# RIEMANN S INEQUALITY AND RIEMANN-ROCH

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1 RIEMANN S INEQUALITY AND RIEMANN-ROCH DONU ARAPURA Fix a compact connected Riemann surface X of genus g. Riemann s inequality gives a sufficient condition to construct meromorphic functions with prescribed singularities. Let C(X) denote the field of meromorphic functions on X. The most convenient way to specify the zeros and poles of a nonzero element of this field is in terms of divisors. A divisor is a finite formal sum D = n p p with p X and n p Z. We sometimes view this as sum over all points with n p = 0 for all but finitely many p. Divisors form a group under addition. The degree deg D = n p Z. Given f C(X), div(f) = ord p (f)p is an example of a divisor, where ord p is the discrete valuation measuring the order at p. D is called effective, written as D 0, if all its coefficients are nonnegative. Given a divisor D, let L(D) = {f C(X) div(f) + D 0} {0} = {f C(X) p, ord p (f) n p } Theorem 0.1 (Riemann s inequality). If D is a divisor, dim L(D) deg D + 1 g In particular, L(D) 0 as soon as deg D g. The Riemann-Roch refines this to an equality with a precise error term. An important consequence which not apriori obvious is: Corollary 0.2. C(X) C, i.e. X carries a nonconstant meromorphic function. We give a proof of these results below after a bit of preparation. 1. Harmonic forms We quickly review some material already discussed in class. We recall that in basic complex analysis there is a close connection between harmonic functions and holomorphic ones. In order to globalize this, we need to introduce the relevant operators. The Hodge star operator is the C-linear operator 1 defined locally by the formulas dx = dy, dy = dx, 1 = dx dy, (dx dy) = 1 where x and y are the real and imaginary parts of a local analytic coordinate z. Thus = (1) p on p-forms. The point of the operator is that it gives an inner product α, β = α β 1 Some authors define it to be antilinear. Also at the risk of complicating the story, can be defined by the rule α β = (α, β)volume where (, ) is the pointwise inner product associated to a Riemannian metric compatible with the complex structure. This is the right viewpoint in higher dimensions. 1 X

2 2 DONU ARAPURA on the space of forms. Since d(α β) = dα β ±α d β. The adjoint of d with respect to this inner product is d = ±d by Stokes theorem. The Laplacian (aka Hodge Laplacian, or Laplace-Beltrami operator) = dd +d d. This coincides with minus the classical Laplacian on functions; the reason that this sign is preferred is that one wants the spectrum to be nonnegative. A form α is harmonic if α = 0. Lemma 1.1. α is harmonic if and only if dα = d( α) = 0. Proof. One direction is clear. The converse is proved by observing that (1) α, α = dα 2 + d α 2 The forms dz = dx + idy and d z = dx idy are easily seen to be eigenforms of with eigenvalue i and +i respectively. A form is of type (1, 0) (resp. (0, 1)) if it is a multiple of dz (resp. d z) for every local coordinate z. From the lemma, one quickly deduces that Corollary 1.2. A (1, 0) (resp. (0, 1)) form is harmonic if and if it is holomorphic (resp. antiholomorphic or equivalently the conjugate of a holomorphic form). Every harmonic form is a sum of holomorphic form and an antiholomorphic form, and this decomposition is unique. Proof. If α is (1, 0), then dα = α and d α = i α. So α is harmonic if and only if it is holomorphic. The (0, 1) case is similar. Any 1-form α can be uniquely decomposed into a sum α = α (1,0) + α (0,1) of a (1, 0) and (0, 1) form. We can see that α (1,0) = α + i α 2 α (0,1) = α i α 2 Therefore α is harmonic if and only if these components are. Theorem 1.3 (Hodge theorem). The space of C 1-forms decomposes E 1 (X) = {harmonic 1-forms} dc (X) dc (X) Proof. We give the bare outline of the proof. Details can be found in [D, GH]. It suffices to establish (2) E 1 (X) = ker im Equation (1) implies that ker = (im ). So it is enough to establish E 1 (X) = (im ) im For infinite dimensional inner product spaces, such a decomposition is not automatic. However, if we complete E 1 (X) to a Hilbert space L 2 E 1 (X), then L 2 E 1 (X) = (im ) im is true by standard functional analysis, where to be clear () now refers to the orthogonal complement in Hilbert space. But we need to bring things back to the C world. Given α, β L 2 E 1 (X), we say that (3) α = β

3 RIEMANN S INEQUALITY AND RIEMANN-ROCH 3 holds weakly if it holds in sense of distribution theory or equivalently α, γ = β, γ holds for all C forms γ. We can see that (im ) consists of weak solutions to α = 0. A bit more work shows im consists of β s for which (3) is weakly solvable. The main analytic result needed at this point is Weyl s lemma or the regularity theorem for : if β is C, then a weak solution α to (3) is a true C solution. It follows that elements of (im ) are harmonic forms. We can also see that im E 1 (X) = E 1 (X). So that (2) follows. Although the following corollary is the most important consequence, we will need the full version of the theorem. Corollary 1.4. The first de Rham cohomology of X is isomorphic to the space of harmonic 1-forms Proof. By definition H 1 (X, C) = ker d im d on 1-forms. Since ker d is orthogonal to im d, we have H 1 (X, C) = {harmonic 1-forms} dc (X) dc (X) Corollary 1.5. The dimension of the space of holomorphic (resp. antiholomorphic) forms is g. Proof. By corollaries 1.2 and 1.4 2g = dim H 1 (X, C) = dim{holmorphic forms} + dim{antiholmorphic forms} However, the last two spaces are have the same dimension because complex conjugation gives a real isomorphism. 2. Some sheaf theory A presheaf (of abelian groups) on X (or any space) is an assignment of an abelian group U A(U) to each open set, and a homomorphism ρ UV : A(U) A(V ) to each inclusion V U such that ρ UU = id and ρ V W ρ UV = ρ UW. When there is no confusion, we generally write α V for ρ UV (α). A is called a sheaf if for any open cover {U i } of U A(U) is isomorphic by the set of collections α i A(U i ) such that α i Uij = α j Uij, where U ij = U i U j. For example we have the sheaf O X of holomorphic functions. Here some more examples. Example 2.1. Given a divisor D = n p p, let O X (D)(U) = {f merom. on U p U, n p + ord p (f) 0} with obvious restrictions. Example 2.2. Given p X, the sky-scraper sheaf { C if p U C p (U) = 0 otherwise In fact, C can be replaced by any abelian group.

4 4 DONU ARAPURA A morphism of sheaves f : A B is a collection of homomorphisms f U : A(U) B(U) which commute with restriction i.e. f U (α) V = f V (α V ). A pair of morphisms A B C between sheaves is called exact if for every p X and ɛ > 0, there exist a neigbourhoods U contained in an ɛ disk around p (with respect to some metric) such that A(U) B(U) C(U) is exact in the usual sense. The point is that condition is local about each p. People familiar with stalks will notice that I am translating the usual condition. Suppose that we are given an exact sequence of sheaves 0 A B C 0 Lemma 2.3. Then there is an exact sequence of groups 0 A(X) B(X) C(X) However, B(X) C(X) need not be surjective; the failure of this to be so will be crucial for us to understand. Fix γ C(X). Then by definition of exactness, we can find a cover {U i } of X so that γ Ui lifts to β i B(U i ). If β i Uij = β j Uij, we can patch these to an element β B(X) and we would be done. The failure of this is measured by α ij = β i β j A(U ij ) where suppress writing restrictions to simplify notation. Note that this collection satisfies the 1-cocycle identity: α ij + α jk + α ki = 0 Thus it seems that we have constructed a map γ α ij, but it is not quite well defined because we needed the auxiliary choice of β i. Any two such choices of β i differ by an element of A(U i ). Thus we are led to define the 1st (Cech) cohomology group Ȟ1 ({U i }, A) as the group (which it clearly is) of cocycles as above, modulo the subgroup of coboundaries which are cocycles of the form α ij = α i α j, with α i A(U i ). This depends on the cover, we can get rid of the dependency by taking the direct limit H 1 (X, A) = lim Ȟ 1 ({U i }, A) refinement but we won t make say much about this last step. We have essentially constructed a homomorphism : C(X) H 1 (X, A) by (γ) = class of α ij The notation becomes more uniform if we write H 0 (X, A) = A(X) etc. Theorem 2.4. The previous sequence extends to a 6 term exact sequence 0 H 0 (X, A) H 0 (X, B) H 0 (X, C) H 1 (X, A)... Proofs and generalizations can be found in the references [G, GH, H]. The first being the most thorough.

5 RIEMANN S INEQUALITY AND RIEMANN-ROCH 5 3. Back to Riemann s inequality We now assume that D = n p p 0, and give a proof in this case. Then O X (D)(U) will contain O X (U) giving rise to an injective morphism O X O X (D). We want to prolong this to a short exact sequence. To analyze this, let U be a coordinate disk centered at one of the points p of support D and disjoint from the remaining points. Then O(D)(U) = 1 z O(U). The quotient O(D)(U)/O(U) = np C np. So we obtain an exact sequence of sheaves giving rise to an exact sequence 0 O X O X (D) C np p 0 0 O X (X) O X (D)(X) C np H 1 (X, O X ) The second space is just L(D). Since X is compact, global holomorphic functions on it are constant by the maximum principle. Therefore we can write the sequence as 0 C L(D) C deg D H 1 (X, O X ) The rank nullity theorem from linear algebra gives us a lower bound We also get an upper bound dim L(D) 1 + deg D dim H 1 (X, O) dim L(D) 1 + deg D which is useful as well. So to finish the proof of Riemann s inequality we just need to prove Theorem 3.1. dim H 1 (X, O X ) = g. We start by recalling that an element of H 1 (X, O X ) is represented by a cocycle f ij O(U ij ) on some open cover {U i }. Choose a C partition of unity ψ i subbordinate to this covering. Set (4) φ i = k ψ k f ik Then using the cocycle condition and the fact ψ k is a partition of unity, we have φ i φ j = ψ k (f ik f jk ) = f ij ψ k = f ij k k This says that f ij is a C coboundary. Applying implies that (φ i φ j ) = 0 so that α = φ i is a globally defined (0, 1)-form on X, which of course depends on the choice of φ i. However, the class [α] {(0, 1)-forms}/ C (X) = H (0,1) depend only on the cohomology class associated to f ij Lemma 3.2. H 1 (X, O X ) = H (0,1) The inverse is given by reversing the process. Given a (0, 1) form α, we can write it locally as α = φ i by variant of Cauchy s formula (cf [GH, p 5]). Then f ij = φ i φ j is necessarily a collection holomorphic functions satisfying cocycle identity.

6 6 DONU ARAPURA Lemma 3.3. H (0,1) = {antiholomorphic 1-forms} Given a (0, 1)-form α, by the Hodge theorem we can decompose it as α = β + df + dg where β is harmonic and f, g are C functions. If we take (0, 1) part of the right side of this equation, it still equals α. The (0, 1) part γ of β is still harmonic by corollary 1.2. Therefore This shows that α = (β + df + dg) (0,1) = γ + f + i g = γ + (f + ig) {(0, 1)-forms} = {antiholomorphic 1-forms} + image( ) A bit more work shows that the summands are orthogonal, and therefore this a direct sum decomposition. The lemma now follows. Summarizing, we have an isomorphism H 1 (X, O X ) = {antiholomorphic 1-forms} But we know from corollary 1.5 that the last space is g dimensional. 4. Riemann-Roch So far we have proved Riemann s inequality only for effective divisors. For the general case, it is convenient to first prove a stronger statement, namely the Riemann-Roch theorem. Theorem 4.1 (Riemann-Roch). If D is a divisor, dim H 0 (X, O X (D)) dim H 1 (X, O X (D)) = deg D + 1 g Riemann s inequality is an immediate corollary. Of course, this is not the classical statement of Riemann-Roch but the modern version due to Serre, which seems more natural (at least to me). The left side χ(o X (D)) = dim H 0 (X, O X (D)) dim H 1 (X, O X (D)) can be understood as an Euler characteristic. This point of view led to the subsequent generalizations due to Hirzebruch and Grothendieck. Proof. If D = n p p, the proof is by induction on N = N(D) = n p. The base case N = 0 follows immediately from the facts dim H 0 (X, O X ) = 1, dim H 1 (X, O X ) = g proved earlier. We turn to the inductive step. Let D = D p. Then N(D) = N(D ) ± 1. So it suffices to prove that Riemann-Roch holds for D if and only if it holds for D. We have an inclusion O X (D ) O X (D), which in a neighbourhood of p is given by 1 O(U) 1 z np 1 z O(U). The cokernel is one dimensional. This leads to an exact np sequence 0 O X (D ) O X (D) C p 0 of sheaves. Therefore we have an exact sequence 0 H 0 (X, O X (D )) H 0 (X, O X (D)) H 0 (X, C p ) H 1 (X, O X (D )) H 1 (X, O X (D)) H 1 (X, C p )

7 RIEMANN S INEQUALITY AND RIEMANN-ROCH 7 of vector spaces. We have H 0 (X, C p ) = C, and we claim that the first cohomology of this sheaf is 0. Given an open cover {U i } of X, and a cocycle f ij C p (U ij ) we have to show that it is a coboundary. Suppose that p U 1, then ψ 1 = 1 H 0 (X, C p ) and ψ i = 0, i > 0 gives a collection of sections which behaves like a partition of unity. So we can apply formula (4) to show that f ij is a coboundary. This proves the claim. This together with the above exact sequence implies that χ(o X (D)) = χ(o X (D )) + 1 Since the right side of Riemann-Roch behaves the same way: the proof is complete. [deg D + (1 g)] = [deg D + (1 g)] Some consequences Corollary 5.1. X can be realized as a branched covering of CP 1. Proof. X has a nonconstant meromorphic function. Corollary 5.2. Up to isomorphism, there is unique compact Riemann surface of genus 0, namely CP 1. Proof. Choose p X, and regard it as a degree one divisor. Then dim L(p) 2, so there is nonconstant function in f L(p). f has a simple pole at p, and no other singularities. Regarding it as a map f : X CP 1, it must have degree one. It is easy to see from this it is an isomorphism. Corollary 5.3. A compact Riemann surface of genus 1 is a projective algebraic curve with affine equation of the form with λ {0, 1}. y 2 = x(x 1)(x λ) Sketch. Choose p X. A nonconstant function in L(p) would lead to an isomorphism X = CP 1 as above. Therefore L(p) = C. Riemann s inequality gives dim L(2p) 2. It follows that there exists f L(2p) with a double pole at p. We can regard f as degree 2 map from X CP 1. The Riemann-Hurwitz formula gives a total of 4 ramification points including = f(p). We can find an automorphism which sends two of the remaining points to 0 and 1. The fourth point is given by some λ {0, 1}. X can now be described as above. References [D] Donaldson, Riemann surfaces [G] Godement, Topologie algebrique et theorie de faisceaux [= algebraic topology and sheaf theory] [GH] Griffiths, Harris, Principles of algebraic geometry [H] Hartshorne, Algebraic geometry

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