# Introduction and preliminaries Wouter Zomervrucht, Februari 26, 2014

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1 Introduction and preliminaries Wouter Zomervrucht, Februari 26, 204. Introduction Theorem. Serre duality). Let k be a field, X a smooth projective scheme over k of relative dimension n, and F a locally free O X -module of finite rank. Then for i Z there is a canonical isomorphism H i X, Hom OX F, Ω n X/k )) = H n i X, F). One goal of the coherent cohomology seminar is to state and prove a generalization of this theorem. First, we drop the smoothness condition. We need to replace Ω n X/k by the more abstract dualizing sheaf ω X/k. Also we make the situation relative and consider arbitrary proper morphisms X Y. In general there will no longer be a suitable notion of dualizing sheaf. To remedy the situation we resort to cochain complexes and derived categories. Theorem.2 Grothendieck Serre duality). Let f : X Y be a proper morphism of locally noetherian schemes. Let F be a coherent O X -module and G a coherent O Y -module. Under suitable weak) conditions, there is a canonical isomorphism R f RHom OX F, f! G) = RHom OY R f F), G). The main difficulty is the construction of f!. It will turn out to be a question of representability. Compare Serre duality: for i = 0 the theorem states that Vec X Set, F H n X, F) is represented by the sheaf of differentials Ω n X/k. 2. Sheaves of modules Let X be a ringed space. Recall the notions of O X -modules and their morphisms; free and locally free O X -modules, their rank; vector bundle: locally free O X -module of finite rank; line bundle: locally free O X -module of rank. Some constructions: #, tensor product F OX G := U FU) OX U) GU)) direct sum F i := U #, F i U)) i I i I sheaf hom Hom OX F, G) := ) U Hom OX U F U, G U ), dual F := Hom OX F, O X ). The category O X -Mod is abelian.

2 Definition 2.. Let f : X Y be a morphism of ringed spaces, F an O X -module and G an O Y -module. The direct image or pushforward of F is the sheaf of abelian groups ) f F := U F f U) with the O Y -module structure from restriction of scalars O Y f O X. The inverse image or pullback of G is the sheaf of abelian groups f G := O X f O Y f G with the O X -module structure by multiplication on the left. Despite the somewhat complicated definition, pullback is very well-behaved: for instance, we have f O Y = OX, and the stalk at x X is given by f G) x = OX,x OY, f x) G f x). Proposition 2.2. Let f : X Y be a morphism of ringed spaces. Pullback and pushforward constitute adjoint functors f : O Y -Mod O X -Mod, f : O X -Mod O Y -Mod. Pullback is right exact and pushforward is left exact. If g : Y Z is another morphism of ringed spaces, then g f ) = g f and g f ) = f g. See [Stacks 0094, 0AF] for more details. 3. Quasi-coherent modules Let A be a ring and M an A-module. There is a unique sheaf of modules M on Spec A such that for all f A we have M D f )) = M f as A f -module, with the obvious restriction maps. The construction M M is a functor A-Mod O Spec A -Mod, left adjoint to the global sections functor ΓSpec A, ). Definition 3.. Let X be a scheme. An O X -module F is quasi-coherent if for every affine open U X we have F U = FU). Definition 3.2. Let X be a locally noetherian scheme. An O X -module F is coherent if it is quasicoherent and for every affine open U X the O X U)-module FU) is finitely generated. The category QCoh X contains all kernels, cokernels, extensions, direct sums, and tensor products. If X is locally noetherian, the same is true for Coh X only finite direct sums). The categories QCoh X and Coh X are abelian. Pullbacks of quasi-coherent modules are again quasi-coherent. In the locally noetherian case the same is true for coherent modules. However, pushforwards of a quasi-coherent module are not necessarily quasi-coherent. Proposition 3.3. Let f : X Y be a quasi-compact quasi-separated morphism of schemes and F a quasi-coherent O X -module. Then f F is also quasi-coherent. We will see a similar statement for coherent modules later. See [Stacks 0I6, 0LA, 0XY] for more details. 2

3 4. Derived functors Let A be an abelian category. An object I A is injective if the functor Hom, I) is exact. If every object of A is a subobject of an injective object, then A has enough injectives. An injective resolution of an object A A is a complex I with a morphism A I 0, such that all I i are injective, I i = 0 for i < 0, and 0 A I 0 I... is exact. If A has enough injectives, then every object has an injective resolution. Lemma 4.. Let A be an abelian category and f : A B a morphism in A. Let I, J be injective resolutions of A, B. Then there exists a morphism of complexes I J that induces f on cohomology, and such a morphism is unique up to homotopy. Definition 4.2. Let A, B be abelian categories, F : A B a left exact functor, and suppose A has enough injectives. The i-th right derived functor of F is R i F : A B, A H i FI )) where I is an injective resolution of A. Dually there are projective resolutions and left derived functors. In a certain sense, derived functors are exact approximations. This will be made precise in the language of derived categories. We have a canonical isomorphism F = R 0 F. Each short exact sequence in A gives rise to a long exact sequence 0 A B C 0 0 R 0 FA) R 0 FB) R 0 FC) R FA) R FB) R FC).... Proposition 4.3 Leray acyclicity). Let A, B be abelian categories, F : A B a left exact functor, and suppose A has enough injectives. An object J A is acyclic for F if R i FJ) = 0 for all i > 0. Let A A be an object and J an acyclic resolution of A. Then R i FA) = H i FJ )) for all i Z. Acyclic resolutions tend to be more available than injective ones, so they are useful for computations. See [Stacks 034, 056, 05TB] for more details. 5. Sheaf cohomology The category O X -Mod on a ringed space X has enough injectives. Definition 5.. Let X be a ringed space. The i-th cohomology functor of X is the right derived functor H i X, ) := R i ΓX, )) : O X -Mod O X X)-Mod. Definition 5.2. Let f : X Y be a morphism of ringed spaces. The i-th higher direct image functor of f is the right derived functor R i f : O X -Mod O Y -Mod. Both versions of cohomology can also be computed on the level of abelian sheaves and abelian groups; the result is the same. The higher direct image functors are relative versions of the absolute cohomology functors H i X, ). If f : X Y is a morphism of ringed spaces and F an O X -module, then R i f F = V H i f V, F)) #. 3

4 For schemes we have the following nice relation. Let f : X Y be a quasi-compact quasiseparated morphism of schemes with Y affine. Let F be a quasi-coherent O X -module. Then R i f F = H i X, F). Proposition 5.3. Let f : X Y be an affine morphism of schemes and F a quasi-coherent O X -module. Then for all i > 0 we have R i f F = 0, and for all i Z we have H i X, F) = H i Y, f F). Theorem 5.4 Grothendieck vanishing). Let X be a noetherian ringed space and F an O X -module. Then H i X, F) = 0 for all i > dim X. See [Stacks 0DH, 0DZ, 0E0, 0X8, 0XH, 02UU] for more details. 6. Čech cohomology Definition 6.. Let X be a ringed space and F an O X -module. Let U = U i ) i I be an open cover of X. Put C r U, F) := i 0,...,i r I FU i0... U ir ) and define maps C r U, F) C r+ U, F), a i0...i r ) i0,...,i r r+ j=0 ) j a i0...î j...i r+ Ui0... U ir+ )i 0,...,i r+. The r-th Čech cohomology group of F relative to U, denoted Ȟ r U, F), is the r-th cohomology group of the cochain complex C U, F). The purpose of Čech cohomology is to compute the true cohomology. For simplification one may endow I with a total ordering < and consider the ordered complex: define C r <U, F) := FU i0... U ir ) i 0 <...<i r I and maps C r <U, F) C r <U, F) as before. The cohomology of C <U, F) is canonically isomorphic to the usual Čech cohomology. Theorem 6.2. Let X be a scheme and U = U i ) i I an open cover of X such that U i0... U ir is affine for all r 0. Then for all quasi-coherent O X -modules F and all r Z we have Ȟ r U, F) = H r X, F) as O X X)-modules. An important application is the computation of the cohomology of projective space. Theorem 6.3. Let A be a ring, n 0 and d Z. Then A[x 0,..., x n ] d if i = 0, H i P n A, Od)) = x 0 x n A[ x 0,..., xn ] ) if i = n, d 0 otherwise. This computation is a main ingredient in the proof of the following theorem. The remainder of the proof will be given next week. Theorem 6.4. Let f : X Y be a proper morphism of locally noetherian schemes. Let F be a coherent O X -module. Then R i f F is a coherent O Y -module for all i Z. 4

5 Yet another approach to cohomology computations is by a resolution in sheaves with known cohomology. For instance, let A be a ring, n 2, and f A[x 0,..., x n ] a non-zero homogeneous polynomial of degree d. Let j : X P n A be the closed subscheme defined by f. We have an exact sequence 0 O P n A d) O P n A j O X 0. The long exact sequence of higher direct images gives A if i = 0, H i X, O X ) = x 0 x n A[ x 0,..., xn ] ) if i = n, d 0 otherwise. See [Stacks 0ED, 0FG, 0X8, 0XS, 0203] for more details. 5

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