Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating

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1 Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating

2 Patterns What Patterns have you observed in your life?

3 Where to Get Help If you don t understand concepts in chapter 6, what can you do? Read your book Youtube or the internet A friend in class or your parents Last resort, come talk to me.

4 History of Elements First 10 elements to be discovered- Copper-9000 BC Lead-7000 BC Gold 6000 BC Silver BC Iron BC Carbon-3750 BC Tin-3500 BC Sulfur-2000 BC Mercury-2000 BC Zinc-1000 BC

5 What patterns do you see in the periodic table.

6 History of the Periodic 1700 s Lavoisier complied a list of all known elements. It contained 33 elements 1870 There were 60 elements. With all the elements, scientists needed to organize them. Organization is the key to success -Bailey Table

7 Develop of the Periodic John Newlands- He proposed a scheme to organize the known elements. Arranged elements by increasing atomic mass. He noticed the properties repeated every 8 th element. Law of Octaves Table

8 Newton s Law of Octaves

9 Development of the Dmiti Mendeleev- Russian Chemist Demonstrated a connection between atomic mass and the properties of elements. Arranged elements in order of increasing atomic mass into columns with similar properties. Periodic Table

10 Mendeleev s P-Table

11 Development of the Henry Mosely- Periodic Table Noticed that Medeleev s table wasn t totally correct. Discovered that each element had a unique number of protons. # of protons is equal to the atomic number.

12 Development of the Mosley arranged the elements based on increasing atomic number and grouped elements together that had the same properties. Periodic Law- There is a periodic repetition of chemical and physical properties of elements when they are arranged by increasing atomic number. Periodic Table

13 Modern Periodic Table Arrangement- Groups- 18 groups Columns of elements Periods- 7 Periods Families or rows Representative elements- Groups 1, 2, Transition Elements- Groups 3-12

14 Example- Element Symbol

15 Modern Periodic Table Broken into Four groups- Metals Transition Metals Inner Transition Non-metals Halogens Noble gases Metalloids

16 Metals Al Ga In Sn Bi Cn

17 Modern Periodic Table Metals- Solid at room temp. Good conductors of heat and electricity. Malleable and ductile. Groups Alkali Metals Group 1 Metal, except Hydrogen Alkaline Earth Metals Group 2 metals Found in the crust of the earth.

18 Alkali Metals Li Na K Rb Cs Fr

19 Alkaline Earth Metals Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra

20 Modern Periodic Table Transition/Inner transition metals- Transition Metals- d-block metals Less reactive than Group I and II Inner transition metals- f-block metals Lanthanide series (4f)-rare earth metals. Actinide series (5f)-Actinium All radioactive

21 Transition Metals Li Be Na Mg Al K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn

22 Inner Transitional Metals-Lanthanide Li Be Na Mg Al K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu

23 Inner Transitional-Actinide Li Be Na Mg Al K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr

24 Modern Periodic Table Nonmetals- Gases or brittle Poor conductors of heat and electricity Group 17 Halogens Always found in compounds React vigorously with metals Group 18- Noble Gases Nonreactive Full s and p orbitals 8 valence electrons

25 Nonmetals Al Ga In Sn Bi Cn

26 Halogens Li Be F Na Mg Al Cl K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Br Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn I Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr

27 Nonmetals H Li Be C N O F Na Mg Al P S Cl K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Se Br Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn I Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr

28 Noble Gas H He Li Be C N O F Ne Na Mg Al P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Rn Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr

29 Modern Periodic Table Metalloids- Have physical properties of both metals and nonmetals. Properties lie between metals and nonmetals B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At

30 Metalloids H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr

31 Temporary elements-yet to be named H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Uut UUq UUp Uuh UUo Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr

32 I would classify elements as very elegant!

33 Valence Electrons Electrons in the highest principle energy level. Group I Elements: Each has one valence electron. ns 1 All share the same chemical properties. This is true for Group II and Groups Try it-

34 Hydrogen and Helium Hydrogen has an electron configuration of 1s 1, but despite the ns 1 configuration, it does not share the same properties of the elements in of Group 1 Hydrogen is a unique element. Like Group 2 elements, helium has an ns 2 group configuration. Yet it is part of Group 18. Because its highest occupied energy level is filled by two electrons, helium possesses special chemical stability.

35 Valence Electrons and Period The energy level of an elements valence electrons indicates the period in which it is found. Mg valence electrons are in the 3 rd energy level, Mg is in the 3 rd period. Draw the electron configuration of Mg. Compare this to that of Gold. Compare this to Oxygen. Is this correct?

36 Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table Relationship Between Periodicity and Electron Configuration

37 What elements is this? Practice First, write down the principle energy level. [Ne]3s 2 3p 2 [Rn]7s 1 [Kr]5s 2 4d 10 5p 4 [He]2s 2

38 Group I and II S-Block Elements Very reactive metals Always found in compounds. Group II metals are denser and have a higher melting point.

39 P-Block Elements Properties vary greatly in the P-block: Halogen-very reactive Metalloids/Noble Gases-nonreactive Metals are harder and denser than s-block, but softer and less dense than d-block metals

40 d-block Elements Less reactive than other metals. Do not usually from compounds. Do not always follow the Aufbau principle- Ni= [Ar]4s 2 3d 8 [Kr]5s 0 4d 10 Pd= Pt= [Xe]6s 1 4f 14 5d 9

41 f-block Elements Wedged between the 6 th and 7 th period. Lanthanide are shiny and have similar reactivity as Group II metal. The first 4 actinides are natural, the rest man made.

42 The Trends are looking UP!

43 Periodic Trends There are six trends that we will be looking at: Atomic Radii Ionization Energy Electron Affinity Ionic Radii Valence Electrons Electronegativity

44 Atomic Radii Periodic Trends Measurement between two nuclei of two atoms that are chemically bonded together. ½ of the above distance See the picture.

45 Periodic Trends Atomic nuclei- The trend is a increase from right to left, and from top to bottom. Smallest is He Biggest is Fr The trend is caused by an increase in the positive charge of the nucleus. Draw the trend-

46 Periodic Trends What is up with Al and Ga? What comes before Ga? 3d 10

47 Periodic Trends

48 Periodic Trends Ionization Energy- Removing an electron from an atom. A + energy = A + + e - ( Requires energy) Ion Negative or positived charged atom Energy to remove the 1 st electron-ie 1 Increase from left to right, and from bottom to top Easiest is Fr Hardest is He Draw the trend-

49 Periodic Trends Note: IE 1 compared to IE 2 What Trend do you see?

50 Periodic Trends

51 Periodic Trends Electron Affinity- An electron acquired by a neutral atom. A + e - = A - + energy (Release energy) Cl + e - = Cl - + energy Trend is- Increase from left to right, increases from bottom to top. Group 17 loves electrons Group 1 hates them Group 18 has an electron affinity of 0 Draw the trend-

52 Periodic Trends

53 Periodic Trends Ionic Radii- Atoms that have gained or lost electrons; Cation-lost an electron Na + Ca ++ Anion-gained an electron O - - F - Trend: Hold on! Draw the trend-

54 Periodic Trends

55 Electron Configuration and Periodic Properties Summary i n c r e a s e s increases Ionic Radii Increase Ionic Radii increase as you move diagonally from Fluorine to Francium

56 Periodic Trends Valence electrons- Compounds are formed when: Electrons are lost Electrons are gained Electrons are shared These electrons are called valence electrons.

57 Valence Electrons Group Number Group Configuration # of Valence electrons 1 ns ns ns 2 p ns 2 p ns 2 p ns 2 p ns 2 p ns 2 p 6 8

58 Periodic Trends Electronegativity- Measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons. Most electronegative element (Fluorine) is given a 4 Trend-increases from bottom to top, increases from left to right.

59 Periodic Trends

60 Periodic Trends

61 Periodic Trends

62 Periodic Trends i n c r e a s e s increases Electronegativity Electronegativity increases as you move diagonally from Francium to Fluorine Fluorine-Most electronegative element Francium-Least electronegative element

63 Electron Configuration and Periodic Properties Summary Hints: Metals Nonmetals IE LOW HIGH EN LOW HIGH Metals lose electrons and don t want them Nonmetals gain electrons and want them very much.

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