Chapter 4 AND 5 Practice

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1 Name: Chapter 4 AND 5 Practice 1. Events that occur in four different ecosystems are shown in the chart below. Which ecosystem would most likely require the most time for ecological succession to restore it to its original state? A) A B) B C) C D) D 2. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which shows the sequence of plant communities that have occupied land that was left barren 300 years ago, and on your knowledge of biology. Which plant species represent pioneer organisms? A) broomsedge and pine seedlings B) ragweed and aster C) crabgrass and horseweed D) oak and hickory trees

2 3. Which process is represented in the diagram below? A) energy flow B) biological evolution C) cellular communication D) ecological succession 4. A forest is cut down and is replaced by a cornfield. What is a negative consequence of this practice? A) an increase in the carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere B) an increase in the size of predators C) a decrease in biodiversity D) a decrease in the amount of soil that is washed away during rainstorms 5. The diagram below represents the various stages of ecological succession in New York State. If the ecosystem is not altered, which stage would be the most stable? A) grass B) shrub C) pine forest D) hardwood forest

3 6. Over a long period of time, the stages represented in the diagram below were each present in a particular ecosystem. After a forest fire, what is the most likely order in which these stages appeared? A) D C A B B) B D C A C) A B C D D) B C D A 7. Plants are green because they contain the protein chlorophyll. A bucket was left on the lawn for one week. When the bucket was removed, the grass under the bucket had turned from green to a yellowish white color. This change is due to the interaction between the grass and A) decomposer organisms in the soil, an abiotic factor B) the amount of sunlight, an abiotic factor C) increased moisture under the bucket, a biotic factor D) the metal composition of the bucket, a biotic factor

4 8. The graph below shows changes in the populations of two species that interact only with each other over a period of time. Which statement best describes these two species? A) Species A is a producer and species B is its consumer. B) Species A is a host and species B is its parasite. C) Species A is a predator and species B is its prey. D) Species A is a scavenger and species B is its decomposer. 9. What would be most beneficial towards maintaining equilibrium in an ecosystem over a long period of time? A) organisms imported by humans from other environments B) a sudden change in climate C) a diversity of organisms D) predators eliminated from the food chains 10. When two different bird species temporarily occupy the same niche, they would most likely A) change their nesting behaviors B) not affect one another C) interbreed to form a new species D) compete with one another 11. The ecological niches of three bird species are shown in the diagram below. What is the advantage of each bird species having a different niche? A) As the birds feed higher in the tree, available energy increases. B) More abiotic resources are available for each bird. C) Predators are less likely to feed on birds in a variety of locations. D) There is less competition for food.

5 12. Competition for biotic resources can be illustrated by organisms fighting for a limited amount of A) air to breathe B) water to drink C) mates for breeding D) space for nesting 13. What will most likely occur if two different plant species compete for the same requirements in an ecosystem? What PRINCIPLE is this based on? A) They will usually develop different requirements. B) One species may adapt to a different environment. C) One species may be eliminated from that ecosystem. D) They will alter the environment so that they can both survive in that ecosystem. 14. Abiotic factors that affect the growth of grass in a lawn include A) bacteria and soil B) earthworms and nutrients C) moisture and minerals D) fertilizer and decomposers 15. Competition between two species occurs when A) mold grows on a tree that has fallen in the forest B) chipmunks and squirrels eat sunflower seeds in a garden C) a crow feeds on the remains of a rabbit killed on the road D) a lion stalks, kills, and eats an antelope 16. Base your answer to the following question on the list of molecules below. Select the symbiosis, chosen from the list below, that is most closely associated with that phrase. Types of symbiosis (1) Commensalism (2) Mutualism (3) Parasitism A flea sucks blood from the skin of a dog. A) 1 B) 2 C) Sea anemones are mainly sessile animals. Some of them depend on the motile clown fish for their survival. The clown fish helps to provide food for the sea anemone as it seeks protection in the anemone's tentacles. This symbiotic relationship is known as A) commensalism B) saprophytism C) mutualism D) parasitism

6 18. Changes in a deer population are shown in the graph below. Which statement best explains section X? A) The population has reached the carrying capacity of its environment. B) Energy is used for interbreeding between members of different species. C) A predator recycles the remains of dead organisms. D) Competition does not occur between members of different species in the same habitat 19. The graph below shows the changes in the size of a fish population over a period of time. 20. A sample of bacteria was added to a culture dish containing a food supply. The dish was kept in an incubator for two weeks, where temperature and other conditions that favored bacterial growth were kept constant. The graph below shows changes that occurred in the bacterial population over the two weeks. The dashed line on the graph represents the A) carrying capacity of the environment B) life span of the species C) level at which extinction is reached D) level of maximum biodiversity of the species Which statement provides the best explanation for some of the changes observed? A) The bacteria were unable to reproduce until day 8. B) The bacteria consumed all of the available food. C) The culture dish contained an antibiotic for the first five days. D) The temperature increased and the bacteria died.

7 21. The stable stage that is established in an area as a result of the process of ecological succession is known as the A) heterotroph community B) pioneer stage C) biotic stage D) climax community 22. Base your answer to the following question on Students conducting a study on an insect population placed 25 insects of the same size in a box. The amount of food, water, and shelter available to the insects was kept constant. Each month, students removed and counted the number of insects present, recorded the total, and returned the insects to the box. The graph below shows the number of insects in the box over a 12-month period. 24. Which statement best describes the fruit fly population in the part of the curve labeled X in the graph shown below? A) The fruit fly population has reached the number of organisms the habitat can support. B) The fruit fly population can no longer mate and produce fertile offspring. C) The fruit fly population has an average life span of 36 days. D) The fruit fly population is no longer able to adapt to the changing environmental conditions. 25. The feeding niches of three bird species are shown in the diagram below. What inference can be made regarding this insect population? A) All the insects in the box are the same age. B) The insects hibernated from January to April. C) The population has carnivorous members. D) The population reached carrying capacity by January. 23. A particular species of unicellular organism inhabits the intestines of termites, where the unicellular organisms are protected from predators. Wood that is ingested by the termites is digested by the unicellular organisms, forming food for the termites. The relationship between these two species can be described as A) harmful to both species B) parasite/host C) beneficial to both species D) predator/prey What is the advantage of these different feeding niches for the birds? A) less competition for food B) fewer abiotic resources for each bird species C) fewer biotic resources for each bird species D) less energy available as the birds feed higher in the tree 26. Which organisms directly help to reduce overpopulation in a deer herd? A) parasites and predators B) parasites and scavengers C) decomposers and predators D) decomposers and consumers

8 27. A symbiotic relationship exists between two organisms of different species. If only one organism benefits from the relationship and the other is not harmed, the relationship is known as A) commensalism B) mutualism C) parasitism D) saprophytism 28. The relationship that exists when athlete s foot fungus grows on a human is an example of A) predator/prey B) producer/consumer C) parasite/host D) decomposer/autotroph Base your answers to questions 29 and 30 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. 29. Organisms that are always part of the relationship indicated by letter C may be classified as A) bryophytes B) parasites C) scavengers D) carnivores 30. Which term belongs in area A? A) mutualism B) prey C) saprophytism D) host 31. A limiting factor unique to a field planted with corn year after year is most likely A) temperature B) sunlight C) water D) soil nutrients 32. Cutting down a rain forest and planting agricultural crops, such as coffee plants, would most likely result in A) a decrease in biodiversity B) an increase in the amount of energy recycled C) a decrease in erosion D) an increase in the amount of photosynthesis 33. Which statement best describes bat populations in a stable ecosystem? A) They are held in check by environmental factors. B) They are producers that rely indirectly on other producers. C) They are not limited by natural predators. D) They are not dependent on other species.

9 34. What is a characteristic of a stable environment? A) It usually contains only one type of producer. B) It usually contains a great diversity of species. C) It contains simple food chains that have more consumers than producers. D) It contains complex food webs that have more heterotrophs than autotrophs. 35. What is the carrying capacity for herbivores in a habitat most directly affected by? A) heat energy released by carnivores B) carbon dioxide in the atmosphere C) photosynthetic organisms D) decomposers in the soil 36. Which long-term change could directly cause the other three? A) pollution of air and water B) increasing human population C) scarcity of suitable animal habitats D) depletion of resources 37. The graph below shows data on the average life expectancy of humans. What is the change in life expectancy from 1910 to 1970 most likely the result of? A) an increase in poor land-use management that affected the quality of topsoil B) the introduction of technology that had a negative impact on air quality C) a decrease in natural checks, such as disease, on the population D) a widespread increase in the presence of lead and other heavy metals in water supplies

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