# IndCoh Seminar: Ind-coherent sheaves I

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1 IndCoh Seminar: Ind-coherent sheaves I Justin Campbell March 11, Finiteness conditions 1.1 Fix a cocomplete category C (as usual category means -category ). This section contains a discussion of finiteness conditions on objects of categories. Not all of the material will be used in Section 2, but it will be important later. Definition An object X of C is called compact if the functor C Spc corepresented by X preserves filtered colimits. Equivalently, for all filtered diagrams F : I C, any morphism X colim F factors through F (i) F for some i I. Suppose that C is le. Then the functor corepresented by an object X naturally factors through the functor Ω : Sptr Spc, where Sptr is the category of spectra. The resulting functor C Sptr preserves all colimits, or equivalently direct sums, if and only if X is compact. If C has the structure of a DG category over a field k, then one can replace Sptr by Vect and Ω by the Dold-Kan functor. Given a category C 0 with finite colimits, its ind-completion Ind(C 0 ) is a cocomplete category equipped with a functor C 0 Ind(C 0 ) (automatically fully faithful) with the property that for any cocomplete category D, restriction induces an equivalence from colimit-preserving functors Ind(C 0 ) D to right exact (i.e. finite-colimit preserving) functors C 0 D. More precisely, Ind is the left adjoint of the forgetful functor from cocomplete categories and colimit-preserving functors to categories with finite colimits and right exact functors. Informally speaking, Ind(C 0 ) is obtained from C 0 by freely adjoining filtered colimits. One can construct Ind(C 0 ) as follows: since the category of presheaves Fun(C op 0, Spc) is cocomplete, the Yoneda embedding extends to a functor Ind(C 0 ) Fun(C op 0, Spc), which is fully faithful with essential image consisting of functors which preserve finite limits. On functors Ind is the operation of right Kan extension. If C 0 is le or a (non-cocomplete) DG category then one can replace Spc with Sptr or Vect. In particular Ind(C 0 ) is then le or DG respectively. Proposition An object of Ind(C 0 ) is compact if and only if it is a retract of an object in C 0. Proof. We prove the only if implication, leaving the if direction to the interested reader. Suppose that X is a compact object of Ind(C 0 ) and write X colim i X i for some filtered diagram I C 0. But then by compactness the identity on X factors through some X i, which is to say X is a retract of X i. The following result will be used to define the t-structure on ind-coherent sheaves. Proposition If C 0 is a le category with a t-structure, then Ind(C 0 ) has a unique t-structure such that C 0 C is t-exact and τ 0 is continuous. 1

2 Proof. Observe that the inclusion C 0 0 C 0 induces a fully faithful functor C 0 := Ind(C 0 0 ) Ind(C 0 ) =: C. We claim that this subcategory defines a t-structure on C. The right adjoint to the inclusion is given by τ 0 := Ind(τ 0 ), and in particular is continuous. Now suppose X Y Z is an exact triangle where X and Z belong to C 0. Then Y = fib(z ΣX), and we can write X = colim X i and Z = colim j Z j for some filtered diagrams. Since τ 0 is a right adjoint and hence preserves limits, we have τ 0 Y fib(colim j τ 0 Z j colim i τ 0 X i ). But we know that τ 0 X i X i for every i and similarly for the Z j, so it follows that τ 0 Y Y. For a cocomplete category C we denote by C c the full subcategory of compact objects. We call C compactly generated if the canonical functor Ind(C c ) C is an equivalence. There is another way that one might formulate this notion: the subcategory generated by a collection of objects is the smallest cocomplete subcategory containing them. Proposition A cocomplete category C is compactly generated if and only if there is a collection of compact objects which generates C. Proof. The only if direction is simple, so we prove the if direction. The hypothesis is clearly equivalent to essential surjectivity of Ind(C c ) C, so let us show that this functor is always fully faithful. Fix objects X and Y of Ind(C c ), presented as X = colim i X i and Y = colim j Y j where i X i and j Y j are filtered diagrams in C c. We need to prove that Hom Ind(Cc)(X, Y ) Hom C (colimx i, colimy j ), i j where the colimits on the right hand side are taken in C. Indeed, both sides are identified with lim i colim j Hom Cc (X i, Y j ). Example An object of Vect is compact if and only if it is bounded with finite-dimensional cohomologies. More generally, for an almost finite type scheme S an object F of QCoh(S) is compact if and only if it is perfect. If S is classical then F is perfect if and only if it is isomorphic to a bounded complex of vector bundles. In general Perf(S) is the smallest full subcategory QCoh(S) which is le, contains O S, and is closed under taking direct summands. Moreover, QCoh(S) is compactly generated. The following is a very useful property of compactly generated categories in practice. Exercise Let F : C D be a continuous functor between compactly generated categories. Then the right adjoint G : D C, which exists by the adjoint functor theorem, is continuous if and only if F preserves compact objects. 1.2 Now suppose that C has a symmetric monoidal structure. Definition An object X of C is called dualizable if there exists an object X η : 1 X X and ɛ : X X 1 such that and morphisms X η id X X X X id X ɛ X is homotopic to id X and is homotopic to id X. X id X η X X X ɛ id X X 2

3 Suppose X is dualizable and fix X and ɛ : X X 1 as above. Then there is a canonical isomorphism X Y Hom C (X, Y ), where the latter object is the internal Hom which represents the functor Z Hom C (Z X, Y ). In particular there is a canonical choice of dual X = Hom C (X, 1), and we can take ɛ to be evaluation. Exercise Show that if X is dualizable in C then there is a canonical isomorphism X (X ), and deduce that X X extends to a contravariant autoequivalence of the full category of C consisting of dualizable objects. Exercise Suppose that C is cocomplete and that the tensor product preserves colimits in each variable. Prove that if the unit object of C is compact, then any dualizable object is compact. Example For an almost finite type scheme S, an object of QCoh(S) is dualizable if and only if it is perfect, so in this case dualizability is equivalent to compactness. Let Cat cocmpl be the category of cocomplete le categories with continuous and exact (i.e. colimitpreserving) functors. Recall that Cat cocmpl has a canonical symmetric monoidal structure, called the Lurie tensor product, whose unit is Sptr. C D C D such that for any E in Cat cocmpl For two cocomplete le categories C and D there is a functor the induced functor ex (C D, E ) Fun(C D, E ) is fully faithful with essential image consisting of functors C D E which are continuous and exact in each variable. Tensor product of complexes makes Vect into a commutative algebra object in Cat cocmpl, i.e. a symmetric monoidal category whose tensor product is continuous and exact in each variable. The category DGCat of DG categories can then be defined as the category of Vect-modules in Cat cocmpl. Exercise For any le categories C and D there is a canonical equivalence Ind(C D) Ind(C ) Ind(D). A dualizable category is a dualizable object of Cat cocmpl. Dualizable categories have favorable properties with respect to limits and colimits. The following result produces many examples of dualizable categories. Proposition A compactly generated le category C is dualizable with dual Ind((C c ) op ) ex (C, Sptr). Proof. The pairing ɛ is defined as the right Kan extension of along Under the canonical equivalence Hom : (C c ) op C c Sptr (C c ) op C c Ind((C c ) op C c ) Ind((C c ) op ) C. Ind((C c ) op ) ex (C, Sptr) one can show that ɛ is given by evaluation. We denote this category by C for notational convenience, although of course we have not yet proved the duality. We claim that for any category D in Cat cocmpl the functor C D ex (C, D) 3

4 which corresponds to C C D ɛ id D Sptr D = D is an equivalence. Once this is proved we can define η to be the unique continuous and exact functor Sptr End cts ex (C ) C C which sends the sphere spectrum to the identity, and from there it is not hard to check the necessary relations. It suffices to prove that for any E in Cat cocmpl the functor ex (Fun ex (C c, D), E ) ex ( ex (C, D), E ) ex (C D, E ) is an equivalence. First observe that passage to right adjoints and opposites defines an equivalence But now we have ex (Fun ex (C c, D), E ) ex (E op, Fun ex (C c, D) op ). ex (E op, Fun ex (C c, D) op ) ex (E op, Fun ex ((C c ) op, D op )) ex (E op, ex (C, D op )) ex (C, ex (E op, D op )) ex (C, ex (D, E )) ex (C D, E ). Let F : C D be a continuous exact functor between compactly generated le categories which preserves compact objects. Write F c : C c D c for the resulting functor, so we obtain Ind(F op c ) : C = Ind((C c ) op ) Ind((D c ) op ) = D. By Exercise 1.1.6, the assumption that F preserves compact objects is equivalent to continuity of the right adjoint G : D C. Thus we have another functor C D, namely the dual G. Proposition There is a canonical isomorphism Ind(F op c ) G. Proof. Observe that ex (C, D ) ex (C D, Sptr) Fun ex (Cc op D c, Sptr). One checks that Ind(Fc op ) corresponds to the functor while G corresponds to C op c C op D c C op D F op id D op G c D c C op D id C The adjunction of F and G identifies these functors. D op D Hom D Sptr, C op C Hom C Sptr. 2 Ind-coherent sheaves 2.1 In this section we begin to set up the theory of ind-coherent sheaves. We will define the pushforward and pullback functors, but stop short of discussing base change and Serre duality. Let S be a (derived) scheme. Recall that the DG category of quasi-coherent sheaves on S is defined by QCoh(S) := lim A-mod, Spec A S 4

5 where the limit runs over affine open subschemes of S. Observe that QCoh(S) has a natural t-stucture: an object F belongs to QCoh(S) 0 if, for every open embedding f : Spec A S, the pullback f F belongs to A-mod 0. This t-structure is compatible with filtered colimits, i.e. the truncation functor τ 0 is continuous. We take as given the the functor QCoh : Sch op DGCat, where Sch denotes the category of schemes. By passing to right adjoints we obtain QCoh : Sch DGCat. Assume from now on that S is almost of finite type, and in particular quasi-compact. Then the (noncocomplete) full subcategory Perf(S) (see Example 1.1.5) compactly generates QCoh(S), i.e. Ind(Perf(S)) QCoh(S). There is another subcategory of small objects in QCoh(S), namely the coherent complexes Coh(S). An object F of QCoh(S) belongs to Coh(S) if it is cohomologically bounded and all its cohomology sheaves are locally finitely generated. Observe that O S is coherent if and only if S is eventually coconnective, so in that case Perf(S) Coh(S) because Coh(S) is le and closed under taking direct summands. This inclusion is an equivalence if and only if S is a smooth classical scheme (for S classical this is a theorem of Serre). Definition The category of ind-coherent sheaves on S is IndCoh(S) := Ind(Coh(S)). By Proposition there is a unique t-structure on IndCoh(S) which is compatible with filtered colimits and extends the t-structure on Coh(S). Right Kan extension of the inclusion Coh(S) QCoh(S) produces a t-exact functor Ψ S : IndCoh(S) QCoh(S), which is an equivalence if and only if S is a smooth classical scheme. This functor admits a left adjoint Ξ S : QCoh(S) IndCoh(S), if and only if S is eventually coconnective. In that case Ξ S is fully faithful and Ψ S is essentially surjective. Lemma Let F be an object of QCoh(S) whose cohomology sheaves are finitely generated. Then for any n Z there exists F 0 in Perf(S) and a morphism F 0 F whose cofiber belongs to QCoh(S) n. Proof. Let m be the largest integer such that H m (F ) 0. Since F is a filtered colimit of objects in Perf(S) and H m (F ) is finitely generated, we can find a perfect complex G 1 and a map G 1 F such that H m (G 1 ) H m (F ) is surjective. Truncating if necessary, we can assume that G 1 belongs to Perf(S) m. The surjectivity implies that the cofiber of this morphism belongs to QCoh(S) m 1. Now apply the same procedure to the fiber of G 1 F to obtain G 1, and set G 2 = cofib(g 1 G 1 ). One checks that the canonical map G 2 F has cofiber belonging to QCoh(S) m 2. Iterating this procedure we find that if k m n then we can take F 0 = G k. Proposition The functor Ψ S induces an equivalence IndCoh(S) + QCoh(S) + on eventually coconnective objects. 5

6 Proof. Using shifts, we reduce to proving that Ψ S : IndCoh(S) 0 QCoh(S) 0. This functor is essentially surjective because any object of QCoh(S) 0 can be written as a filtered colimit of objects in Coh(S) 0. As for fully faithfulness, we will prove that Hom IndCoh(S) (F, G ) Hom QCoh(S) (Ψ S (F ), Ψ S (G )) for any G in IndCoh(S) 0 and any F in IndCoh(S), and moreover we can assume that F lies in Coh(S). As previously mentioned G can be written as a filtered colimit of objects in Coh(S) 0, so it suffices to show that the functor QCoh(S) 0 Vect 0 given by G τ 0 Hom QCoh(S) (F, G ) commutes with filtered colimits. Apply the lemma to obtain F 0 F where F 0 is perfect and the cofiber belongs to Coh(S) 1. This implies that and since F 0 is compact in QCoh(S) we are done. τ 0 Hom QCoh(S) (F, G ) τ 0 Hom QCoh(S) (F 0, G ), It follows that the kernel of Ψ S is the full subcategory IndCoh(S) nil consisting of objects F satisfying H n (F ) = 0 for all n Z. Example Let A := k[ɛ]/(ɛ 2 ) be the algebra of dual numbers and D := Spec A. Observe that δ 0 lies in Coh(D) but not Perf(D), because it has the projective resolution ɛ A ɛ A 0 and therefore H n (i δ 0 ) = k for all i 0. The short exact sequence 0 δ 0 O D δ 0 0 yields a nonzero morphism δ 0 δ 0 [1]. Shifting this, we obtain a directed system δ 0 δ 0 [1] δ 0 [2], which defines an object F nil in IndCoh(D). Clearly Ψ D (F nil ) = 0 because H n (F nil ) = 0 for all n Z, i.e. F nil belongs to IndCoh(D) nil (the cohomology escapes to ). Exercise Check that F 0 in IndCoh(D). It turns out that direct image of ind-coherent sheaves is easier to define than inverse image. Let f : S T be a morphism of almost finite type schemes. The pushforward functor f is left t-exact and in particular induces a functor QCoh(S) + QCoh(T ) +. We define the IndCoh direct image to be the right Kan extension of f IndCoh : IndCoh(S) IndCoh(T ) Coh(S) QCoh(S) + f QCoh(T ) + IndCoh(T ) + IndCoh(T ). When T = Spec k we write Γ IndCoh (S, F ) = f IndCoh F. Since the operation of right Kan extension is functorial, we obtain a functor where the subscript means almost of finite type. IndCoh : Sch DGCat, Exercise In the notation of Example 2.1.4, compute Γ IndCoh (D, F ). 6

7 2.2 The natural inverse image functor for ind-coherent sheaves is!-pullback. Namely, for any morphism f : S T of schemes almost of finite type, we will construct a functor Eventually, this will be upgraded to a functor f! : IndCoh(T ) IndCoh(S). IndCoh! : Sch op DGCat. First let us define, for f eventually coconnective, the -pullback functor findcoh. That hypothesis is equivalent to requiring that f sends QCoh(T ) + into QCoh(S) +, which implies that it sends Coh(T ) into Coh(S). We define findcoh : IndCoh(T ) IndCoh(S) to be the right Kan extension of Coh(T ) f Coh(S) IndCoh(S). Now if f is an open embedding (more generally, étale) then in particular it is eventually coconnective, and we define f! := findcoh. By functoriality of right Kan extensions this extends to IndCoh! : (Sch open ) op DGCat, where the superscript indicates that we only allow open embeddings. If f is proper (meaning it is proper on the level of classical schemes), then f IndCoh sends Coh(X) into Coh(Y ), so by Exercises and it admits a continuous right adjoint, which we also call f!. Since passing to right adjoints is functorial, we obtain a functor IndCoh! : (Sch proper ) op DGCat, where the superscript indicates that we only allow proper morphisms. Now recall the following well-known theorem of Nagata. Theorem Any morphism between (separated) classical schemes of finite type factorizes into an open embedding followed by a proper morphism. Exercise Find such a factorization for the morphism A 2 A 2 given by (x, y) (x, xy). In fact, Nagata s theorem immediately implies the same statement for derived schemes. For any S T the classical theorem yields a factorization S cl Z T cl. Define Z := Z S cl S, which fits into the desired factorization S Z T. So we can define f! for an arbitrary morphism f, but now it is not clear that this definition is independent of the chosen Nagata factorization. One can resolve this issue by proving that the category of Nagata factorizations of a given morphism is contractible. This implies that there is a unique functor IndCoh! : Sch op DGCat which restricts to the same-named functors on (Sch open ) op and (Sch proper ) op. Example Let us return to the situation of Example Let i : Spec k D be the unique point, so for any F in IndCoh(D) we have Thus i! lifts to a functor i! F = Hom IndCoh(D) (δ 0, F ). i! enh : IndCoh(D) B-mod r to right B-modules, where B = End Coh(D) (δ 0 ). It is not hard to check that i! is conservative, and since it is continuous and admits a left adjoint the Barr-Beck theorem implies that i! enh is an equivalence. In other words, δ 0 is a compact generator for IndCoh(D), so by derived Morita theory this category is identified with 7

8 right modules over B. Using the projective resolution from Example 2.1.4, one shows that B = k[ζ] is the free DG algebra on a single generator ζ in degree 1. This algebra is noncommutative, but there is a canonical isomorphism B B op given by ζ ζ. Let us try to describe the adjoint functors A-mod = QCoh(D) Ξ D Ψ D IndCoh(D) = B-mod r in terms of the algebra of A and B. One computes i! Ξ D (O D ) = k, which means Ξ D sends A to the augmentation B-module k. By continuity it follows that Ξ D (M) = k A M for any A-module M, where we use the isomorphism B B op to get a right B-action. We know that Ξ is fully faithful, which implies that A = End A (A) End B (k). Alternatively, one can show A = End B (k) directly using the exact triangle B[ 1] B k. It is straightforward to check that Ψ D sends M M B k. Exercise Show that the essential image of Ξ D consists of B-modules on which ζ acts locally nilpotently. Characterize IndCoh(D) nil and show that the object F nil from Exercise is a compact generator for IndCoh(D) nil. 8

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