# Math 797W Homework 4

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1 Math 797W Homework 4 Paul Hacking December 5, 2016 We work over an algebraically closed field k. (1) Let F be a sheaf of abelian groups on a topological space X, and p X a point. Recall the definition of the stalk F p of F at p: F p = lim F(U) = {(U, s) U X open, p U, and s F(U)}/ p U where (U, s) (V, t) if s W = t W for some open set W U V such that p W. (a) Let A be an abelian group. Define the associated constant sheaf A on a topological space X by Γ(U, A) = {f f : U A continuous } for U X an open set, where we give A the discrete topology. Show that Γ(U, A) = A I where I is the set of connected components of U. For p X a point show that the stalk A p = A. (b) Let X be a topological space, Y X a closed subset, and F a sheaf on Y. Let i F be the pushforward of F by the inclusion i: Y X, that is, Γ(U, i F) = F(i 1 U) = F(U Y ) for U X an open set. Show that (i F) p = F p if p Y and F p = {0} otherwise. (c) Let X be a Riemann surface (a complex manifold of dimension 1) with its Euclidean topology, and O X the sheaf of holomorphic functions on X. For p X a point show that the stalk O X,p is isomorphic to the ring C{z} of complex power series in a variable z with positive radius of convergence. 1

2 (d) Let X be an algebraic variety and O X the sheaf of regular functions. Let p X a point and U X an open affine subvariety such that p U. Show that the stalk O X,p coincides with the local ring of X at p given by the localization k[u] I(p) of the coordinate ring k[u] = Γ(U, O X ) of U at the maximal ideal I(p) corresponding to p. (2) Recall that we say a sequence of sheaves F F F of abelian groups on a topological space X is exact if the sequence of stalks F p F p F p is exact for all p X. (a) Let X be a complex manifold. Let Z be the constant sheaf on X with stalk Z (see Q1(a)), O X the sheaf of holomorphic functions on X, and O X the sheaf of nowhere-zero holomorphic functions on X (with group operation given by multiplication). Show that there is a short exact sequence of sheaves of abelian groups on X 0 Z O X O X 0, where the first map is the inclusion of the locally constant Z- valued functions in the holomorphic functions, and the second map is given by f exp(2πif). This sequence is usually called the exponential sequence. [Hint: To show that the second map is surjective on stalks at p X, one needs to construct logarithms of functions g O X (U) for U a neighbourhood of p, possibly after shrinking U. We may assume U is contractible, then, first choosing a logarithm of g(p), we define dg log g(q) = log g(p) + γ q g for q U, where γ q is a path from p to q in U (this is well defined by Stokes theorem).] (b) Now assume X = C. Show that the map O X (U) O X (U) is not surjective for U = C \ {0}. Give a necessary and sufficient condition on an open set V C for O X (V ) O X (V ) to be surjective. 2

3 (3) Let X be a variety and Y X a closed subvariety. Then we have a short exact sequence of sheaves on X 0 I Y O X i O Y 0. Here I Y O X is the ideal sheaf of regular functions on X vanishing on Y and i: Y X is the inclusion. (a) Check that the above sequence of sheaves is exact as follows: for p X a point, let U X be an open affine subvariety such that p U, let A = k[u] be the coordinate ring of U, I = I(Y U) A the prime ideal corresponding to Y U, and m = I(p) A the maximal ideal corresponding to p. Then the sequence of stalks at p is given by the localization of the exact sequence of A-modules at the maximal ideal m. 0 I A A/I 0 (b) Suppose X = P n and Y = V (F ) X is the hypersurface defined by an irreducible homogeneous polynomial F k[x 0,..., X n ] of degree d. Show that we have an isomorphism of sheaves of O P n- modules O P n( d) I Y, s s F. Now use the long exact sequence of cohomology for the exact sequence 0 O P n( d) O P n i O Y 0 and the known cohomology groups of O P n(m), m Z to show that 1 if i = 0, ( dim k H i (Y, O Y ) = d 1 ) if i = n 1 = dim Y, n 0 otherwise. (4) In this question, we will discuss the general definition of Cech cohomology for sheaves of abelian groups on a topological space X. (See also Griffiths and Harris, p for further details and motivation, and Mumford and Oda, Ch. VII, for complete proofs.) For an open 3

4 covering U = {U i } i I (say for simplicity finite), as in class we define the associated Cech complex by C p (U, F) = F(U i0 i p ) i 0 <i 1 < <i p (where we write U i0 i p = U i0 U ip )) with differential δ : C p C p+1 given by p+1 (δs) i0 i p+1 = ( 1) j s i0 î j i p+1 Ui0 i p+1. j=0 One checks that δ 2 = 0, and defines H p (U, F) = ker(δ : C p C p+1 )/ im(δ : C p 1 C p ), the pth cohomology group of the complex. If V = {V j } j J is a refinement of U, that is, there exists f : J I such that V j U f(j) for all j, we can define a morphism of complexes θ : C (U, F ) C (V, F ) via θ(s) j0 j p = s f(j0 ) f(j p) Vj0 jp. (Here we extend the definition of s i0 i p from the case i 0 <... < i p to the general case by requiring s σ(i0 ) σ(i p) = sgn(σ)s i0 i p for σ a permutation of i 0,..., i p.) Although this depends on the choice of f : J I, one shows that the induced maps on the cohomology groups of the complexes do not. Finally one defines the Cech cohomology group H p (X, F) = lim U H p (U, F) where the direct limit is over the set of all open coverings U of X with the partial ordering given by refinement. The Leray theorem then asserts the following: if U = {U i } i I is an open covering such that H q (U i0 i p, F) = 0 for all p 0, i 0,..., i p I, and q > 0, then H p (U, F) = H p (X, F) for all p. That is, the Cech cohomology groups are computed by the open covering U. In the case of an algebraic variety and a coherent sheaf F, this condition is satisfied for U a finite open covering by open affine sets. (This explains the definition of cohomology of coherent sheaves given in class.) 4

5 (a) Let X = Σ be the topological realization of a finite simplicial complex Σ. For v a vertex of Σ, let U v = Star(v) X be the open set given by the union of the interiors of the simplices σ such that v σ. Show that the Cech complex for the sheaf Z on X and the open covering U = {U v } v V is identified with the complex computing the simplicial cohomology of X. So H p (U, Z) = H p (X, Z), the (simplicial) cohomology of X with integral coefficients. Moreover, if Σ is a subdivision of Σ, and U is the corresponding refinement of U, show that the induced map H p (U, Z) H p (U, Z) corresponds to the identity map H p (X, Z) H p (X, Z). Since any open covering V of X is refined by the open covering associated to some subdivision of Σ, it follows that H p (X, Z) := lim H p (V, Z) = H p (X, Z). V [If you have trouble, see Griffiths and Harris, p ] (b) Let X be a complex manifold. Consider the exponential sequence (see Q2) and the associated long exact sequence of cohomology 0 H 0 (X, Z) H 0 (X, O X ) H 0 (X, O X ) δ H 1 (X, Z) H 1 (X, O X ) Show that the connecting homomorphism δ : H 0 (X, O X ) H1 (X, Z) = H 1 (X, Z) = Hom(H 1 (X, Z), Z) is given by the winding number: ( δ(g) = γ 1 2πi γ ) dg. g [Note: The result of part (a) is valid for infinite simplicial complexes. This is needed for X non-compact. (If X is compact then H 0 (O X ) = C by the maximum principle, so δ = 0 in this case.)] (c) Let X be a complex manifold and Pic(X) the group of isomorphism classes of holomorphic line bundles on X, with group law the tensor product. Here, by a holomorphic line bundle we mean 5

6 a morphism π : L X of complex manifolds such that there is an open covering U = {U i } i I of X and local trivializations ϕ i : π 1 (U i ) over U i such that the transition maps are given by U i C ϕ j ϕ 1 i : U ij C U ij C ϕ j ϕ 1 i (p, v) = (p, g ij (p) v) where g ij O (U ij ) is a nowhere-zero holomorphic function on U ij. Show that the assignment L [(g ij )] defines an isomorphism of abelian groups Pic(X) H 1 (X, O X ) := lim H 1 (U, O X ). U [Note: The same result holds for X a variety and Pic(X) the group of isomorphism classes of algebraic line bundles. However, note that O X is not a coherent sheaf (it is not even a sheaf of O X -modules), so the Cech cohomology group H 1 (X, O X ) is not computed by a single open affine covering U of X in general.] (d) Let X be a compact complex manifold. Show that the long exact sequence of cohomology for the exponential sequence gives an exact sequence of abelian groups 0 H 1 (X, Z) H 1 (X, O X ) Pic X δ H 2 (X, Z) H 2 (X, O X ) (e) Let X be a complex smooth projective variety, and X an be the associated compact complex manifold. If E is an algebraic vector bundle over X, let E an be the associated holomorphic vector bundle over X an, and write E, E an for the sheaves of sections. Then H p (X, E) = H p (X an, E an ). Moreover, the map L L an gives an isomorphism Pic(X) Pic(X an ). (See Serre, Géométrie algébrique et géométrie analytique (1956).) So, we can use part (d) to compute Pic(X). As an example, show that Pic(P n ) Z. 6

7 (5) Let X be a smooth projective curve. In class we described an isomorphism Pic(X) Cl(X), L (s), where 0 s Γ(U, L) is a non-zero section of L over an open set U X, (s) is the divisor of zeroes and poles of s, and Cl(X) is the divisor class group of X, the abelian group of divisors D on X modulo the subgroup of principal divisors (f) for f k(x). The inverse is given by D O X (D), where O X (D) is the (sheaf of sections of the) line bundle defined by Γ(U, O X (D)) = {f k(x) ((f) + D) U 0} {0} for U X open. [Note: An analogous statement holds for smooth varieties of dimension > 1 as well.] Since deg(f) = 0 for all f k(x), we have a group homomorphism deg: Cl(X) Z. (a) Show that deg : Cl(P 1 ) Z is an isomorphism. (b) Suppose X has genus 1, and choose a basepoint p 0 X. Let Cl 0 (X) be the kernel of deg: Cl(X) Z. For [D] Cl 0 (X), show using the Riemann-Roch formula that dim k H 0 (O X (D + p 0 )) = 1, and deduce that there is a unique p X such that [D] = [p p 0 ] Cl 0 (X). So we have a bijection of sets X Cl 0 (X), p [p p 0 ]. In particular, X is naturally an abelian group with identity element p 0. [Remark: In general, for k = C, using Q4(d) and (e) one can show that Cl 0 (X) Pic 0 X H 1 (X, O X )/H 1 (X, Z). By Hodge theory, this quotient is a complex torus of dimension the genus g of X (that is, isomorphic to C g / 2g i=1 Zλ i where λ 1,..., λ 2g is a basis of C g as an R-vector space).] (6) Let X be an algebraic variety. For E a vector bundle on X of rank r, let det E := r E be the top exterior power of E. (So, if E has transition functions g ij GL r (O X (U ij )), then r E is the line bundle 7

8 with transition functions det(g ij ).) In particular, if X is smooth, the canonical line bundle ω X of X is defined by ω X = det Ω X = dim X Ω X. (a) Let 0 E E E 0 be a short exact sequence of vector bundles on X. Show that det E det E det E. ( ) A B [Hint: For the block matrix M = we have det M = 0 C det A det C.] (b) Recall the exact sequence of vector bundles on P n (the Euler sequence) 0 O P n O P n(1) n+1 T P n 0 where T P n is the tangent bundle of P n and the first map is given by 1 (X 0,..., X n ). (See Griffiths and Harris, p , or Hartshorne, Ch. II, Theorem 8.13, p. 176.) Dualizing, we have the exact sequence 0 Ω P n O P n( 1) n+1 O P n 0. Deduce that ω P n O P n( (n + 1)). [Alternatively, one can compute that for the rational n-form ω = dx 1 dx n on P n, where x i = X i /X 0, the divisor of zeroes and poles is given by (ω) = (n + 1)H where H is the hyperplane (X 0 = 0) P n.] (c) Let n 2 and Y P n be the hypersurface defined by an irreducible homogeneous polynomial F k[x 0,..., X n ] of degree d. Assume Y is smooth. Show that there is an exact sequence of sheaves on Y 0 O P n( d) Y Ω P n Y Ω Y 0 where the first map is given on U i = (X i 0) A n by 1/Xi d d(f/xi d ), the differential of the equation of Y U i U i. [Remark: The above exact sequence is dual to the exact sequence 0 T Y T P n Y N Y/P n 0 where N Y/P n is the normal bundle of Y in P n.] 8

9 (d) Deduce that ω Y (ω P n O P n(d)) Y O P n(d n 1) Y. [Remark: This is a special case of the adjunction formula ω Y = (ω X O X (Y )) Y for X a smooth variety and Y X a smooth subvariety of codimension 1.] (e) Using part (d), show that dim k H 0 (Y, ω Y ) = ( ) d 1 n. (Alternatively, this follows from Q3b and Serre duality.) [Hint: Tensor the exact sequence 0 O P n( d) O P n i O Y 0 by the line bundle O P n(d n 1) and consider the associated long exact sequence of cohomology.] 9

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