Periodicity & Many-Electron Atoms

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Periodicity & Many-Electron Atoms"

Transcription

1 Chap. 8 ELECTRON CONFIGURAT N & CEMICAL PERIODICITY Periodicity & Many-Electron Atoms Understand the correlation of electron configuration and the periodic character of atomic properties such as size, ionization energy, and electron affinity Recognize the periodicity of the classification of metals, metalloids, and nonmetals Use electron configuration to predict common chemical and physical properties of the maingroup or representative elements [D. I. Mendeleev] Similar chemical and physical properties recur periodically when elements arranged by atomic mass (now, atomic number) [G. N. Lewis] Chemical behavior is related to electron configuration Electrons generate magnetic fields characteristic of spinning charges: there is a fourth quantum number (spin, m s = +½ or ½) e - e - Many-Electron Atoms: Characteristics [W. Pauli] No 2 electrons can have the same set of 4 quantum numbers (EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE) n = 3 4s 3p Electrostatic and spin interactions cause sublevels to have different energies PENETRATION: Within a level, near-nuclear electron densities affect relative energies of orbitals (s < p < d < f) Energy n = 2 NUCLEAR CARGE (): higher nuclear charge lowers orbital energies n = 1 SIELDING: Inner-orbit electrons shield outer-orbit electrons from nucleus ( = eff ) Penetration: Nuclear charge and shielding: n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 Outer-electron shells expand with increasing innerelectron screening electrons penetrate closer to nucleus than electrons Penetration decreases shielding by electrons, lowering electrons energy relative to that of electrons = 2 = 10 = 18 Inner-electron shells contract with increasing nuclear charge Page 8-1

2 8.3 Quantum-Mechanical Model & Periodicity AUFBAU (Construction) PRINCIPLE: The process of adding electrons to build up an atom s electron configuration [Bohr, Pauli, et al.] = ground-state configuration Orbitals are filled with pairs of electrons having anti-parallel spins ( = different m s ) Energy n = 3 n = 2 4s 3p UNDS RULE: Filling orbitals of equal energy, maximize the number of electrons with parallel spins (same m s ) = unpaired electrons n = 1 Electron configurations relate to to the patterns of of chemical behavior for the elements 2 3 Be 4 B 5 C 6 N 7 O 8 F Orbital Diagram e [] p 6 4s p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 6s 2 4f 14 5d 10 6p 6 See Fig 8.4 p 243 s Within Groups Elements (especially main-group elements) have similar outer electron configurations Elements within a group have similar chemical properties Among main-group elements, the group number = the number of outer electrons O S 2 2 3p 3p 4 4 Se Se 4s 4s 2 2 4p 4p 4 4 Te Te 5s 5s 2 2 5p 5p 4 4 Po Po 6s 6s 2 2 6p 6p p 3p 6 6 r r 4s 4s 2 2 4p 4p 6 6 Xe 5s 5s 2 2 5p 5p 6 6 Rn Rn 6s 6s 2 2 6p 6p 6 6 Categories of Electrons INNER (Core) ELECTRONS: Electrons in filled lower energy levels, closest to nucleus OUTER ELECTRONS: Electrons in the highest energy level, farthest from nucleus Similar outer electron configurations within a group C Si Ge Core Valence [] 2 2 [] 2 3p 2 [] 4s p 2 VALENCE ELECTRONS: Electrons involved in the formation of chemical bonds Main-group elements = outer electrons Transition elements = includes (n 1)d electrons Chemical and physical behavior is is determined by by the number and type(s) of of valence electrons Page 8-2

3 1A 1A 1 2A 2 Main- Group 3 3B 4 5 s block 6 7 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 1B Transition Metals dd block block 3A 4A 5A 7A Main-Group pp block block 1 2A 2 3 3B 4 4s 5 5s 6 7 6s 7s 7s 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 1B 4d 5d 5d 6d 6d 3A 4A 5A 7A 3p 3p 4p 4p 5p 5p 6p 6p Lanthanides (Rare-Earth Metals) ff block block Actinides ff block block 4f 4f 5f 5f Fun exceptions to what Schloman just told you: V Cr Mn Ni Cu Core Valence [] 4s 2 3 [] 4s 1 5 [] 4s 2 5 [] 4s 2 8 [] 4s 1 10 n [] 4s Trends in Atomic Properties ATOMIC SIE r = ½d Cu-Cu r = ½d Cl-Cl IONIATION ENERGY M(g) M + (g) + e E = IE 1, IE 1 > 0 M + (g) M (g) + e E = IE 2, IE 2 >> IE 1 ELECTRON AFFINITY (EA) X(g) + e X (g) E = EA 1 L = r Cl-Cl + r C-C Atomic Size Within group: Atomic radius tends to increase from top to bottom ( ) 200 Within period: Atomic radius tends to decrease from left to right ( ) Function of outermost occupied n and eff (core electron shielding) r, pm r Be Ca B C N O F Al Si P S Cl Ga Ge As Se Br r Page 8-3

4 Ionization Energy Ionization Energy, kj/mol Energy required to remove an electron from ground-state atom Within a group, IE 1 tends to decrease from top to bottom ( ) Within a period, IE 1 tends to increase with eff ( ) IE inner-shell >> IE outer-shell I 1, kj/mol X X + + e - r IE 1 IE 2 IE 3 IE 4 IE Al Si An An atom s inner-shell (core) electrons are too tightly bound to to its its nucleus to to be be either lost or or shared with another atom Electron Affinities 8.5 Atomic Structure & Chemical Reactivity Energy change when an electron is added to an atom Reactive nonmetals (groups, 7A) readily form stable anions (EA << -100) Reactive metals (group 1A) preferentially form cations (-100 < EA 0) Elements with filled sublevels (group ) unreactive (EA 0) EA, kj/mol Be X + e - X - F Cl Be Ca Sc Rb Sr Y Cs Ba La Fr Ra Ac INCREASING NONMETALLIC CARACTER (tendency to GAIN electrons) Ti V Cr Mn r Nb Mo Tc f Ta W Re Ce Pr Nd Th Pa U Fe Co Ni Ru Rh Pd Os Ir Pt Pm Sm Eu Np Pu Am Gd Cm Cu Ag Au Tb Bk n Cd g B C N Al Si P Ga Ge As In Sn Sb Tl Pb Bi Dy o Er Cf Es Fm Tm Yb Lu Md No Lw O F S Cl Se Br r Te I Xe Po At Rn INCREASING METALLIC CARACTER (tendency to LOSE electrons) 1A METALS Form cations isoelectronic with nearest noble gas Form cations in 2 O Oxides: ionic, act as bases in water NONMETALS Form anions isoelectronic with nearest noble gas Form anions, oxyanions in 2 O Oxides: covalent, act as acids in water NOTE: Metalloids, weak metals (Al) form amphoteric oxides that can act as acids or bases O S 2 2 3p 3p 4 4 Se Se 4s 4s 2 2 4p 4p 4 4 7A F +2e e Cl Cl +2e +1e 2 2 3p 3p p 3p 6 6 Br Br +2e +1e 4s 4s 2 2 4p 4p 5 5 4s 4s 2 2 4p 4p 6 6 I 2 2 r r Xe +1e 5s 5s 2 2 5p 5p 5 5 5s 5s 2 2 5p 5p 6 6 2e 2A [] [] 1 1 [] [] 1 1 [] [] 2 2 []4s []4s 1 1 []4s []4s 2 2 Rb Rb [r]5s [r]5s 1 1 Cs Cs Ca Ca Sr Sr [r]5s [r]5s 2 2 Ba Ba [Xe]6s [Xe]6s 1 1 [Xe]6s [Xe]6s 2 2 Page 8-4

5 Monatomic Ions Main-group elements form ions isoelectronic with the nearest noble gas (±3 e ) Transition metal ions rarely have a noble gas configuration 1-1A 1 2A 2 3A 4A 5A A 1- Transition metal ions with unpaired electrons exhibit paramagnetism attraction to an external magnetic field (Cr 3+ ) Transition metal ions with paired electrons exhibit diamagnetism no attraction to (or slight repulsion by) an external magnetic field (La 3+ ) 3 3B B 5B 6B 7B 3+ 8B 3+ 1B Ion Size Cations are smaller than their parent atoms Anions are larger than their parent atoms For ISOELECTRONIC IONS (ions with equal numbers of electrons), size decreases with increasing nuclear charge M M + + Rb + + Rb + X X - F F - Cl Cl - Br Br - I I - Cs Cs + Page 8-5

The Periodic Table. Periodic Properties. Can you explain this graph? Valence Electrons. Valence Electrons. Paramagnetism

The Periodic Table. Periodic Properties. Can you explain this graph? Valence Electrons. Valence Electrons. Paramagnetism Periodic Properties Atomic & Ionic Radius Energy Electron Affinity We want to understand the variations in these properties in terms of electron configurations. The Periodic Table Elements in a column

More information

Made the FIRST periodic table

Made the FIRST periodic table Made the FIRST periodic table 1869 Mendeleev organized the periodic table based on the similar properties and relativities of certain elements Later, Henri Moseley organized the elements by increasing

More information

MANY ELECTRON ATOMS Chapter 15

MANY ELECTRON ATOMS Chapter 15 MANY ELECTRON ATOMS Chapter 15 Electron-Electron Repulsions (15.5-15.9) The hydrogen atom Schrödinger equation is exactly solvable yielding the wavefunctions and orbitals of chemistry. Howev er, the Schrödinger

More information

נושא מס' 8: המבנה האלקטרוני של אטומים. Electronic Structure of Atoms. 1 Prof. Zvi C. Koren

נושא מס' 8: המבנה האלקטרוני של אטומים. Electronic Structure of Atoms. 1 Prof. Zvi C. Koren נושא מס' 8: המבנה האלקטרוני של אטומים Electronic Structure of Atoms 1 Prof. Zvi C. Koren 19.07.10 The Electron Spin From further experiments, it was evident that the e had additional magnetic properties

More information

Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity. Chapter Eight. AP Chemistry

Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity. Chapter Eight. AP Chemistry Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity Chapter Eight AP Chemistry General Review Information about the Periodic Table Organization of the Elements 1869: Dmitri Mendeleev - Published an organizational

More information

9/20/2017. Elements are Pure Substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical change (contain Only One Type of Atom)

9/20/2017. Elements are Pure Substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical change (contain Only One Type of Atom) CAPTER 6: TE PERIODIC TABLE Elements are Pure Substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical change (contain Only One Type of Atom) The Periodic Table (Mendeleev) In 1872, Dmitri

More information

Modified from: Larry Scheffler Lincoln High School IB Chemistry 1-2.1

Modified from: Larry Scheffler Lincoln High School IB Chemistry 1-2.1 Modified from: Larry Scheffler Lincoln High School IB Chemistry 1-2.1 The development of the periodic table brought a system of order to what was otherwise an collection of thousands of pieces of information.

More information

The Periodic Table of Elements

The Periodic Table of Elements The Periodic Table of Elements 8 Uuo Uus Uuh (9) Uup (88) Uuq (89) Uut (8) Uub (8) Rg () 0 Ds (9) 09 Mt (8) 08 Hs (9) 0 h () 0 Sg () 0 Db () 0 Rf () 0 Lr () 88 Ra () 8 Fr () 8 Rn () 8 At (0) 8 Po (09)

More information

Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating

Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Patterns What Patterns have you observed in your life? Where to Get Help If you don t understand concepts in chapter

More information

Using the Periodic Table

Using the Periodic Table MATH SKILLS TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET Using the Periodic Table 6 Use with Chapter 6, Section 6.2 1. Identify the number of valence electrons in each of the following elements. a. Ne e. O b. K f. Cl c. B g.

More information

Advanced Chemistry. Mrs. Klingaman. Chapter 5: Name:

Advanced Chemistry. Mrs. Klingaman. Chapter 5: Name: Advanced Chemistry Mrs. Klingaman Chapter 5: The Periodic Law Name: _ Mods: Chapter 5: The Periodic Law Reading Guide 5.1 History of the Periodic Table (pgs. 125-129) 1) What did Dimitri Mendeleev notice

More information

Ch. 9 NOTES ~ Chemical Bonding NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics.

Ch. 9 NOTES ~ Chemical Bonding NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. Ch. 9 NOTES ~ Chemical Bonding NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. I. Review: Comparison of ionic and molecular compounds Molecular compounds Ionic

More information

Topic 3: Periodicity OBJECTIVES FOR TODAY: Fall in love with the Periodic Table, Interpret trends in atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energies &

Topic 3: Periodicity OBJECTIVES FOR TODAY: Fall in love with the Periodic Table, Interpret trends in atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energies & Topic 3: Periodicity OBJECTIVES FOR TODAY: Fall in love with the Periodic Table, Interpret trends in atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energies & electronegativity The Periodic Table What is the periodic

More information

Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity

Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity The Periodic Table Periodic law (Mendeleev, Meyer, 1870) periodic reoccurrence of similar physical and chemical properties of the elements arranged by increasing

More information

The Periodic Table of the Elements

The Periodic Table of the Elements The Periodic Table of the Elements All matter is composed of elements. All of the elements are composed of atoms. An atom is the smallest part of an element which still retains the properties of that element.

More information

Nucleus. Electron Cloud

Nucleus. Electron Cloud Atomic Structure I. Picture of an Atom Nucleus Electron Cloud II. Subatomic particles Particle Symbol Charge Relative Mass (amu) protons p + +1 1.0073 neutrons n 0 1.0087 electrons e - -1 0.00054858 Compare

More information

ORBITAL DIAGRAM - A graphical representation of the quantum number "map" of electrons around an atom.

ORBITAL DIAGRAM - A graphical representation of the quantum number map of electrons around an atom. 160 ORBITAL DIAGRAM - A graphical representation of the quantum number "map" of electrons around an atom. 4p 3d 4s 3p 3s 2p 2s 1s Each blank represents an ORBITAL, and can hold two electrons. The 4s subshell

More information

Guide to the Extended Step-Pyramid Periodic Table

Guide to the Extended Step-Pyramid Periodic Table Guide to the Extended Step-Pyramid Periodic Table William B. Jensen Department of Chemistry University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, OH 452201-0172 The extended step-pyramid table recognizes that elements

More information

CHEM 10113, Quiz 5 October 26, 2011

CHEM 10113, Quiz 5 October 26, 2011 CHEM 10113, Quiz 5 October 26, 2011 Name (please print) All equations must be balanced and show phases for full credit. Significant figures count, show charges as appropriate, and please box your answers!

More information

A little history. When and How? Sir William Ramsey. ü 12/5/13. ü 1. Who put together the first useable Periodic Table?

A little history. When and How? Sir William Ramsey. ü 12/5/13. ü 1. Who put together the first useable Periodic Table? ü // A little history Johahann Dobereiner (80-89) o Triads John Newlands (8-898) o Law of Octaves Who put together the first useable ic Table? Mendeleev you remember him right? When and How? You know it

More information

Atomic Structure & Interatomic Bonding

Atomic Structure & Interatomic Bonding Atomic Structure & Interatomic Bonding Chapter Outline Review of Atomic Structure Atomic Bonding Atomic Structure Atoms are the smallest structural units of all solids, liquids & gases. Atom: The smallest

More information

Unit 1 Part 2 Atomic Structure and The Periodic Table Introduction to the Periodic Table UNIT 1 ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE

Unit 1 Part 2 Atomic Structure and The Periodic Table Introduction to the Periodic Table UNIT 1 ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE UNIT 1 ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE PART 2 INTRODUCTION TO THE PERIODIC TABLE Contents 1. The Structure of the Periodic Table 2. Trends in the Periodic Table Key words: group, period, block,

More information

lectures accompanying the book: Solid State Physics: An Introduction, by Philip ofmann (2nd edition 2015, ISBN-10: 3527412824, ISBN-13: 978-3527412822, Wiley-VC Berlin. www.philiphofmann.net 1 Bonds between

More information

Atoms and the Periodic Table

Atoms and the Periodic Table Atoms and the Periodic Table Parts of the Atom Proton Found in the nucleus Number of protons defines the element Charge +1, mass 1 Parts of the Atom Neutron Found in the nucleus Stabilizes the nucleus

More information

Solutions and Ions. Pure Substances

Solutions and Ions. Pure Substances Class #4 Solutions and Ions CHEM 107 L.S. Brown Texas A&M University Pure Substances Pure substance: described completely by a single chemical formula Fixed composition 1 Mixtures Combination of 2 or more

More information

DO NOW: Retrieve your projects. We will be reviewing them again today. Textbook pg 23, answer questions 1-3. Use the section 1.2 to help you.

DO NOW: Retrieve your projects. We will be reviewing them again today. Textbook pg 23, answer questions 1-3. Use the section 1.2 to help you. DO NOW: Retrieve your projects. We will be reviewing them again today. Textbook pg, answer questions. Use the section. to help you. Chapter test is FRIDAY. The Periodic Table of Elements 8 Uuo Uus Uuh

More information

CHEM 130 Exp. 8: Molecular Models

CHEM 130 Exp. 8: Molecular Models CHEM 130 Exp. 8: Molecular Models In this lab, we will learn and practice predicting molecular structures from molecular formulas. The Periodic Table of the Elements IA 1 H IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 3 5

More information

-"l" also contributes ENERGY. Higher values for "l" mean the electron has higher energy.

-l also contributes ENERGY. Higher values for l mean the electron has higher energy. 170 - Giving the four parameters will uniquely identify an electron around an atom. No two electrons in the same atom can share all four. These parameters are called QUANTUM NUMBERS. PRINCIPAL QUANTUM

More information

25 Mn Ni Co Rh Fe Ru Os Uns (262) Une (266) 195.

25 Mn Ni Co Rh Fe Ru Os Uns (262) Une (266) 195. 1 Chem 64 Solutions to Problem Set #1, REVIEW 1. AO n l m 1s 1 0 0 2s 2 0 0 2p 2 1 1,0,1 3d 3 2 2, 1,0,1,2 4d 4 2 2, 1,0,1,2 4f 4 3 3, 2, 1,0,1,2,3 2. Penetration relates to the radial probability distribution

More information

Chapter 12 The Atom & Periodic Table- part 2

Chapter 12 The Atom & Periodic Table- part 2 Chapter 12 The Atom & Periodic Table- part 2 Electrons found outside the nucleus; negatively charged Protons found in the nucleus; positive charge equal in magnitude to the electron s negative charge Neutrons

More information

8. Relax and do well.

8. Relax and do well. CHEM 1314 3;30 pm Theory Exam III John III. Gelder November 13, 2002 Name TA's Name Lab Section INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 8 different pages. The last page include a periodic

More information

ORBITAL DIAGRAM - A graphical representation of the quantum number "map" of electrons around an atom.

ORBITAL DIAGRAM - A graphical representation of the quantum number map of electrons around an atom. 178 (MAGNETIC) SPIN QUANTUM NUMBER: "spin down" or "spin up" - An ORBITAL (region with fixed "n", "l" and "ml" values) can hold TWO electrons. ORBITAL DIAGRAM - A graphical representation of the quantum

More information

Atomic Emission Spectra. and. Flame Tests. Burlingame High School Chemistry

Atomic Emission Spectra. and. Flame Tests. Burlingame High School Chemistry Atomic Structure Atomic Emission Spectra and Flame Tests Flame Tests Sodium potassium lithium When electrons are excited they bump up to a higher energy level. As they bounce back down they release energy

More information

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS Useful Constants and equations: K = o C + 273 Avogadro's number = 6.022 x 10 23 d = density = mass/volume R H = 2.178 x 10-18 J c = E = h = hc/ h = 6.626 x 10-34 J s c = 2.998 x 10 8 m/s E n = -R H Z 2

More information

CHEM 172 EXAMINATION 1. January 15, 2009

CHEM 172 EXAMINATION 1. January 15, 2009 CHEM 17 EXAMINATION 1 January 15, 009 Dr. Kimberly M. Broekemeier NAME: Circle lecture time: 9:00 11:00 Constants: c = 3.00 X 10 8 m/s h = 6.63 X 10-34 J x s J = kg x m /s Rydberg Constant = 1.096776 x

More information

Summation of Periodic Trends

Summation of Periodic Trends Summation of Periodic Trends Factors Affecting Atomic Orbital Energies The Effect of Nuclear Charge (Z effective ) Higher nuclear charge lowers orbital energy (stabilizes the system) by increasing nucleus-electron

More information

CLASS TEST GRADE 11. PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Test 4: Matter and materials 1

CLASS TEST GRADE 11. PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Test 4: Matter and materials 1 CLASS TEST GRADE PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Test 4: Matter and materials MARKS: 45 TIME: hour INSTRUCTIONS AND INFORMATION. Answer ALL the questions. 2. You may use non-programmable calculators. 3. You

More information

Chapter 7 Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table

Chapter 7 Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table Chapter 7 Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1 7.1 Development of the Periodic Table 1864 - John Newlands - Law of Octaves- every 8th element had similar properties

More information

Summation of Periodic Trends Factors Affecting Atomic Orbital Energies

Summation of Periodic Trends Factors Affecting Atomic Orbital Energies Summation of Periodic Trends Factors Affecting Atomic Orbital Energies The Effect of Nuclear Charge (Z effective ) Higher nuclear charge lowers orbital energy (stabilizes the system) by increasing nucleus-electron

More information

All chemical bonding is based on the following relationships of electrostatics: 2. Each period on the periodic table

All chemical bonding is based on the following relationships of electrostatics: 2. Each period on the periodic table UNIT VIII ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE 25 E. Chemical Bonding 1. An ELECTROSTATIC FORCE is All chemical bonding is based on the following relationships of electrostatics: The greater the distance between

More information

The Periodic Law Notes (Chapter 5)

The Periodic Law Notes (Chapter 5) The Periodic Law Notes (Chapter 5) I. History of the Periodic Table About 70 elements were known by 1850 (no noble gases) but there didn t appear to be a good way of arranging or relating them to study.

More information

PART CHAPTER2. Atomic Bonding

PART CHAPTER2. Atomic Bonding PART O N E APTER2 Atomic Bonding The scanning tunneling microscope (Section 4.7) allows the imaging of individual atoms bonded to a material surface. In this case, the microscope was also used to manipulate

More information

BROOKLYN COLLEGE Department of Chemistry. Chemistry 1 Second Lecture Exam Nov. 27, Name Page 1 of 5

BROOKLYN COLLEGE Department of Chemistry. Chemistry 1 Second Lecture Exam Nov. 27, Name Page 1 of 5 BROOKLYN COLLEGE Department of Chemistry Chemistry 1 Second Lecture Exam Nov. 27, 2002 Name Page 1 of 5 Circle the name of your lab instructor Kobrak, Zhou, Girotto, Hussey, Du Before you begin the exam,

More information

What is the periodic table?

What is the periodic table? The periodic table of the elements represents one of the greatest discoveries in the history of science that certain elements, the basic chemical substances from which all matter is made, resemble each

More information

Lab Day and Time: Instructions. 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start.

Lab Day and Time: Instructions. 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start. Name: Lab Day and Time: Instructions 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start. 2. This exam is closed note and closed book. You are not allowed to use any outside material while taking this

More information

Chapter 7 Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table

Chapter 7 Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table Chapter 7 Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1 7.1 Development of the Periodic Table 1864 - John Newlands - Law of Octaves- every 8 th element had similar properties

More information

-"l" also contributes ENERGY. Higher values for "l" mean the electron has higher energy.

-l also contributes ENERGY. Higher values for l mean the electron has higher energy. 175 - Giving the four parameters will uniquely identify an electron around an atom. No two electrons in the same atom can share all four. These parameters are called QUANTUM NUMBERS. PRINCIPAL QUANTUM

More information

8.1 Early Periodic Tables CHAPTER 8. Modern Periodic Table. Mendeleev s 1871 Table

8.1 Early Periodic Tables CHAPTER 8. Modern Periodic Table. Mendeleev s 1871 Table 8.1 Early Periodic Tables CHAPTER 8 Periodic Relationships Among the Elements 1772: de Morveau table of chemically simple substances 1803: Dalton atomic theory, simple table of atomic masses 1817: Döbreiner's

More information

8. Relax and do well.

8. Relax and do well. CHEM 1225 Exam I John I. Gelder February 4, 1999 Name KEY TA's Name Lab Section Please sign your name below to give permission to post your course scores on homework, laboratories and exams. If you do

More information

Earth Materials I Crystal Structures

Earth Materials I Crystal Structures Earth Materials I Crystal Structures Isotopes same atomic number, different numbers of neutrons, different atomic mass. Ta ble 1-1. Su mmar y of quantu m num bers Name Symbol Values Principal n 1, 2,

More information

Chapter 10: Modern Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table. How does atomic structure relate to the periodic table? 10.1 Electromagnetic Radiation

Chapter 10: Modern Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table. How does atomic structure relate to the periodic table? 10.1 Electromagnetic Radiation Chapter 10: Modern Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table How does atomic structure relate to the periodic table? 10.1 Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic (EM) radiation is a form of energy that exhibits

More information

NAME: FIRST EXAMINATION

NAME: FIRST EXAMINATION 1 Chemistry 64 Winter 1994 NAME: FIRST EXAMINATION THIS EXAMINATION IS WORTH 100 POINTS AND CONTAINS 4 (FOUR) QUESTIONS THEY ARE NOT EQUALLY WEIGHTED! YOU SHOULD ATTEMPT ALL QUESTIONS AND ALLOCATE YOUR

More information

If anything confuses you or is not clear, raise your hand and ask!

If anything confuses you or is not clear, raise your hand and ask! CHM 1045 Dr. Light s Section December 10, 2002 FINAL EXAM Name (please print) Recitation Section Meeting Time This exam consists of six pages. Make sure you have one of each. Print your name at the top

More information

Chapter 7. Generally, the electronic structure of atoms correlates w. the prop. of the elements

Chapter 7. Generally, the electronic structure of atoms correlates w. the prop. of the elements Chapter 7 Periodic Properties of the Elements I) Development of the P.T. Generally, the electronic structure of atoms correlates w. the prop. of the elements - reflected by the arrangement of the elements

More information

DEVELOPMENT OF THE PERIODIC TABLE

DEVELOPMENT OF THE PERIODIC TABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PERIODIC TABLE Prior to the 1700s, relatively few element were known, and consisted mostly of metals used for coinage, jewelry and weapons. From early 1700s to mid-1800s, chemists discovered

More information

Chapter 7. Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table

Chapter 7. Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table Chapter 7 Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table Topics Development of the periodic table The modern periodic table Effective nuclear charge Periodic trends in properties of elements Electron configuration

More information

SCIENCE 1206 UNIT 2 CHEMISTRY. September 2017 November 2017

SCIENCE 1206 UNIT 2 CHEMISTRY. September 2017 November 2017 SCIENCE 1206 UNIT 2 CHEMISTRY September 2017 November 2017 UNIT OUTLINE 1. Review of Grade 9 Terms & the Periodic Table Bohr diagrams Evidence for chemical reactions Chemical Tests 2. Naming & writing

More information

Last 4 Digits of USC ID:

Last 4 Digits of USC ID: Chemistry 05 B Practice Exam Dr. Jessica Parr First Letter of last Name PLEASE PRINT YOUR NAME IN BLOCK LETTERS Name: Last 4 Digits of USC ID: Lab TA s Name: Question Points Score Grader 8 2 4 3 9 4 0

More information

Chapter 8. Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity 10/17/ Development of the Periodic Table

Chapter 8. Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity 10/17/ Development of the Periodic Table Chapter 8 Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity 8-1 Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity 8.1 Development of the Periodic Table 8.2 Characteristics of Many-Electron Atoms 8.3 The Quantum-Mechanical

More information

CHEM Come to the PASS workshop with your mock exam complete. During the workshop you can work with other students to review your work.

CHEM Come to the PASS workshop with your mock exam complete. During the workshop you can work with other students to review your work. It is most beneficial to you to write this mock midterm UNDER EXAM CONDITIONS. This means: Complete the midterm in 1.5 hours. Work on your own. Keep your notes and textbook closed. Attempt every question.

More information

7. Relax and do well.

7. Relax and do well. CHEM 1014 Exam III John III. Gelder November 18, 1999 Name TA's Name Lab Section INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 7 different pages. The last page includes a periodic table and

More information

INSTRUCTIONS: 7. Relax and do well.

INSTRUCTIONS: 7. Relax and do well. EM 1314 Name Exam III TA Name John III. Gelder November 16, 1992 Lab Section INSTRUTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 7 different pages. The last page includes a periodic table and some

More information

K. 27 Co. 28 Ni. 29 Cu Rb. 46 Pd. 45 Rh. 47 Ag Cs Ir. 78 Pt.

K. 27 Co. 28 Ni. 29 Cu Rb. 46 Pd. 45 Rh. 47 Ag Cs Ir. 78 Pt. 1 IA 1 H Hydrogen 1.01 Atomic number Element symbol Element name Atomic mass VIIIA 1 H 1.01 IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 2 He 4.00 Metalloids 3 Li 6.94 4 Be 9.01 5 B 10.81 6 C 12.01 7 N 14.01 8 O 16.00 9 F

More information

Marks for each question are as indicated in [] brackets.

Marks for each question are as indicated in [] brackets. Name Student Number CHEMISTRY 140 FINAL EXAM December 10, 2002 Numerical answers must be given with appropriate units and significant figures. Please place all answers in the space provided for the question.

More information

- Atomic line spectra are UNIQUE to each element. They're like atomic "fingerprints".

- Atomic line spectra are UNIQUE to each element. They're like atomic fingerprints. - Atomic line spectra are UNIQUE to each element. They're like atomic "fingerprints". - Problem was that the current model of the atom completely failed to explain why atoms emitted these lines. An orbit

More information

1. Following Dalton s Atomic Theory, 2. In 1869 Russian chemist published a method. of organizing the elements. Mendeleev showed that

1. Following Dalton s Atomic Theory, 2. In 1869 Russian chemist published a method. of organizing the elements. Mendeleev showed that 20 CHEMISTRY 11 D. Organizing the Elements The Periodic Table 1. Following Dalton s Atomic Theory, By 1817, chemists had discovered 52 elements and by 1863 that number had risen to 62. 2. In 1869 Russian

More information

Chapter 8: Periodic Relationships Among the Elements

Chapter 8: Periodic Relationships Among the Elements 10/25 Chapter 8: Periodic Relationships Among the Elements Development of the Periodic Table Early chemists: chemical properties related to atomic mass Newlands: Law of octaves >Didn t work past Ca Mendeleev

More information

(C) Pavel Sedach and Prep101 1

(C) Pavel Sedach and Prep101 1 (C) Pavel Sedach and Prep101 1 (C) Pavel Sedach and Prep101 1 (C) Pavel Sedach and Prep101 2 (C) Pavel Sedach and Prep101 2 (C) Pavel Sedach and Prep101 3 (C) Pavel Sedach and Prep101 3 (C) Pavel Sedach

More information

Element Cube Project (x2)

Element Cube Project (x2) Element Cube Project (x2) Background: As a class, we will construct a three dimensional periodic table by each student selecting two elements in which you will need to create an element cube. Helpful Links

More information

Professor K. Section 8 Electron Configuration Periodic Table

Professor K. Section 8 Electron Configuration Periodic Table Professor K Section 8 Electron Configuration Periodic Table Schrödinger Cannot be solved for multielectron atoms We must assume the orbitals are all hydrogen-like Differences In the H atom, all subshells

More information

Instructions. 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start.

Instructions. 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start. Name: Lab Day and Time: Instructions 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start. 2. This exam is closed note and closed book. You are not allowed to use any outside material while taking this

More information

2011 CHEM 120: CHEMICAL REACTIVITY

2011 CHEM 120: CHEMICAL REACTIVITY 2011 CHEM 120: CHEMICAL REACTIVITY INORGANIC CHEMISTRY SECTION Lecturer: Dr. M.D. Bala Textbook by Petrucci, Harwood, Herring and Madura 15 Lectures (4/10-29/10) 3 Tutorials 1 Quiz 1 Take-home test https://chemintra.ukzn.ac.za/

More information

Essential Chemistry for Biology

Essential Chemistry for Biology 1 Chapter 2 Essential Chemistry for Biology Biology and Society: More Precious than Gold A drought is a period of abnormally dry weather that changes the environment and one of the most devastating disasters.

More information

7. Relax and do well.

7. Relax and do well. CHEM 1215 Exam II John II. Gelder October 7, 1998 Name TA's Name Lab Section INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 5 different pages. The last page includes a periodic table and a solubility

More information

6.3 Classifying Elements with the Periodic Table

6.3 Classifying Elements with the Periodic Table 6.3 Classifying Elements with the Periodic Table The Periodic Table was developed by scientists to organize elements in such a way as to make sense of the growing information about their properties. The

More information

(FIRST) IONIZATION ENERGY

(FIRST) IONIZATION ENERGY 181 (FIRST) IONIZATION ENERGY - The amount of energy required to remove a single electron from the outer shell of an atom. - Relates to reactivity for metals. The easier it is to remove an electron, the

More information

Name Unit 4: Periodic Table Period. Unit 4 Vocabulary.Due Test Day

Name Unit 4: Periodic Table Period. Unit 4 Vocabulary.Due Test Day Name Unit 4: Periodic Table Period 1. History and Language of the Periodic Table 2. Identifying PROPERTIES OF METALS, METALLOIDS, & NONMETALS 3. Identifying GROUP PROPERTIES 4. Classifying elements 5.

More information

Speed of light c = m/s. x n e a x d x = 1. 2 n+1 a n π a. He Li Ne Na Ar K Ni 58.

Speed of light c = m/s. x n e a x d x = 1. 2 n+1 a n π a. He Li Ne Na Ar K Ni 58. Physical Chemistry II Test Name: KEY CHEM 464 Spring 18 Chapters 7-11 Average = 1. / 16 6 questions worth a total of 16 points Planck's constant h = 6.63 1-34 J s Speed of light c = 3. 1 8 m/s ħ = h π

More information

Chapter 7 The Structure of Atoms and Periodic Trends

Chapter 7 The Structure of Atoms and Periodic Trends Chapter 7 The Structure of Atoms and Periodic Trends Jeffrey Mack California State University, Sacramento Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms Electrons in atoms are arranged as SHELLS (n) SUBSHELLS (l) ORBITALS

More information

- Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table.

- Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table. 179 PERIODIC TRENDS - Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table. ATOMIC RADIUS - The distance between the nucleus of the atoms and the outermost shell of the electron

More information

Radiometric Dating (tap anywhere)

Radiometric Dating (tap anywhere) Radiometric Dating (tap anywhere) Protons Neutrons Electrons Elements on the periodic table are STABLE Elements can have radioactive versions of itself called ISOTOPES!! Page 1 in your ESRT has your list!

More information

Periodic Relationships Among the Elements

Periodic Relationships Among the Elements Periodic Relationships Among the Elements Chapter 8 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Mendeleev s Periodic Table "...if all the elements be arranged

More information

Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table

Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table The periodic table can be used as a guide for electron configurations. The period number is the value of n. Groups 1A and 2A have the s-orbital filled. Groups

More information

K. 27 Co. 28 Ni. 29 Cu Rb. 46 Pd. 45 Rh. 47 Ag Cs Ir. 78 Pt.

K. 27 Co. 28 Ni. 29 Cu Rb. 46 Pd. 45 Rh. 47 Ag Cs Ir. 78 Pt. 1 IA 1 ydrogen 1.01 Atomic number Element symbol Element name Atomic mass VIIIA 1 1.01 IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 2 e 4.00 Metalloids 3 Li 6.94 4 Be 9.01 5 B 10.81 6 C 12.01 7 N 14.01 8 O 16.00 9 F 19.00

More information

M11/4/CHEMI/SPM/ENG/TZ2/XX CHEMISTRY STANDARD LEVEL PAPER 1. Monday 9 May 2011 (afternoon) 45 minutes INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

M11/4/CHEMI/SPM/ENG/TZ2/XX CHEMISTRY STANDARD LEVEL PAPER 1. Monday 9 May 2011 (afternoon) 45 minutes INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES M11/4/CHEMI/SPM/ENG/TZ/XX 116116 CHEMISTRY STANDARD LEVEL PAPER 1 Monday 9 May 011 (afternoon) 45 minutes INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES Do not open this examination paper until instructed to do so. Answer

More information

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS 48 CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS - Dalton's theory does not mention this, but there is more than one way for atoms to come together to make chemical compounds! - There are TWO common kinds of chemical compound, classified

More information

CHEMISTRY. Chapter 8 The Quantum Mechanical Atom. The Molecular Nature of Matter. Jespersen Brady Hyslop SIXTH EDITION

CHEMISTRY. Chapter 8 The Quantum Mechanical Atom. The Molecular Nature of Matter. Jespersen Brady Hyslop SIXTH EDITION CHEMISTRY The Molecular Nature of Matter SIXTH EDITION Jespersen Brady Hyslop Chapter 8 The Quantum Mechanical Atom Copyright 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The nature of Light Electromagnetic Radiation

More information

(please print) (1) (18) H IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA He (2) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17)

(please print) (1) (18) H IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA He (2) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) CHEM 10113, Quiz 3 September 28, 2011 Name (please print) All equations must be balanced and show phases for full credit. Significant figures count, show charges as appropriate, and please box your answers!

More information

CHEM 172 EXAMINATION 2. February 12, Dr. Kimberly M. Broekemeier NAME: l = 2r l = 8 1/2 r l = (4/3 1/2 )r. h = 6.

CHEM 172 EXAMINATION 2. February 12, Dr. Kimberly M. Broekemeier NAME: l = 2r l = 8 1/2 r l = (4/3 1/2 )r. h = 6. EM 17 EXAMINATION February 1, 009 Dr. Kimberly M. Broekemeier NAME: P 1 1 P1 R T T1 ln = - ( - ) l = r l = 8 1/ r l = (4/3 1/ )r onstants: c = 3.00 X 10 8 m/s h = 6.63 X 10-34 J x s R = 0.0806 L x atm/mol

More information

CHM 101 PRACTICE TEST 1 Page 1 of 4

CHM 101 PRACTICE TEST 1 Page 1 of 4 CHM 101 PRACTICE TEST 1 Page 1 of 4 Please show calculations (stuffed equations) on all mathematical problems!! On the actual test, "naked answers, with no work shown, will receive no credit even if correct.

More information

The exam must be written in ink. No calculators of any sort allowed. You have 2 hours to complete the exam. Periodic table 7 0

The exam must be written in ink. No calculators of any sort allowed. You have 2 hours to complete the exam. Periodic table 7 0 Email: The exam must be written in ink. No calculators of any sort allowed. You have 2 hours to complete the exam. CEM 610B Exam 3 Spring 2002 Instructor: Dr. Brian Pagenkopf Page Points 2 6 3 7 4 9 5

More information

Circle the letters only. NO ANSWERS in the Columns!

Circle the letters only. NO ANSWERS in the Columns! Chemistry 1304.001 Name (please print) Exam 5 (100 points) April 18, 2018 On my honor, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this exam. Signed Date Circle the letters only. NO ANSWERS in

More information

8. Relax and do well.

8. Relax and do well. CHEM 1515 Exam II John II. Gelder October 14, 1993 Name TA's Name Lab Section INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 8 different pages. The last two pages include a periodic table, a

More information

Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity

Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity 8-1 Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity 1 Development of the Periodic Table 2 Characteristics of Many-Electron Atoms 3 The Quantum-Mechanical

More information

Mendeleev s Periodic Law

Mendeleev s Periodic Law Mendeleev s Periodic Law Periodic Law When the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic mass, certain sets of properties recur periodically. Mendeleev s Periodic Law allows us to predict what

More information

Metallurgical Chemistry. An Audio Course for Students

Metallurgical Chemistry. An Audio Course for Students Laval University From the SelectedWorks of Fathi Habashi February, 1987 Metallurgical Chemistry. An Audio Course for Students Fathi Habashi Available at: https://works.bepress.com/fathi_habashi/27/ METALLURGICAL

More information

HANDOUT SET GENERAL CHEMISTRY I

HANDOUT SET GENERAL CHEMISTRY I HANDOUT SET GENERAL CHEMISTRY I Periodic Table of the Elements 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 IA VIIIA 1 2 H He 1.00794 IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 4.00262 3 Li 6.941 11 Na 22.9898

More information

Lecture 6 - Bonding in Crystals

Lecture 6 - Bonding in Crystals Lecture 6 onding in Crystals inding in Crystals (Kittel Ch. 3) inding of atoms to form crystals A crystal is a repeated array of atoms Why do they form? What are characteristic bonding mechanisms? How

More information

Chemistry 1 Second Lecture Exam Fall Abbasi Khajo Kruft Levine Mathias Mathias/Ortiz Metlitsky Rahi Sanchez-Delgado Vasserman

Chemistry 1 Second Lecture Exam Fall Abbasi Khajo Kruft Levine Mathias Mathias/Ortiz Metlitsky Rahi Sanchez-Delgado Vasserman Page 1 of 9 Chemistry 1 Second Lecture Exam Fall 2011 Name Circle the name of your recitation/lab instructor(s) Abbasi Khajo Kruft Levine Mathias Mathias/Ortiz Metlitsky Rahi Sanchez-Delgado Vasserman

More information

02/05/09 Last 4 Digits of USC ID: Dr. Jessica Parr

02/05/09 Last 4 Digits of USC ID: Dr. Jessica Parr Chemistry 05 B First Letter of PLEASE PRINT YOUR NAME IN BLOCK LETTERS Exam last Name Name: 02/05/09 Last 4 Digits of USC ID: Dr. Jessica Parr Lab TA s Name: Question Points Score Grader 2 2 9 3 9 4 2

More information