2 Review: HR Diagram Label A, B, C respectively A C B a) A: White dwarfs, B: Giants, C: Main sequence b) A: Main sequence, B: Giants, C: White dwarfs c) A: Main sequence, B: White Dwarfs, C: Giants
3 The Hertzsprung- Russell (H-R) diagram identifies a definite relationship between temperature and absolute magnitude HR DIAGRAM absolute magnitude vs temperature or luminosity vs spectral type
4 What about the Masses of Stars on the H-R Diagram? Main Sequence stars range from 0.1M to ~100M The masses of Main Sequence stars increase with increasing luminosity, size and temperature Main Sequence stars increase in mass from the lower right to the upper left of the H-R Diagram
5 There is a relationship between mass and luminosity for Main Sequence stars Bigger (more massive) is brighter and hotter!
6 There is a relationship between mass and luminosity for Main Sequence stars the numbers shown are masses in terms of the Sun s mass Bigger (more massive) is brighter and hotter!
7 There is not a simple relationship for the Mass of Non-Main Sequence stars: Giants and Supergiants: range from M to about 20M White Dwarfs: approximately M or less
8 Average Densities: SUN: about density of water GIANTS: One thousand times less dense than AIR! DWARFS: about 1 million times the Sun s density one teaspoon: 5 tons!!! (2 Hummers)
9 The Lives of Stars
10 The evolution of stars is determined by a constant battle between gravity and pressure gravity pulls things together pressure pushes things apart 10
11 Stars condense from clouds of gas and dust (the interstellar medium) that exist throughout the disk of the galaxy Interstellar medium Pillars of Creation Eagle Nebulae Gas = Hydrogen Dust = Carbon and Silicon
12 Becoming a Star Step 1 Cloud collapses Why do these clouds of gas and dust collapse? One idea is that a shockwave from the explosion at the death of a star known as a supernova cause the gas and dust cloud to become unstable and start to collapse
13 Becoming a Star Step 1 Cloud collapses As the cloud collapses, the center becomes very very hot and very very dense -
14 Becoming a Star Step 2 Fusion As the gas cloud collapses due to gravitational forces, the core becomes hotter and the density inside the core increases Eventually, the temperature and density reach a point where nuclear fusion can occur
15 Fusion is the combining together of light atoms, into heavier atoms For all Main Sequence stars, the temperature and density in their cores are so great that Hydrogen atoms combine to make Helium atoms and release energy a process known as thermonuclear fusion 4H He + energy The Main Sequence is defined by stars converting hydrogen to helium in their core
16 Becoming a Star Step 3 Balance All Main Sequence stars are in hydrostatic equilibrium Fusion produces radiation (light) that creates an outward pressure During hydrostatic equilibrium there is a balance between the gravitational collapse of the star pushing inward and the outward pressure produced by photons from nuclear fusion in the core.
17 It s a matter of balance. This balance is called hydrostatic equilibrium gravity ( pressure ( material ) wants to collapse the star, but ) pushes outward against the collapsing Fusion: 4H He + energy(light)
18 All Main Sequence stars are in hydrostatic equilibrium because nuclear fusion of hydrogen is producing enough outward pressure to balance gravitational collapse.
19 It takes a few million years to get there but - stars spend most of their life time as a Main Sequence star
20 Stars spend most of their life time as a Main Sequence star 90% of the whole life of all stars is spent on the Main Sequence 90% of all stars are found on the Main Sequence
21 STELLAR LIFETIMES Which will have a greater core temperature and density a high mass star or a low mass star? Which will then have a greater fusion rate? Which will use up its fuel more quickly? What is the fuel?
22 STELLAR LIFETIMES Consider a main sequence star with 10 times the mass of the Sun It will have higher temps and pressures at the core have greater fusion rates - consumes fuel at 1000 times the rate of the sun be 1000 times as bright and last 1/100 as long Burn bright, die young.
23 LIFETIMES Bright O-type stars live very short lives (about 10 million years) Very small stars live a long time (100 billions of years) Our SUN: will live a total of about 10 billion years (half used up)
24 The more massive a star, the faster it goes through its main sequence phase
25 Tutorial: Star Formation and Lifetimes (p.111) Work with a partner! Read the instructions and questions carefully. Discuss the concepts and your answers with one another. Take time to understand it now!!!! Come to a consensus answer you both agree on. If you get stuck or are not sure of your answer, ask another group.
26 Stars spend most of their life cycles on the Main Sequence Main Sequence stars are in hydrostatic equilibrium because nuclear fusion is turning hydrogen into helium and producing enough outward pressure to balance gravitational collapse. 90% of all stars are found on the Main Sequence 90% of the whole life of all stars is spent on the Main Sequence BUT What happens when the hydrogen runs out?
27 The Evolution and Death of Stars
28 Stars Leave the Main Sequence The hydrogen atoms in the core of the star that fuse together to create helium, start to run out and fusion begins to slow down The system becomes out of balance Something has to happen to keep the star from collapsing in on itself
29 Out of balance Start running out of hydrogen in the core, now the outward pressure is less than the gravitational collapse
30 Out of balance What will happen to the core?
31 When core hydrogen fusion ceases, a main-sequence star becomes a giant When hydrogen fusion ceases in the core, the star will collapse inward this causes the layer just outside the core to become so hot and dense so that hydrogen fusion will begin in this outer layer. The energy produced by hydrogen fusion in this layer just outside the core causes the rest of the star to expand into a giant star. Stellar burp!
32 Helium fusion begins at the core of a giant While the exterior layers expand, the helium core continues to contract and eventually becomes hot enough (100 million Kelvin) for helium to begin to fuse into carbon and oxygen core helium fusion 3 He C + energy and C + He O + energy
33 Main Sequence Stars become Red Giants Hydrogen fusion Helium fusion
35 As stars evolve, stars move from being main sequence stars to Red Giants where they increase in luminosity and decrease in temperature
36 Where do they go after being main sequence stars? Red Giants
37 The Life of a Star Interstellar Cloud (gas and dust) Main Sequence Star Red Giant
38 Main Sequence Stars become Red Giants Hydrogen fusion Helium fusion
39 What happens after core helium fusion stops? The shell and core equilibrium game continues! Depending on the mass of the star, heavier elements are produced: carbon, oxygen, neon, silicon, the heaviest element being iron. We are all made of Star Stuff!!
40 So what happens after the giant phase? It depends on the mass of the star! Low Mass stars (< 8 M ) have a different fate from High Mass stars (> 8 M )
41 Example of a low-mass giant: its outer layers and core
42 Low Mass stars (< 8 M ) The core runs out of fuel! Shell fusion begins outside the core. Eventually the process shell fusion creates too much outward pressure and energy which explosively pushes out the outer layers of the star and produce a planetary nebula.
43 Low mass stars (< 8 M ) Interstellar Cloud (gas and dust) Main Sequence Star Red Giant Planetary Nebula
44 Ring Nebula
45 The burned-out core of a low-mass star becomes a white dwarf Surrounding planetary nebula disperses leaving behind just the remaining WHITE DWARF
46 White Dwarf A core with remaining mass less than 1.4 M. These tiny star remnants are approximately the size of planet Earth One cubic centimeter (like a sugar cube) of a White Dwarf star would weigh several tons.
47 White Dwarf Ring Nebula
48 Low mass stars (< 8 M ) Interstellar Cloud (gas and dust) Main Sequence Star Red Giant Planetary Nebula White Dwarf
49 What happens to white dwarfs? Do they just sit there?? If the white dwarfs are isolated, yes. They will just cool down HOWEVER, if they are in a binary system:
50 Sirius and its White Dwarf companion white dwarf
51 BUT: White dwarfs are not always left alone. Sometimes they can have a companion star! As its companion evolves and gets bigger, the white dwarf can steal mass from it. The stolen matter forms an external layer which can quickly ignite and shine brightly creating a Nova.
52 What s a Nova? A nova occurs in binary systems where a white dwarf is pulling mass from its companion. A nova is a relatively gentle explosion of hydrogen gas on the surface of a white dwarf in a binary star system. This process does not damage the white dwarf and it can repeat.
53 Sometimes the mass transfer can be excessive. So excessive that the white dwarf will not be able to support the mass it gains. It becomes a SUPERNova! Brightest explosions in the Sky
54 Low mass stars (< 8 M ) Interstellar Cloud (gas and dust) Main Sequence Star Red Giant Planetary Nebula White Dwarf Nova White Dwarf Pulling material off of a companion star Supernova Ia Leaves no remnant!
55 So what is the fate of our Sun? Since the Sun has a mass less than 8 M and since it is alone without a companion, it will become a White Dwarf and then slowly cool
56 High Mass Giant Stars (> 8 M ) Have a Different Story Fusion in the core continues through many more stages than for low mass stars Heavier elements are produced: carbon, oxygen, neon, silicon, and so on up to iron We re all made of star stuff!!
57 A series of different types of fusion reactions occur in high-mass stars
58 Core runs out of fuel! Gravity ( ) wants to collapse the star!
59 High-Mass Stars (> 8 M ) The core and outer layers run out of fuel. The star then collapses, due to gravity. The mass, however, is high enough that nothing can balance the gravitational collapse and..
60 Kaboom! Supernovae -Type II The collapsing outer layers of the star will collapse against and bounce outward off the compact collapsed core in an explosive event sending out a shockwave. This explosive event is called a Type II Supernova!!! During the Supernova, heavier elements are crated from fusion events, like magnesium, lead, or gold.
61 A Supernova Type II occurred here before we did. The atoms that created our world and solar system come from nuclear fusion in stars and from Supernovae events! We are all made of star stuff!
62 High-Mass Stars (> 8 M ) Gravity ( ) wants to collapse the star No outward pressure = implosion Rebound of outer layers against the core = supernova
63 After Before Supernovae can be as bright as a whole galaxy!
64 High-Mass Stars (> 8 M ) Interstellar Cloud (gas and dust) Big Main Sequence Star Red Giant Type II Supernova
65 What happens to the core after a supernova? the whole story depends on mass! neutron star (8-25Msun on Main Sequence) the really big ones: remaining mass of 1.4 M to about 3 M black hole (>25 Msun on Main Sequence) the really really big ones: remaining mass greater than 3 M
66 Neutron Stars A core with remaining mass of 1.4 to 3 M, composed of tightly packed neutrons. These tiny stars are much smaller than planet Earth -- in fact, they are about the diameter of a large city (~20 km). One cubic centimeter (like a sugar cube) of a neutron star, would have a mass of about kg! (hundreds of billions of pounds!)
67 Neutron Star
68 Supernova Neutron Star
69 Black Holes A remaining core with a mass of more than 3 M, will continue to collapse into an infinitely small location in space. We cannot observe what is left behind, directly. We can only detect its presence if it has a companion star, and it attracts material in an accretion disk.
70 Black Holes A black hole is a collapsed stellar core. It is a location in space of enormous gravitational attraction. The gravitational attraction is so strong that photons of light can not even escape (that s why it s black)!
71 Black Hole
72 To detect a black hole, we look for the x-rays given off by material as it falls toward the black hole.
73 High-Mass Stars (> 8 M ) Neutron Star Interstellar Cloud (gas and dust) Big Main Sequence Star Red Giant Type II Supernova Black Hole
74 Tutorial: Stellar Evolution (p.83) Work with a partner! Read the instructions and questions carefully. Discuss the concepts and your answers with one another. Take time to understand it now!!!! Come to a consensus answer you both agree on. If you get stuck or are not sure of your answer, ask another group.
75 Black holes are formed by 1. a lack of any light in a region of space. 2. supernovae from the most massive stars. 3. supernovae from binary stars. 4. collapsed dark nebulae. 0/0 Cross-Tab Label
76 Which of the following lists, in the correct order, a possible evolutionary path for a star? 1. Red Giant, Neutron Star, White Dwarf, nothing 2. Red Giant, Type I Supernova, Black Hole 3. Red Giant, Type II Supernova, Planetary Nebula, Neutron Star 4. Red Giant, Planetary Nebula, White Dwarf 5. Red Giant, Planetary Nebula, Black Hole 0/0 Cross-Tab Label
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