# ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY: GLOSSARY AND EXAMPLES

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1 ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY: GLOSSARY AND EXAMPLES HONGHAO GAO FEBRUARY 7, 2014 Quasi-coherent and coherent sheaves Let X Spec k be a scheme. A presheaf over X is a contravariant functor from the category of open subsets of X to an abelian category. For example, there are presheaf of abelian groups, presheaf of rings and presheaf of modules, etc. A sheaf F is a presheaf with the following gluing conditions: (1) Suppose {U i } is an open cover of U. Take s F(U) a section over U, and denote s i be the restriction of s to U i. If that s i = 0 for all i, then s = 0. (2) Take a family of sections s i F(U i ). If s i Ui U j = s j Ui U j, then there exists a s F(U) such that s Ui = s i. Each presheaf can be associated with a unique sheaf. For example, let X be a topological space and G an abelian group with discrete topology. The constant presheaf associates each non-trivial open subset U with constant functions on U. The constant sheaf associates U with locally constant functions on U. Let O X denote the structure sheaf of X, which is a sheaf of ring. A sheaf of O X module F is a sheaf of abelian groups such that F(U) is a O X (U) module for any open subset U X. Let (X, O X ) be a ringed space. A quasi-coherent sheaf F is a sheaf of O X -module such that for any point p X, there is a affine open neighborhood p U = Spec A such that F U is isomorphic to the cokernel of a map j J O U i I O U. Let (X, O X ) be a ringed space. A sheaf F of O X -module is coherent if the following two conditions hold: (1) F is of finite type, (2) for every open U X and every finite collection s i F(U), i = 1,, n, the kernel of the associated map i=1,,n O u F U is of finite type. Example, let X be a scheme, and Y X is a closed subscheme. Then Y can be associated with a unique sheaf of ideal I Y. I Y is a quasi-coherent sheaf of O X -module. If X is Noetherian, I Y is coherent. Functorial properties: Let X = Spec A be an affine scheme (1) (Adjunction) Γ. For any sheaf of O X -module F, there is an isomorphism Hom A (M, Γ(F)) Hom OX ( M, F). (2) (Equivalence) There is an equivalence of categories {A-modules} {Quasi-coherent sheaves of O X -modules}. 1

2 ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY: GLOSSARY AND EXAMPLES 2 Suppose A is Noetherian (which implies X is Noetherian), then there is an equivalence of categories {Finitely generated A-modules} {Coherent sheaves of O X -modules} Let f : X Y be a morphism of schemes, (1) If G Qcoh(Y ), then f G Qcoh(X). (2) If F Qcoh(X), X is Noetherian, then f F Qcoh(Y ). (3) If X, Y are Noetherian, G Coh(Y ), then f G Coh(X). But if F Coh(X), f F may not be coherent. For example, X = Spec C[x, y], Y = Spec C[x]. f : X Y is the projection corresponding to the natural embedding C[x] C[x, y]. O X is a coherent sheaf, but Γ(f O X ) = C[x, y] is not a finitely generated Γ(O Y ) = C[x]-module. Invertible sheaves and divisors A Hom sheaf Hom OX (F, G) is the sheaf U Hom OU (F U, G U ). A tensor sheaf F OX G is a sheaf associates to the presheaf U F(U) OX (U) G(U). Let (X, O X ) be a ringed space. Assume all stalks O X,x are local rings. An invertible sheaf L on X is a sheaf of O X -modules such that for each point p X, there exists an open neighborhood U X and an isomorphism L U O X U. L is trivial if it is isomorphic as an O X -module to O X. Under the tensor operation, the set of invertible sheaves acquires a group structure. The inverse is given by L 1 = L = Hom(L, O X ), because L L = Hom(L, L) = O X. The Picard group Pic(X) is group of isomorphism classes of invertible sheaves on X. The addition corresponds to tensor product. Examples: 1. Let X = P r C = Proj S, S = C[z 0,, z n ] be the projective n-space. Then Pic(X) Z. The identity 0 is the structure sheaf O X. The generator 1 is the Serre s twisting sheaf O X (1) := S(1), where S(1) n = S n+1 is a graded S-module. O X (m) O X (n) O X (m + n). 2. Let E be an elliptic curve over C. Then the Picard group is Pic(E) Z Pic 0 (E). Z is the degree of the invertible sheaf. Pic 0 (E) consists of the degree 0 elements of Pic(E). Let X be a Noetherian, integral scheme. A prime divisor is a closed subscheme Z X, which is integral with generic point ξ Z such that O X,ξ has dimension 1. A Weil divisor on X is a formal linear combination n i [Z i ] of prime divisors Z i with integer coefficient. If X is a curve (dim X = 1), then divisors on X are points, which are zeros and poles. A Weil divisor is effective if all non-zero n i are positive. Each prime divisor Y determines a valuation ring v Y. Let f K be an invertible rational function, its associated divisor is (f) = v Y (f)y. Any divisor of such form is called a principal divisor. The divisor class group of X, denoted by Cl(X), is the group of Weil divisors modulo the principal ones. I.e, Cl(X) := Div(X)/, D D if D D is principal. Example: 1. X = Spec A is affine, then Cl(X) = 0. (C[x 1,, x n ] is UFD.) More generally, if A is a UFD, X = Spec A, then ClX = 0.

3 ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY: GLOSSARY AND EXAMPLES 3 2. X = P r, take Y = P r 1 X in the first r homogenous coordinates. Then Cl(X) = Z, where Z is generated by Y. In fact, take U = X Y, there is an exact sequence, Z Cl(X) Cl(U) 0. Since U = A r, which is affine, Z Cl(X) surjectively. By construction, elements in K are rational functions of degree 0, ny = 0 implies n = 0. Thus Cl(X) = Z. 3. Let X = Spec C[x, y, z]/(xy z 2 ). (This is a cone. x, y-axes are rulings.) Take Y be the x-axis, on which y = z = 0. Thus Y corresponds to the idea (y, z). If fact, if y = 0, then xy z 2 = 0 z 2 = 0 z = 0. The Y can be cut out by the function y. Then X Y = Spec A y. A y = C[x, y, y 1, z]/(xy z 2 ) = C[y, y 1, z], which is a UFD. Thus Cl(X Y ) = 0. By the short exact sequence, Z Cl(X) Cl(X Y ) 0. The principal divisor of y is 2Y. Because y = 0 z 2 = 0. z generates the maximal idea of the local ring at the generic point of Y. Y is not principal. A is integral closed, it is equivalent to show (y, z) is not principal. Let m = (x, y, z), then m/m 2 is a three dimensional C-vector space generated by ( x, ȳ, z). The image of (y, z) in m/m 2 contains at least (ȳ, z), which cannot be principal. Summarize the arguments, Cl(X) = Z/2Z. A Cartier divisor is a global section of K /O. In other words, it is a consist choice of {U i, f i }, f i Γ(U i, K ) such that {U i } is a cover for X and f i /f j Γ(U i U j, O ) for all i, j. If X is integral separated Noetherian scheme, all of whose local rings are UFDs (locally factorial), then Div(X) Γ(X, K /O ). The correspondence is given by valuation. A Cartier divisor is principal if it is in the image of Γ(X, K ) Γ(X, K /O ). Similarly, there is a divisor class group defined via Cartier divisors: CaCl(X) := Γ(X, K /O )/{principal divisors}. For any scheme X, there is a map CaCl(X) Pic(X). A Cartier divisor D is a collection {U i, f i }, f i Γ(U i, K ), which can be viewed as a trivialization of the line bundle, O Ui L(D) Ui, 1 f 1 i. The transition map from U i to U j, is thusly given by f i /f j O. The trivialization and the transition maps define an invertible sheaf L(D). Moreover, principal divisors defines a trivial invertible sheaf, via 1 f 1. If X is integral, then CaCl(X) Pic(X) is an isomorphism. Given an invertible sheaf L, we can associate a Weil divisor by the intersection of any meromorphic section s. [D] := v Y (s)[y ].

4 ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY: GLOSSARY AND EXAMPLES 4 Example: Elliptic curve E. Suppose D is a divisor of degree n, Pic(E) Z Pic 0 (E), [D] (n, [D] n[o]). Sheaf of differentials Let f : X Y be a morphism of schemes. The sheaf of relative differentials of X over Y, Ω X/Y is defined in the following equivalent ways, (1) Ω X/Y is the sheaf of differentials of f viewed as a morphism of ringed spaces equipped with it universal Y -derivation d X/Y : O X Ω X/Y. (2) Let F be any sheaf of O X -module, then Hom OX (Ω X/Y, F) Der Y (O X, F). (3) Then : X X Y X is a locally closed embedding. I.e. There is a open subscheme W X Y X such that : X W is a closed embedding. Let I be the sheaf of ideal of (X) in W. Then define Ω X/Y = (I/I 2 ) over X. Suppose Ω X/Y is locally free of rank n. Define the canonical sheaf to be the top exterior power of the sheaf of differentials, ω X/Y := n Ω X/Y. Examples: 1. Let X = P r, then ω X/k = O( r 1). 2. Let X = P r and Y is a divisor defined by a degree d polynomial. Then ω Y = O X L(Y ) O Y = O Y (d r 1). K 3 surfaces: Suppose r = 3 and Y is defined by z d 0 + z d 1 + z d 2 + z d 3. For Y to be a K 3 surface, its canonical sheaf has to be trivial. Then we have to take d = 4. Elliptic curves: Any elliptic curve E can be embedded into P 2. For r = 2, d = 3, we can calculate the canonical sheaf of E is ω E = O E (0). Hence the Canonical divisor is [O]. Sheaf cohomology Taking global sections is a left exact covariant function. Suppose is an exact sequence of sheaves over X, then 0 F F F 0 0 Γ(X, F ) Γ(X, F) Γ(X, F ). Let F be a sheaf over X. Then the sheaf cohomology is defined as the right derived functors of Γ. H i (X, F) := R i Γ(X, F). Let (X, O X ) be a ringed space, then the cohomology of sheaf of modules coincides with the cohomology of sheaf of abelian groups. Let Y X be a closed subspace of X. F is a sheaf of abelian groups on Y, j : Y X is the inclusion. j F coincides with the extension by zero. Then H i (Y, F) = H i (X, j F). Examples:

5 ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY: GLOSSARY AND EXAMPLES 5 1. Over affine schemes. Let X = Spec A be an affine scheme of a Noetherian ring A. F is an quasi-coherent sheaf over X. Then H i (X, F) = 0, for all i > X = P r C = Proj S, S = C[z 0,, z n ]. Then (a) S Γ (O X ) = n Z H 0 (X, O X (n)). (b) H i (X, O X (n)) = 0 for 0 < i < r and n Z. (c) H r (X, O X ( r 1)) = C. (d) There is a perfect paring of finitely generated free C-modules, H 0 (X, O X (n)) H r (X, O X ( n r 1)) C, for all n Z. Smooth morphisms A morphism f : X Y is a flat morphism if the induced map on every stalk is a flat map of rings, i.e., f p : O Y,f(p) O X,p is a flat map for all p X. Let X Y be a morphism of schemes. The the higher direct image functor R i f is defined to be the right derived functors of f. Let F be a sheaf over X, R i f (F), the higher direct images sheaves, is the sheaf associated with the presheaf on Y V H i (f 1 (V ), F f 1 (V )) for all i 0. The global sections of this sheaf are the regular sheaf cohomologies. Flat morphisms commute with higher direct cohomologies. Let f : X Y be a separated morphism of finite type of Noetherian schemes. u : Y Y is a flat base change of Noetherian schemes. X = X Y Y. g F Qcoh(X) is a quasi-coherent sheaf over X. Then for all i 0, X Y v u X Y u R i f (F) R i g (v F). Let f : X S be a morphism of schemes. f is smooth at p X if there exists a affine open neighborhood Spec A = U X and affine open Spec R = V S with f(u) V such that the induced ring map R A is smooth. f is smooth if it is smooth at every point of X. Let f : X S be a morphism of schemes. f is étale at p X if there exists a affine open neighborhood Spec A = U X and affine open Spec R = V S with f(u) V such that the induced ring map R A is étale. f is smooth if it is étale at every point of X. References [GH] P. Griffiths, J. Harris Principles of Algebraic Geoemtry, Wiley Classics Library 52, Wiley- Interscience, [H] R. Hartshorne Algebraic Geometry, Graduate Texts in Mathematics 52, Springer, [S] The Stacks project, f

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