Plant Population Growth Lab

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Plant Population Growth Lab"

Transcription

1 Plant Population Growth Lab BIOL 220M Pennsylvania State University Jacob Cohen 4/15/2013

2 Cohen 1 Introduction: In nature, everything is connected; all natural processes and organisms are intrinsically linked. This is especially true for aquatic environments which are generally more fragile than terrestrial environments. Aquatic environments are generally full of plants, animals, and microorganisms and can be some of the most diverse environments on earth. This also means that it is easier to disrupt the balance of these environments. Recently, the most imminent threat to aquatic environments is pollution, and more specifically, pollution from the fertilizers used on large scale farms and agricultural sites. This uncontrolled stream of fertilizers, nitrogen and phosphorus being the two most problematic chemicals, causes major problems in water systems by encouraging algal blooms. These algal blooms consume all the oxygen in the water, killing off almost all other organisms inhabiting the immediate area of the algal bloom. This is a serious issue because algal blooms are becoming much more prevalent across the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (the water system that includes Central Pennsylvania). 1 One way to remove these excess nutrients from the environment is through the use of special types of plants. 2 In the case of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, two specific plants are being used: Lemna minor and Salvinia minima. To effectively use these plants, scientists must introduce them to polluted areas where they would take up the excess nutrients. The plants would then be collected and turned back into fertilizer. This process is known as phytoremediation. 1 The purpose of the following investigation is to answer a number of questions about how effective the introduction of Salvinia and Lemna would be. It is already known that Lemna minor and Salvinia minima take up extra nutrients in the water and incorporate them into their tissues. However, this investigation aims to answer questions such as how the amount of nutrients affects the growth of the plants and how the plants grow in competition with each other. Once these

3 Cohen 2 questions are answered, scientists will be able to more accurately and quickly soak up excess nutrients in aquatic environments. For the rest of this report, there will be a focus on answering the second question presented: how the two types of plants grow in competition with each other. It is hypothesized that Salvinia minima will be able to out-compete Lemna minor because Salvinia minima plants are physically larger and will be able to take over the space in the cups faster. This will leave no space for the Lemna minor to absorb the necessary amount of sunlight for the photosynthesis necessary to survive. Materials and Methods: This experiment is one took multiple weeks to complete; however, setting it up took less than an hour. The set up differs slightly, depending upon what experiments are being conducted. However, in all cases, plants were added to 10 oz. plastic containers full of artificial pond water. It was the number and species of plant that differed. In this case, there were two containers, both filled with Salvinia minima. One container had twelve individual plants and the other had twenty-four, these two containers were considered the control and the results of their population growth were compared with the results of other experiments. The second experiment that needs to be set up measured the effects of competition between the two species. This experiment had three containers each filled with twelve individual plants of Salvinia and twelve Lemna plants. When the plants were being removed from the stock culture and placed in the individual cups, it was necessary to be careful that no Lemna was sticking to the Salvinia so that the correct number of plants were placed in the containers. Therefore, the Salvinia plants were all dunked in another dish of water to remove any excess Lemna. For Salvinia, an individual plant generally consists of more than one leaf, but after adding the plants to the containers, it is necessary to count the

4 Thalli Cohen 3 number of individual leaves, also known as thalli, so that the data can be used later on. When this was complete, the containers were taken to the greenhouse so that the plants could continue to grow in a controlled environment. It was necessary to add new water to the containers every few days to make sure that the plants did not dry out. It was also essential to change containers quite regularly to prevent the build-up of algae which could have out-competed both the Salvinia and Lemna, leaving no data for collection. For the next four weeks, the thalli of the plants in the containers were counted weekly (every Monday) for data collection. Results: Table 1 Number of Salvinia thalli present after each week. Week 1 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 (Salvinia) Salvinia Monoculture (12) Salvinia Monoculture (24) Thalli vs. Time Time (in weeks) (Salvinia) Salvinia Monculture (12) Salvinia Monculture (24) Figure 1 Comparison of the number of thalli in the containers. The table and graph above illustrate the difference in the growth patterns of the containers. It should be noted that the number of thalli for the Salvinia Monoculture (12)

5 Natural log of Thalli Cohen 4 container and (Salvinia) containers are almost exactly the same, with the former being slightly greater. Natural log of Thalli vs Time y = 0.597x R² = y = x R² = Time (in weeks) Monoculture 12 Monoculture 24 Linear (Monoculture 12) Linear (Monoculture 12) Figure 2 The natural log of the number of thalli plotted against time. This graph helps us find r max, or the maximum rate of increase for a population. This is simply the slope of the two curves plotted. In the case of Monoculture 12, r max = and for Monoculture 24, r max = From this data we see that the maximum rate of increase for Monoculture 12 is greater than that of Monoculture 24. Table 2 The growth rates (λ) of every experiment for each week. Week 1 Week 3 Week Salvinia Monoculture Salvinia Monoculture

6 Growth Rate Cohen Growth Rate vs. Thalli Monoculture 12 y = x Monoculture 24 y = x y = x Thalli Linear (Monoculture 12) Linear (Monoculture 24) Linear (Salvinia Competition) Figure 3 A comparison of the three experiments and their λs. Table 3 The carrying capacities of the three experiments. Carrying Capacity 598 Salvinia Monoculture Salvinia Monoculture Using the growth rates of the individual experiments we are able to find equations for the lines of λ vs. Time. These can be used to find the carrying capacity by solving for y=1. In this case, the carrying capacity for all three is similar but the and Salvinia Monoculture 12 are almost identical. Table 4 The degree of competition between Salvinia Monoculture 12 and Salvinia Competition. Week 1 Week 3 Week 4 Degree of Competition The degree of competition was found by taking λ monoculture λ competition. For every week the degree of competition is extremely close to 0, meaning that the growth curves and λ vs. time curves are very similar.

7 Number of Thalli Cohen 6 Table 5 Average thalli number of Salvinia and Lemna per week (Lemna) (Salvinia) Thalli vs. Time Time (in weeks) (Lemna) (Salvinia) Figure 4 Comparison of the average number of thalli per week of each species when grown together. There was no data collected for the number of Lemna thalli for week 3, so the number was found by using Microsoft Excel to find the exponential equation of best fit: and plugging in x = 3. Using this data, we will be able to find the growth rates of each species when they are grown together. Table 6 The weekly growth rates of each species when grown in competition (Lemna) (Salvinia)

8 Growth Rate Cohen 7 Growth Rate vs. Thalli y = x y = x Number of Thalli (Lemna) (Salvinia) Linear (Salvinia Competition (Lemna)) Linear (Salvinia Competition (Salvinia)) Figure 5 Plot of the weekly growth rates of each species grown in competition. Table 7 The carrying capacity of each species when grown in competition. Carrying Capacity (Salvinia) 598 (Lemna) 60 The growth rate of Salvinia is significantly larger than that of Lemna. Likewise, the carrying capacity of Salvinia is almost ten times larger than the carrying capacity of Lemna. Discussion: The results suggest that there is no significant influence on the growth of Salvinia when it is competing with Lemna. When the growth curves for and Salvinia Monoculture 12 are compared, there is almost no discernible difference. The same can be said whenever the data from and Salvinia Monoculture 12 are compared. In fact their carrying capacities differ by only five thalli, an almost irrelevant difference. The close correlation between these two sets of data suggests that there is no competition between Salvinia and Lemna because Salvinia grown with Lemna is able to grow as if the Lemna were not present at all. This means that Salvinia completely out-competed Lemna. This finding is supported by the

9 Cohen 8 results of other experiments done by another group of students who were studying what happens to Lemna when it is in competition with Salvinia. This conclusion suggests that it is unnecessary and pointless to use both Salvinia and Lemna in the same body of water for phytoremediation, as the Salvinia would simply outcompete the Lemna to the point where there was only Salvinia present in the water. This would defeat the purpose of putting both species in the affected water in the first place. There were four other experiments performed to explore the effects of excess nutrients on each species. The results from these experiments show that there is no effect upon the growth of Salvinia or Lemna when nitrogen was added. When phosphorus was added, Salvinia experienced an increase of 30% in r, but Lemna showed no increase in r. These results lead to the conclusion that when there is excess nitrogen in a freshwater system, either Salvinia or Lemna can be used to absorb the nutrient because neither plant will grow faster or have a higher r max value. However, when there is excess phosphorus in the environment, Salvinia should be used to take in the extra nutrients because it experiences a 30% increase in r while Lemna experiences no increase in r. This mean that if Salvinia is used it will be significantly more effective at soaking up the excess phosphorus. Research performed by B. D. Tripathi and Suresh C. Shukla has showed us that using plants as phytoremediators is both cheap and effective. 3 Further research done by K.R. Reddy and W. F. De Busk has showed how effective specific plants are as phytoremediators. Their study included both a species of Salvinia and Lemna, and found that Lemna was able to take up more nitrogen and phosphorus than Salvinia. 4 This research suggests that instead of Salvinia, Lemna should be used to soak up excess nutrients from aquatic environments.

10 Cohen 9 To test whether or not this research is useful for practical purposes, more experiments could be done in the field. These experiments would use a much larger sample size to see if the results are similar to those found using small-scale experimental techniques. Other experiments could be done to find the amount of nutrients soaked up by the plants before they are unable to take up any more. There are many different directions in which this research can be taken and the more that is learned, the better we will be able to understand the aquatic systems that we depend upon for sustenance. References: 1. Hass C, Burpee D. (2013) A Preliminary Study of the Effects of Excess Nutrients and Interspecies Competition on Population Growth of Lemna minor and Salvinia minima. Penn State Department of Biology Laboratory Manual. 2. Sharma, H. K. et al (2011). Removal of contaminants using plants: A review. Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research, 1: B. D. Tripathi & Suresh C. Shukla. (1991). Biological Treatment of Wastewater by Selected Aquatic Plants. Environmental Pollution, 69: Reddy, I.R., and DeBusk, W.F. (1985). Nutrient removal potential of selected aquatic macrophytes. Journal of Environmental Quality, 14:

A Level. A Level Biology. AQA, OCR, Edexcel. Photosynthesis, Respiration Succession and Nutrient Cycle Questions. Name: Total Marks: Page 1

A Level. A Level Biology. AQA, OCR, Edexcel. Photosynthesis, Respiration Succession and Nutrient Cycle Questions. Name: Total Marks: Page 1 AQA, OCR, Edexcel A Level A Level Biology Photosynthesis, Respiration Succession and Nutrient Cycle Questions Name: Total Marks: Page 1 Q1. The diagram shows the energy flow through a freshwater ecosystem.

More information

GREEN LIFE. Plants and Photosynthesis W 398

GREEN LIFE. Plants and Photosynthesis W 398 W 398 GREEN LIFE Plants and Photosynthesis Savannah Webb, Former 4-H Extension Agent, Maury County Jennifer Richards, Assistant Professor, 4-H Youth Development MANAGEMENT OF APHIDS AND BYD IN TENNESSEE

More information

Plant Biology. 2. Explain why energy is lost between each trophic level (triple only).

Plant Biology. 2. Explain why energy is lost between each trophic level (triple only). 1. Calculate the % of energy lost between each level. A-B = B-C = C-D = 80%+ Describe quantitatively the proportion of energy transferred between trophic levels and use this to calculate efficiency (triple

More information

Chapter 4 AND 5 Practice

Chapter 4 AND 5 Practice Name: Chapter 4 AND 5 Practice 1. Events that occur in four different ecosystems are shown in the chart below. Which ecosystem would most likely require the most time for ecological succession to restore

More information

Material cycles and energy: photosynthesis

Material cycles and energy: photosynthesis 7 Material cycles and energy: photosynthesis Remember: Plants are living organisms and can carry out all the life processes. Plants must be able to make foods. The foods provide raw materials for growth

More information

Ecology 3/15/2017. Today. Autotrophs. Writing Assignment: What does it mean. Last readings on Chlamydomonas populations

Ecology 3/15/2017. Today. Autotrophs. Writing Assignment: What does it mean. Last readings on Chlamydomonas populations Chlorophyll measured in this assay is an indicator of algae levels University College Campus Bayou Average Spring 2008 Fall 2008 0.07 0.12 0.10 0.04 Spring 2009 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.02 2009 0.05 0.07 0.12

More information

3 Describe the change in the two populations between days 0 and 8. [1]

3 Describe the change in the two populations between days 0 and 8. [1] Name: Date: Beach Channel High School Graphing and Interperting Data January 2005 Base your answers to questions 1 through 4 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology. A

More information

Name Block Date. The Quadrat Study: An Introduction

Name Block Date. The Quadrat Study: An Introduction Name Block Date The Quadrat Study: An Introduction A quadrat study can almost be thought of as a snapshot of the ecosystem during a particular year and at a particular time of that year. The plant and

More information

Teacher s Discussion Notes Part 1

Teacher s Discussion Notes Part 1 Teacher s Discussion Notes Part 1 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Vocabulary: Chlorophyll--A green substance which gives leaves their color. Chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight, which a plant uses to make food. Chloroplast--A

More information

Chapter 6 Population and Community Ecology

Chapter 6 Population and Community Ecology Chapter 6 Population and Community Ecology Friedland and Relyea Environmental Science for AP, second edition 2015 W.H. Freeman and Company/BFW AP is a trademark registered and/or owned by the College Board,

More information

Project. Aim: How does energy flow in Arctic and Antarctic ecosystems? Explore. The four food webs are:

Project. Aim: How does energy flow in Arctic and Antarctic ecosystems? Explore. The four food webs are: Name: Date: Aim: How does energy flow in Arctic and Antarctic ecosystems? Explore The four food webs are: o Antarctic Marine Food Web o Arctic Marine Food Web o Tundra Land Food Web o Tundra Freshwater

More information

Ontario Science Curriculum Grade 9 Academic

Ontario Science Curriculum Grade 9 Academic Grade 9 Academic Use this title as a reference tool. SCIENCE Reproduction describe cell division, including mitosis, as part of the cell cycle, including the roles of the nucleus, cell membrane, and organelles

More information

Photosynthesis: How do plants get engery? Teacher Version

Photosynthesis: How do plants get engery? Teacher Version Photosynthesis: How do plants get engery? Teacher Version In this lab, students explore the process of photosynthesis in spinach leaves. As oxygen is produced, the density of the leaves change and they

More information

Ecology Test Biology Honors

Ecology Test Biology Honors Do Not Write On Test Ecology Test Biology Honors Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The study of the interaction of living organisms with

More information

Regression I - the least squares line

Regression I - the least squares line Regression I - the least squares line The difference between correlation and regression. Correlation describes the relationship between two variables, where neither variable is independent or used to predict.

More information

Successional changes of algae as toxicity indices in an induced semi-natural crude oil/dispersant contaminated aquatic ecosystem

Successional changes of algae as toxicity indices in an induced semi-natural crude oil/dispersant contaminated aquatic ecosystem Available online at www.pelagiaresearchlibrary.com European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2013, 3(2):402-406 ISSN: 2248 9215 CODEN (USA): EJEBAU Successional changes of algae as toxicity indices in

More information

Page 1. Name: UNIT: PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESPIRATION TOPIC: PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Page 1. Name: UNIT: PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESPIRATION TOPIC: PHOTOSYNTHESIS Name: 4667-1 - Page 1 UNIT: PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESPIRATION TOPIC: PHOTOSYNTHESIS 1) The diagram below illustrates the movement of materials involved in a process that is vital for the energy needs of organisms.

More information

Surface Water Short Study Guide

Surface Water Short Study Guide Name: Class: Date: Surface Water Short Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The three ways in which a stream carries

More information

Photosynthesis. 1. What interaction between matter and energy occurs during the process of photosynthesis?

Photosynthesis. 1. What interaction between matter and energy occurs during the process of photosynthesis? Activity The word photosynthesis can be broken down to its Greek roots: synthesis is to put together to form something new and photo means light. So the Greek origin of the word photosynthesis means put

More information

The table lists some functions of parts of a plant. Match the part of the plant (A, B, C or D) to its function by writing the letters in the table.

The table lists some functions of parts of a plant. Match the part of the plant (A, B, C or D) to its function by writing the letters in the table. Low Demand Questions QUESTIONSHEET 1 The diagram shows a flowering plant. A Name the parts labelled A, B, C and D. (c) (d) B C D A... B C... D [4] The table lists some functions of parts of a plant. Match

More information

Brief Intro on Sea Plants

Brief Intro on Sea Plants 1 Brief Intro on Sea Plants This website will help you learn about the major varieties of underwater sea plants beneath the vast, deep oceans and seas. You will learn their names, colors, types, how they

More information

carbon dioxide +... (+ light energy) glucose +...

carbon dioxide +... (+ light energy) glucose +... Photosynthesis 1. (i) Complete the word equation for photosynthesis. (ii) carbon dioxide +... (+ light energy) glucose +... Most of the carbon dioxide that a plant uses during photosynthesis is absorbed

More information

PLANT Labs summary questions (30 pts)

PLANT Labs summary questions (30 pts) PLANT Labs summary questions (30 pts) 1. SEEDS--Without this part of the seed, the embryo has no food to grow before photosynthesis. a. seed coat b. embryo c. leaves d. cotyledon e. tap root 2. SEEDS--Which

More information

Biology Activity: Science Process; Measurements; Tools; Data Presentation and Analysis Purpose Question Background

Biology Activity: Science Process; Measurements; Tools; Data Presentation and Analysis Purpose Question Background Biology Activity: Science Process; Measurements; Tools; Data Presentation and Analysis Purpose: Review scientific practices, the use of measuring tools and microscopes, data collection, and the proper

More information

Paleo to present day water studies

Paleo to present day water studies + Paleo to present day water studies Grade Level: Pond Life Study: all ages Diatoms Decoded: Grades 7-12 (younger grades with modifications) Activity Duration: 1-3 hours Summary: Diatoms are a type of

More information

TUNDRA. Column 1 biome name Column 2 biome description Column 3 examples of plant adaptations

TUNDRA. Column 1 biome name Column 2 biome description Column 3 examples of plant adaptations Biome Cards (pp. 1 of 7) Cut out each biome card and divide each card into three sections. Place all sections in a plastic storage bag. Have one bag for every two students. Column 1 biome name Column 2

More information

Please take out your fill-in notes again, and we will continue learning about extinct creatures.

Please take out your fill-in notes again, and we will continue learning about extinct creatures. Today s Topic Evolution: Extinction Learning Goal: SWBAT explain why creatures go extinct from Earth, and why some recently-extinct creatures have gone extinct. Please take out your fill-in notes again,

More information

RELEASED. Spring 2013 North Carolina Measures of Student Learning: NC s Common Exams. Grade 6 Science Form A

RELEASED. Spring 2013 North Carolina Measures of Student Learning: NC s Common Exams. Grade 6 Science Form A Released Form Spring 2013 North arolina Measures of Student Learning: N s ommon Exams Grade 6 Science Form RELESE Public Schools of North arolina State oard of Education epartment of Public Instruction

More information

1 29 g, 18% Potato chips 32 g, 23% 2 30 g, 18% Sugar cookies 35 g, 30% 3 28 g, 19% Mouse food 27 g, 18%

1 29 g, 18% Potato chips 32 g, 23% 2 30 g, 18% Sugar cookies 35 g, 30% 3 28 g, 19% Mouse food 27 g, 18% 1. When testing the benefits of a new fertilizer on the growth of tomato plants, the control group should include which of the following? A Tomato plants grown in soil with no fertilizer B Tomato plants

More information

Science Biology: Honors Unit 7: Interdependence of Organisms

Science Biology: Honors Unit 7: Interdependence of Organisms Understandings Questions Knowledge Vocabulary Skills Atoms and molecules compose living and nonliving things and recycle through the biosphere. Energy flows through ecosystems in one direction from photosynthetic

More information

Nadia Langha Biology 106 Honors Project

Nadia Langha Biology 106 Honors Project Nadia Langha Biology 106 Honors Project Cyanobacteria Domain Bacteria Division Cyanophyta Cyanobacteria also known as BlueGreen Algae -Cyano=blue Bacteria are more closely related to prokaryotic bacteria

More information

Vanishing Species 5.1. Before You Read. Read to Learn. Biological Diversity. Section. What do biodiversity studies tell us?

Vanishing Species 5.1. Before You Read. Read to Learn. Biological Diversity. Section. What do biodiversity studies tell us? Vanishing Species Before You Read Dinosaurs are probably the most familiar organisms that are extinct, or no longer exist. Many plants and animals that are alive today are in danger of dying out. Think

More information

Ch 5. Evolution, Biodiversity, and Population Ecology. Part 1: Foundations of Environmental Science

Ch 5. Evolution, Biodiversity, and Population Ecology. Part 1: Foundations of Environmental Science Ch 5 Evolution, Biodiversity, and Population Ecology Part 1: Foundations of Environmental Science PowerPoint Slides prepared by Jay Withgott and Heidi Marcum Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing

More information

Predator escape: an ecologically realistic scenario for the evolutionary origins of multicellularity. Student handout

Predator escape: an ecologically realistic scenario for the evolutionary origins of multicellularity. Student handout Predator escape: an ecologically realistic scenario for the evolutionary origins of multicellularity Student handout William C. Ratcliff, Nicholas Beerman and Tami Limberg Introduction. The evolution of

More information

Chapter 6 Review. 1. Which of the following is an autotroph? A. lizard B. cactus C. shark D. deer

Chapter 6 Review. 1. Which of the following is an autotroph? A. lizard B. cactus C. shark D. deer k Chapter 6 Review Multiple Choice 1. Which of the following is an autotroph? A. lizard B. cactus C. shark D. deer 2. In heterotrophs energy for the life processes comes from the chemical energy stored

More information

Georgia Performance Standards for Urban Watch Restoration Field Trips

Georgia Performance Standards for Urban Watch Restoration Field Trips Georgia Performance Standards for Field Trips 6 th grade S6E3. Students will recognize the significant role of water in earth processes. a. Explain that a large portion of the Earth s surface is water,

More information

AP BIOLOGY ECOLOGY READING ASSIGNMENT

AP BIOLOGY ECOLOGY READING ASSIGNMENT AP BIOLOGY ECOLOGY READING ASSIGNMENT Dear AP Biologist, I am glad that you have chosen to take AP Biology next year. In order to fit it all in you must complete a summer reading assignment prior to our

More information

About me (why am I giving this talk) Dr. Bruce A. Snyder

About me (why am I giving this talk) Dr. Bruce A. Snyder Ecology About me (why am I giving this talk) Dr. Bruce A. Snyder basnyder@ksu.edu PhD: Ecology (University of Georgia) MS: Environmental Science & Policy BS: Biology; Environmental Science (University

More information

Section 8. North American Biomes. What Do You See? Think About It. Investigate. Learning Outcomes

Section 8. North American Biomes. What Do You See? Think About It. Investigate. Learning Outcomes Section 8 North American Biomes What Do You See? Learning Outcomes In this section, you will Define the major biomes of North America and identify your community s biome. Understand that organisms on land

More information

Botany: Plant Dissection Student Advanced Version

Botany: Plant Dissection Student Advanced Version Botany: Plant Dissection Student Advanced Version In this lab, we will learn about the structure and function of plants, and how plants are useful in our everyday lives. Key Concepts: Plants have been

More information

Measurements and Error Analysis

Measurements and Error Analysis Experiment : Measurements and Error Analysis 1 Measurements and Error Analysis Introduction: [Two students per group. There should not be more than one group of three students.] All experiments require

More information

One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Paul K. Strode, Ph.D.

One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Paul K. Strode, Ph.D. One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Paul K. Strode, Ph.D. Purpose While the T-test is useful to compare the means of two samples, many biology experiments involve the parallel measurement of three or

More information

Desert Patterns. Plants Growth and reproduction Water loss prevention Defenses. Animals Growth and reproduction Water loss prevention Defenses

Desert Patterns. Plants Growth and reproduction Water loss prevention Defenses. Animals Growth and reproduction Water loss prevention Defenses Desert Patterns Plants Growth and reproduction Water loss prevention Defenses Animals Growth and reproduction Water loss prevention Defenses Abiotic Features Introduction A major emphasis in ecology is

More information

Science Grade 4. Unit 1 Healthy Habitats

Science Grade 4. Unit 1 Healthy Habitats Science Grade 4 Unit 1 Healthy Habitats What is a habitat Habitat - The place where an animal or a plant normally lives or grows and that provides them with everything they need to survive. Habitat A habitat

More information

AP Biology. Sample Student Responses and Scoring Commentary. Inside: Free Response Question 5. Scoring Guideline. Student Samples. Scoring Commentary

AP Biology. Sample Student Responses and Scoring Commentary. Inside: Free Response Question 5. Scoring Guideline. Student Samples. Scoring Commentary 2017 AP Biology Sample Student Responses and Scoring Commentary Inside: Free Response Question 5 Scoring Guideline Student Samples Scoring Commentary 2017 The College Board. College Board, Advanced Placement

More information

Biology. Slide 1of 39. End Show. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

Biology. Slide 1of 39. End Show. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology 1of 39 2of 39 20-4 Plantlike Protists: Red, Brown, and Green Algae Plantlike Protists: Red, Brown and Green Algae Most of these algae are multicellular, like plants. Their reproductive cycles are

More information

Station 1 Water is a polar molecule and has a very unique structure

Station 1 Water is a polar molecule and has a very unique structure Station 1 Water is a polar molecule and has a very unique structure A water molecule, because of its shape, is a polar molecule. That is, it has one side that is positively charged and one side that is

More information

11/10/13. How do populations and communities interact and change? Populations. What do you think? Do you agree or disagree? Do you agree or disagree?

11/10/13. How do populations and communities interact and change? Populations. What do you think? Do you agree or disagree? Do you agree or disagree? Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Populations Lesson 2 Changing Populations Lesson 3 Communities Chapter Wrap-Up How do populations and communities interact and change? What do you think? Before you begin,

More information

Unit 2: Ecology. Big Idea...

Unit 2: Ecology. Big Idea... Name: Block: Unit 2: Ecology Big Idea... The natural world is defined by organisms and life processes which conform to principles regarding conservation and transformation of matter and energy. Knowledge

More information

FACTORS AFFECTING THE RATE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

FACTORS AFFECTING THE RATE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS AP BIOLOGY CELLULAR ENERGETICS ACTIVITY #5 NAME DATE HOUR FACTORS AFFECTING THE RATE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this activity is to: Demonstrate how photosynthetic rates in different

More information

The Chemistry of Respiration and Photosynthesis

The Chemistry of Respiration and Photosynthesis The Chemistry of Respiration and Photosynthesis Objective- You should be able to write balanced equations for respiration and photosynthesis and explain how the two equations are related. Directions :

More information

Chapter 7: Environmental Systems and Ecosystem Ecology

Chapter 7: Environmental Systems and Ecosystem Ecology Chapter 7: Environmental Systems and Ecosystem Ecology Vocabulary words to know: Hypoxia Negative feedback Dynamic equilibrium Emergent properties Lithosphere Biosphere Gross primary production Nutrients

More information

Directions: For each of the questions or incomplete statements below, choose the best of the answer choices given and write your answer on the line.

Directions: For each of the questions or incomplete statements below, choose the best of the answer choices given and write your answer on the line. Name: Organisms and Their Environment Practice Test Section: Directions: For each of the questions or incomplete statements below, choose the best of the answer choices given and write your answer on the

More information

Biology Assessment. Eligible Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills

Biology Assessment. Eligible Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills Biology Assessment Eligible Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills STAAR Biology Assessment Reporting Category 1: Cell Structure and Function The student will demonstrate an understanding of biomolecules

More information

Lab 3: Photosynthesis & Respiration I

Lab 3: Photosynthesis & Respiration I BIOL 153L General Biology II Lab Black Hills State University Lab 3: Photosynthesis & Respiration I Photosynthesis is the process by which plants utilize light energy to fix carbon into chemical energy

More information

Flowers Seeds Pollination Germination

Flowers Seeds Pollination Germination * Flowers Seeds Pollination Germination *In order for plants to be successful in many different environments they must be able to reproduce themselves. *The reproductive patterns of plants reflect the

More information

Unit 8: Ecology Guided Reading Questions (60 pts total)

Unit 8: Ecology Guided Reading Questions (60 pts total) AP Biology Biology, Campbell and Reece, 10th Edition Adapted from chapter reading guides originally created by Lynn Miriello Name: Unit 8: Ecology Guided Reading Questions (60 pts total) Chapter 51 Animal

More information

10/6/ th Grade Ecology and the Environment. Chapter 2: Ecosystems and Biomes

10/6/ th Grade Ecology and the Environment. Chapter 2: Ecosystems and Biomes 7 th Grade Ecology and the Environment Chapter 2: Ecosystems and Biomes Lesson 1 (Energy Flow in Ecosystems) Each organism in an ecosystem fills an energy role. Producer an organism that can make its own

More information

Prentice Hall Science Explorer 2005, The Nature of Science and Technology (Book P) Correlated to: Indiana Academic Standards for Science (Grade 6)

Prentice Hall Science Explorer 2005, The Nature of Science and Technology (Book P) Correlated to: Indiana Academic Standards for Science (Grade 6) Prentice Hall Science Explorer 2005, The Nature of Science and Technology (Book P) Indiana Academic Standards for Science (Grade 6) Grade 6 Standard 1 The Nature of Science and Technology Students design

More information

THE INTERTIDAL ZONE AND BENTHIC ORGANISMS

THE INTERTIDAL ZONE AND BENTHIC ORGANISMS THE INTERTIDAL ZONE AND BENTHIC ORGANISMS EPSS 15 Lab #8 OUTLINE I. Intertidal zonation Tides Biotic zonation Physical conditions & biotic interactions II. Intertidal organisms & adaptations Snails Mussels

More information

This Exam: Is 60% of your class grade.

This Exam: Is 60% of your class grade. THS General Biology Unit 4 Exam Review Content: Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration You should be able to complete all of the following tasks, objectives, and answer any questions, without the use of

More information

4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?

4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem? Biology 1 of 39 4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem? 2 of 39 Biotic and Abiotic Factors Biotic and Abiotic Factors Ecosystems are influenced by a combination of biological and physical factors. 3 of 39 1 Biotic

More information

Map showing location of tropical rainforests

Map showing location of tropical rainforests Information sheet one: where are the rainforests located? Map showing location of tropical rainforests On your sheet describe the geographical location of the tropical rainforests. Top tip: Use an atlas

More information

BIOL 101 Introduction to Biological Research Techniques I

BIOL 101 Introduction to Biological Research Techniques I BIOL 101 Introduction to Biological Research Techniques I 1. Develop a research plan including hypothesis, controls and procedures. 2. Conduct a primary literature review relating to their research project.

More information

The Flowering Plant and Photosynthesis

The Flowering Plant and Photosynthesis The Flowering Plant and Photosynthesis AIM To name and identify some common Irish trees To identify the parts of a flowering plant To list the function of the flowers, stem, leaves and roots To explain

More information

Purpose (1 point) Investigate differences to cell size and shape across various kingdoms

Purpose (1 point) Investigate differences to cell size and shape across various kingdoms Living Cells Lab 61 points total As will be seen through this lab, there is no such thing as a typical cell. Though both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are often shown as general cells (p. 206), rarely

More information

GRADE. Science. Released Test. Questions 2016

GRADE. Science. Released Test. Questions 2016 Science GRADE Released Test HS Questions 2016 DIRECTIONS 176609.000 Matrix Use the following information to answer questions 1 through 5. The populations of animals living in the wild follow cycles. One

More information

Introduction & Chapter 1: What Is an Organism?

Introduction & Chapter 1: What Is an Organism? Introduction & Chapter 1: What Is an Organism? Section 1 CHARACTERISTICS Use pages 3 6 of the student text to complete the worksheet. Choose the Answer. Circle the answer that correctly completes each

More information

Coniferous vs. Deciduous

Coniferous vs. Deciduous The purpose of the leaves on a tree is twofold: the leaves help exchange gases (they inhale carbon dioxide and exhale oxygen; now go thank a tree), and to collect sunlight for photosynthesis. Small openings

More information

ALL ABOUT ALGAE TONI GLYMPH-MARTIN SENIOR ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGIST

ALL ABOUT ALGAE TONI GLYMPH-MARTIN SENIOR ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGIST ALL ABOUT ALGAE TONI GLYMPH-MARTIN SENIOR ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGIST Algae Aerobic organisms that are photosynthetic and grow on simple inorganic compounds using light as an energy source Algae produce

More information

Honors Biology Final Exam Review Sheet

Honors Biology Final Exam Review Sheet Honors Biology 2014 2015 Monkemeier Name Date Honors Biology Final Exam 2014 2015 Review Sheet The Honors Biology final exam contains two parts. The multiple choice portion will be completed during the

More information

Levels of Organization in Ecosystems. Ecologists organize ecosystems into three major levels. These levels are: population, community, and ecosystem.

Levels of Organization in Ecosystems. Ecologists organize ecosystems into three major levels. These levels are: population, community, and ecosystem. Levels of Organization in Ecosystems Ecologists organize ecosystems into three major levels. These levels are: population, community, and ecosystem. Population A population is a group of individuals of

More information

Properties of Water. p. 53 in ILL

Properties of Water. p. 53 in ILL Properties of Water p. 53 in ILL Water Water is an amazing substance with many unique properties and is vital for the survival of living things and necessary for many different functions on our planet.

More information

BIO 2 GO! Photosynthesis and Chemosynthesis 3134,3136

BIO 2 GO! Photosynthesis and Chemosynthesis 3134,3136 BIO 2 GO! Photosynthesis and Chemosynthesis 3134,3136 Photosynthesis and chemosynthesis are similar in that they both make glucose. Photosynthesis is the process in which green plants use the sun s energy

More information

Cells: 3 Star. Which row in the chart below best explains the movement of some molecules between the model cell and the solution in the beaker?

Cells: 3 Star. Which row in the chart below best explains the movement of some molecules between the model cell and the solution in the beaker? ells: 3 Star 1. ase your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents a model cell setup. The locations of three different substances

More information

Photosynthesis. Introduction: Objectives:

Photosynthesis. Introduction: Objectives: Photosynthesis Introduction: Photosynthesis is a process in which plants convert light energy (sunlight) into usable chemical energy (carbohydrates). Photosynthesis involves two simultaneous processes:

More information

Energy Flow in Ecosystems

Energy Flow in Ecosystems http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/22/94122-034-4cfcfcc7.jpg Energy Flow in Ecosystems The Sun All living things require a source of energy in order to survive. Radiant energy from the sun sustains

More information

Biogeography. Fig. 12-6a, p. 276

Biogeography. Fig. 12-6a, p. 276 Biogeography Fig. 12-6a, p. 276 Biogeographic Processes Energy and Matter Flow in Ecosystems Ecological Biogeography Ecological Succession Historical Biogeography Biogeographic Processes Biogeography examines

More information

All living things share the characteristics of life.

All living things share the characteristics of life. Section 1: All living things share the characteristics of life. K What I Know W What I Want to Find Out L What I Learned Essential Questions What is biology? What are possible benefits of studying biology?

More information

Key Concepts 1. What different levels of organization do ecologists study? 2. What methods are used to study ecology?

Key Concepts 1. What different levels of organization do ecologists study? 2. What methods are used to study ecology? Chapter 3 The Biosphere 3 1 What is Ecology? 1. What different levels of organization do ecologists study? 2. What methods are used to study ecology? Ecology study of interactions between organisms and

More information

Photosynthesis and Respiration. Evaluation copy

Photosynthesis and Respiration. Evaluation copy Photosynthesis and Respiration Computer 12C Plants make sugar, storing the energy of the sun into chemical energy, by the process of photosynthesis. When they require energy, they can tap the stored energy

More information

Interrelationships. 1. Temperature Wind Fire Rainfall Soil Type Floods Sunlight Altitude Earthquake

Interrelationships. 1. Temperature Wind Fire Rainfall Soil Type Floods Sunlight Altitude Earthquake Interrelationships Abiotic Factors A. A Partial List 1. Temperature Wind Fire Rainfall Soil Type Floods Sunlight Altitude Earthquake B. Aquatic Adaptations 1. Pumping salt out a. Salt water fish 2. Pumping

More information

Station 1 Surface Tension & Adhesion

Station 1 Surface Tension & Adhesion Station 1 Surface Tension & Adhesion Water has a simple molecular structure: H2O. Each molecule of water is made up of two atoms of hydrogen connected to one atom of oxygen. The way that these atoms are

More information

Correlations to Next Generation Science Standards. Life Sciences Disciplinary Core Ideas. LS-1 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

Correlations to Next Generation Science Standards. Life Sciences Disciplinary Core Ideas. LS-1 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes Correlations to Next Generation Science Standards Life Sciences Disciplinary Core Ideas LS-1 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes LS1.A Structure and Function Systems of specialized cells

More information

Interdependent Relationships In Ecosystems

Interdependent Relationships In Ecosystems Have you ever wondered why in a dense forest there are never small tress? Or why fish have hundreds of babies when only a few actually live? Why do seeds have to be evenly placed in a pot? The answer to

More information

How do trees like the California redwoods and the aspens of Alberta get water and minerals from their roots to their leaves way up at the top?

How do trees like the California redwoods and the aspens of Alberta get water and minerals from their roots to their leaves way up at the top? Transport in Plants Have you visited or at least heard about the giant California redwoods? These amazing trees can grow up to 100 m tall! In Alberta, even the trees in the central and north central regions

More information

Photosynthesis: Limiting Factors

Photosynthesis: Limiting Factors Name: Date: Period: Photosynthesis: Limiting Factors Purpose: 1. To determine the effect of temperature, light intensity, and light color on the rate of photosynthesis. 2. To calculate the rate of photosynthesis

More information

The Plant Kingdom If you were to walk around a forest, what would you see? Most things that you would probably name are plants.

The Plant Kingdom If you were to walk around a forest, what would you see? Most things that you would probably name are plants. INTRODUCTION TO PLANTS The Plant Kingdom If you were to walk around a forest, what would you see? Most things that you would probably name are plants. Plants are abundant in almost every environment that

More information

Chesapeake Bay Remote Sensing Pilot Executive Briefing

Chesapeake Bay Remote Sensing Pilot Executive Briefing Chesapeake Bay Remote Sensing Pilot Executive Briefing Introduction In his Executive Order 13506 in May 2009, President Obama stated The Chesapeake Bay is a national treasure constituting the largest estuary

More information

Botany: The Plant Dissection Lab

Botany: The Plant Dissection Lab Botany: The Plant Dissection Lab Basic Version In this lab, we will learn about the structure and function of plants, and how plants are useful in our everyday lives. Key Concepts: Plants have been on

More information

Grade 1 Organisms Unit Template

Grade 1 Organisms Unit Template Delaware Science Coalition Grade 1 Organisms Unit Template Copyright 2008Delaware Department of Education 1 Preface: This unit has been created as a model for teachers in their designing or redesigning

More information

Population and Community Dynamics

Population and Community Dynamics Population and Community Dynamics Part 1. Genetic Diversity in Populations Pages 676 to 701 Part 2. Population Growth and Interactions Pages 702 to 745 I) Introduction I) Introduction to understand how

More information

7 th Grade TEKS. AKA: Whacha-gotta-know!

7 th Grade TEKS. AKA: Whacha-gotta-know! 7 th Grade TEKS AKA: Whacha-gotta-know! 1(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations as outlined in the Texas Safety Standards; and 1(B) practice appropriate use and conservation

More information

Chapter Niches and Community Interactions

Chapter Niches and Community Interactions Chapter 4 4.2 Niches and Community Interactions Key Questions: 1) What is a niche? 2) How does competition shape communities? 3) How do predation and herbivory shape communites? 4) What are three primary

More information

NOTES: CH 4 Ecosystems & Communities

NOTES: CH 4 Ecosystems & Communities NOTES: CH 4 Ecosystems & Communities 4.1 - Weather & Climate: WEATHER = day-to-day conditions of Earth s atmosphere CLIMATE= refers to average conditions over long periods; defined by year-afteryear patterns

More information

Think about it Water, water, everywhere

Think about it Water, water, everywhere Think about it Water, water, everywhere It s just about everywhere! It covers almost 3/4 of the Earth s surface. It makes up about 2/3 of your body s weight! Every living thing needs it to survive. It

More information

XVII. Science and Technology/Engineering, Grade 8

XVII. Science and Technology/Engineering, Grade 8 XVII. Science and Technology/Engineering, Grade 8 Grade 8 Science and Technology/Engineering Test The spring 2015 grade 8 Science and Technology/Engineering test was based on learning standards in the

More information

AP Biology Laboratory 5 Respiration Virtual Student Guide

AP Biology Laboratory 5 Respiration Virtual Student Guide Name: Date: AP Biology Laboratory 5 Respiration Virtual Student Guide http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/labbench/index.html PRE LAB QUESTIONS: Before you begin the online lab, log onto the

More information

Brunswick School Department: Grades Essential Understandings. Essential Questions. Essential Knowledge. Vocabulary.

Brunswick School Department: Grades Essential Understandings. Essential Questions. Essential Knowledge. Vocabulary. Understandings Questions Knowledge Vocabulary Skills Science Causation: Nothing just happens. Everything is caused. Interrelatedness: Everything in the universe is connected to everything else in the universe.

More information

The living world assessment

The living world assessment The living world unit assessment Name:... 1. A producer is (1mark) a. An organism that gets energy by eating other organisms. b. An organism that gets energy by breaking down dead material. c. An organism

More information