 I.90 Te.0 Sb.0 0 Sn In.88 8 Cd. Ag 0.88 Pd 0. Rh 0.90 Ru 0.0 Tc (98) Mo 9.9 Nb Zr 9. 9 Y Sr 8. Rb 8.8 Kr 8.80 r 9.90 Se 8.9 As.9 Ge. Ga 9. 0 Zn.9 9 Cu. 8 Ni 8.9 Co 8.9 Fe.8 Mn.98 Cr.99 V 0.9 Ti.8 Sc.9 0 Ca K Uuo Uus Uuh (9) Uup (88) Uuq (89) Uut (8) Uub (8) Rg () 0 Ds (9) 09 Mt (8) 08 Hs (9) 0 h () 0 Sg () 0 Db () 0 Rf () 0 Lr () 88 Ra () 8 Fr () 8 Rn () 8 At (0) 8 Po (09) 8 i Pb 0. 8 Tl Hg Au Pt 9.08 Ir 9. Os 90. Re 8.0 W 8.8 Ta 80.9 Hf 8.9 Lu.9 a. Cs.90 Xe.9 I.90 Te.0 Sb.0 0 Sn In.88 8 Cd. Ag 0.88 Pd 0. Rh 0.90 Ru 0.0 Tc (98) Mo 9.9 Nb Zr 9. 9 Y Sr 8. Rb 8.8 Kr 8.80 r 9.90 Se 8.9 As.9 Ge. Ga 9. 0 Zn.9 9 Cu. 8 Ni 8.9 Co 8.9 Fe.8 Mn.98 Cr.99 V 0.9 Ti.8 Sc.9 0 Ca K No (9) 0 Md (8) 00 Fm () 99 Es () 98 Cf () 9 k () 9 Cm () 9 Am () 9 Pu () 9 Np () 9 U Pa.0 90 Th Ac () 0 Yb.0 9 Tm Er. Ho.90 Dy.0 Tb 8.9 Gd. Eu.9 Sm 0. Pm () 0 Nd. 9 Pr Ce 0. La No (9) 0 Md (8) 00 Fm () 99 Es () 98 Cf () 9 k () 9 Cm () 9 Am () 9 Pu () 9 Np () 9 U Pa.0 90 Th Ac () 0 Yb.0 9 Tm Er. Ho.90 Dy.0 Tb 8.9 Gd. Eu.9 Sm 0. Pm () 0 Nd. 9 Pr Ce 0. La 8.90 Mg e 9.0 Li.9 Mg e 9.0 Li.9 H.008 H.008 He.00 He.00 8 Ar 9.98 Cl. S.0 P Al.98 8 Ar 9.98 Cl. S.0 P Al.98 0 Ne F O.999 N.00 C Ne F O.999 N.00 C Lanthanides Actinides How many groups (families) are on the Periodic Table Of Elements?

9 Group (Family) Properties Eighteen groups on the periodic table (numbered from left to right) Atomic numbers and atomic masses increase as you move from the top down in a group (family) Atoms of elements in same group have same number of electrons in outer orbitals/levels Exceptions: Transition elements () Hydrogen (could be or ) Helium (actually has valence electrons) groups have similar physical and chemical properties

10 Valence Electrons Valence Shell outermost shell of an atom Electrons in this shell used for making chemical bonds Atom wants its valence shell to be or seem like it is full

11 Examples of Group Elements with the same # of valence electrons How many electrons do each of these atoms have in their outer orbital/level? H.008 Li K Rb 8.8 Cs.90 8 Fr () What group (family) do these elements reside in?

12 onding or less electrons in outer shell bond easily by losing electrons or more electrons in outer shell bond less easily by taking electrons

13 Atoms with Few Electrons in their Outer Energy Level Notice: only electron in outer level.990 e 9.0 Notice: only electrons in outer level

14 Atoms with Full or Almost Full Outer Energy Level 8 O.999 Notice: electrons in outer level FULL He.00 Notice: electrons in outer level almost full 9 F Notice: electrons in outer level almost full

15 Atoms with ½ ( ) Complete Outer Energy Level 0.8 Notice: only electrons in outer level Notice: only electrons in outer level 8.08

16 Important Features of the Periodic Table: Period (Row) each horizontal row of elements on the periodic table FROM LEFT TO RIGHT OR RIGHT TO LEFT 8 Uuo Uus Uuh (9) Uup (88) Uuq (89) Uut (8) Uub (8) Rg () 0 Ds (9) 09 Mt (8) 08 Hs (9) 0 h () 0 Sg () 0 Db () 0 Rf () 0 Lr () 88 Ra () 8 Fr () 8 Rn () 8 At (0) 8 Po (09) 8 i Pb 0. 8 Tl Hg Au Pt 9.08 Ir 9. Os 90. Re 8.0 W 8.8 Ta 80.9 Hf 8.9 Lu.9 a. Cs.90 Xe.9 I.90 Te.0 Sb.0 0 Sn In.88 8 Cd. Ag 0.88 Pd 0. Rh 0.90 Ru 0.0 Tc (98) Mo 9.9 Nb Zr 9. 9 Y Sr 8. Rb 8.8 Kr 8.80 r 9.90 Se 8.9 As.9 Ge. Ga 9. 0 Zn.9 9 Cu. 8 Ni 8.9 Co 8.9 Fe.8 Mn.98 Cr.99 V 0.9 Ti.8 Sc.9 0 Ca K Uuo Uus Uuh (9) Uup (88) Uuq (89) Uut (8) Uub (8) Rg () 0 Ds (9) 09 Mt (8) 08 Hs (9) 0 h () 0 Sg () 0 Db () 0 Rf () 0 Lr () 88 Ra () 8 Fr () 8 Rn () 8 At (0) 8 Po (09) 8 i Pb 0. 8 Tl Hg Au Pt 9.08 Ir 9. Os 90. Re 8.0 W 8.8 Ta 80.9 Hf 8.9 Lu.9 a. Cs.90 Xe.9 I.90 Te.0 Sb.0 0 Sn In.88 8 Cd. Ag 0.88 Pd 0. Rh 0.90 Ru 0.0 Tc (98) Mo 9.9 Nb Zr 9. 9 Y Sr 8. Rb 8.8 Kr 8.80 r 9.90 Se 8.9 As.9 Ge. Ga 9. 0 Zn.9 9 Cu. 8 Ni 8.9 Co 8.9 Fe.8 Mn.98 Cr.99 V 0.9 Ti.8 Sc.9 0 Ca K No (9) 0 Md (8) 00 Fm () 99 Es () 98 Cf () 9 k () 9 Cm () 9 Am () 9 Pu () 9 Np () 9 U Pa.0 90 Th Ac () 0 Yb.0 9 Tm Er. Ho.90 Dy.0 Tb 8.9 Gd. Eu.9 Sm 0. Pm () 0 Nd. 9 Pr Ce 0. La No (9) 0 Md (8) 00 Fm () 99 Es () 98 Cf () 9 k () 9 Cm () 9 Am () 9 Pu () 9 Np () 9 U Pa.0 90 Th Ac () 0 Yb.0 9 Tm Er. Ho.90 Dy.0 Tb 8.9 Gd. Eu.9 Sm 0. Pm () 0 Nd. 9 Pr Ce 0. La 8.90 Mg e 9.0 Li.9 Mg e 9.0 Li.9 H.008 H.008 He.00 He.00 8 Ar 9.98 Cl. S.0 P Al.98 8 Ar 9.98 Cl. S.0 P Al.98 0 Ne F O.999 N.00 C Ne F O.999 N.00 C Lanthanides Actinides How many periods (rows) are on the Periodic Table Of Elements?

17 Period (Row) Properties Seven periods or rows Atomic numbers and atomic masses increase as you move from the left to the right in a period elements in same period have same number of orbitals/levels number of the period is number of orbitals Example Period = orbital Period = orbitals Period = orbitals Etc

18 Examples of Period (Row) elements having the same number of orbitals/levels in their atoms In what period (row) do you think these atoms reside? In what period (row) do you think these atoms reside?

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