# Synopsis of material from EGA Chapter II, 3

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1 Synopsis of material from EGA Chapter II, 3 3. Homogeneous spectrum of a sheaf of graded algebras 3.1. Homogeneous spectrum of a graded quasi-coherent O Y algebra. (3.1.1). Let Y be a prescheme. A sheaf of graded O Y algebras S = n S n is quasi-coherent iff each S n is; similarly for a graded S module M. The notations S (d), M(n), etc., are used analogously to those for graded algebras and modules [see (2.1.1)]. Let U = Spec(A) Y be an open affine. Then S U = S, where S = Γ(U, S) is a graded A algebra. Set X U = Proj(S). Given another affine U = Spec(A ) U, we have a ring homomorphism A A corresponding to U U, and the restriction homomorphism S S = Γ(U, S) is just the induced map S S = S A A (I, 1.6.4). Hence X U = X U U U by (2.8.10), i.e., X U = f 1 U (U ), where f U : X U U is the stucture morphism. Let ρ U,U : X U X U be the open immersion thus defined. Given U U U, we have ρ U,U = ρ U,U ρ U,U. Proposition (3.1.2). Given a quasi-coherent sheaf of positively graded O Y algebras S, there is a prescheme f : X Y over Y, unique up to canonical isomorphism, such that for every open affine U Y, f 1 (U) is identified with X U, in such a way that for every U U, the inclusion f 1 (U ) f 1 (U) is identified with ρ U,U. (3.1.3). The prescheme X in (3.1.2) is the homogeneous spectrum of S, denoted Proj(S). X is separated over Y by (2.4.2) and (I, 5.5.5), and if S is an O Y algebra of finite type (I, 9.6.2), then X is of finite type over Y. For any open U Y, we clearly have f 1 (U) = Proj(S U). Proposition (3.1.4). Let f Γ(Y, S d ), d > 0. There is an open subset X f X such that X f X U is the basic open set D + (f U) of X U for each affine U. In particular, X f = Spec(S (d) /(f 1)S (d) ) is affine over Y. We call X f the non-vanishing locus of f. Corollary (3.1.5). X fg = X f X g. Corollary (3.1.6). If (f α ) is a family of homogeneous sections of S, and if the sheaf of ideals in S that they generate contains S n for all sufficiently large n, then the open sets X fα cover X. Corollary (3.1.7). If A is a quasi-coherent sheaf of O Y algebras, then Proj(A[t]) = Spec(A). In particular, Proj(O Y [t]) = Y. Proposition (3.1.8). (i) Proj(S) = Proj(S (d) ) as a Y -scheme [see (2.4.7, (i))]. (ii) Let S = O Y n>0 S n. Then Proj(S) = Proj(S ) as a Y -scheme [see (2.4.8)]. (iii) Let L be an invertible sheaf on Y, and let S (L) = n (S n OY L n ). Then there is a canonical isomorphism of Y -schemes Proj(S) = Proj(S (L) ). (3.1.9). By (0, 4.1.3) and (I, ), S 1 generates S iff Γ(U α, S 1 ) generates Γ(U α, S), for all U α in an affine covering; and if so, this holds for every affine U Y. 1

2 2 Proposition (3.1.10). Suppose Y has a finite affine open covering (U i ) such that each Γ(U i, S) is of finite type over Γ(U i, O Y ). Then for some d, S (d) is generated by S d, and S d is an O Y module of finite type. Corollary (3.1.11). Under the hypotheses of (3.1.10), Proj(S) = Proj(S ), where S is generated as an O Y algebra by S 1, which is a finitely generated O Y module. (3.1.12). Let N be the nilradical of S. It s quasi-coherent by (I, 5.5.1). Put N + = N S +, a graded S 0 module by (2.1.10). We call S essentially reduced if N + = 0, which is equivalent to S y being essentially reduced [see (2.1.10)] for all y Y. We call S integral if S y is an integral domain with (S y ) + 0 for all y Y. Proposition (3.1.13). If X = Proj(S), then X red = Proj(S/N+ ). In particular, X is reduced if S is essentially reduced [seee (2.4.4, (i))]. Proposition (3.1.14). Let Y be an integral prescheme, S a graded quasi-coherent O Y algebra such that S 0 = O Y. (i) If S is integral (3.1.12), then X = Proj(S) is integral, and the structure morphism φ: X Y is dominant. (ii) Conversely, if S is essentially reduced, X is integral, and φ is dominant, then S is integral Sheaf on Proj(S) associated to a graded S module. (3.2.1). Let S be a quasi-coherent sheaf of graded O Y modules, M a quasi-coherent sheaf of graded S modules (quasi-coherent as an S module sheaf equivalently as an O Y module sheaf). Keeping the notation of (3.1.1), let M U be the sheaf on X U associated to Γ(U, M) (2.5.3). If U U, then Γ(U, M) = Γ(U, M) A A, hence M U = ρ M U,U U = M U X U. Proposition (3.2.2). There is a unique quasi-coherent O X module M such that M X U = M U for all open affines U Y. Proposition (3.2.3). Let f Γ(Y, S d ), d > 0. The isomorphism X f = Spec(S (d) / (f 1)S (d) ) identifies M X f with the sheaf associated to the S (d) /(f 1)S (d) module M (d) / (f 1)M (d) [see (2.8.12)]. Proposition (3.2.4). M M is an exact, covariant functor, which preserves direct sums and direct limits. In particular, if J S is a homogeneous ideal sheaf, then J is a sheaf of ideals in O X. If I is a sheaf of ideals in O Y, then (IM) = I M. Proposition (3.2.5). Let f S d. The restriction of S(nd) to X f is isomorphic to O Xf [with generating section f n ]. In particular, if S 1 generates S, then each S(n) is invertible [see ( )].

3 3 As before, we define ( ) ( ) O X (n) = S(n), F X (n) = F OX O X (n). Proposition (3.2.6). There are canonical, functorial homomorphisms ( ) ( ) λ: M OX Ñ (M S N ), µ: Hom S (M, N ) Hom OX ( M, Ñ ). If S 1 generates S, then λ is an isomorphism, and if in addition M is finitely presented, then µ is an isomorphism [see ( )]. Corollary (3.2.7). [see (2.5.14)] If S 1 generates S, then for all m, n Z, ( ) ( ) O X (m) OX O X (n) = O X (m + n) O X (n) = O X (1) n. Corollary (3.2.8). [see (2.5.15)] If S 1 generates S, then (M(n)) = M(n). Remarks (3.2.9). (i) If S = A[t] as in (3.1.7), then O X (n) = O X for all n. If N is a quasi-coherent sheaf of A modules, M = N A A[t], then M is the sheaf on X = Spec(A) associated to N as in (1.4.3). (ii) If S 0 = O Y, S n = S n for n > 0, then the canonical isomorphism X = X identifies O X (n) with O X (n). If X (d) = Proj(S (d) ), the canonical isomorphism X = X (d) identifies O X (d)(n) with O X (nd) [see (2.5.16)]. Proposition (3.2.10). Let L be an invertible sheaf on Y. The canonical isomorphism X (L) = Proj(S (L) ) = X = Proj(S) in (3.1.8, (iii)) identifies O X(L) (n) with O X (n) Y L n Graded S module associated with a sheaf on Proj(S). In this section we assume that S 1 generates S. Recall that by (3.1.8 (i)), this is no essential restriction when the finiteness conditions in (3.1.10) hold. (3.3.1). Let p: X = Proj(S) Y be the structure morphism. For any sheaf of O X modules F, put ( ) Γ (F) = n Z In particular, ( ) Γ (O) = n Z p (F(n)). p (O(n)). The canonical homomorphism (0, 4.2.2) p (F) OY p (G) p (F OX G) makes Γ (O) a graded O Y algebra, and Γ (F) a graded Γ (O) module. The functor Γ ( ) is left exact; in particular, if J O X is an ideal sheaf, then Γ (J ) is a homogeneous ideal sheaf in Γ (O).

4 4 (3.3.2). As in (2.6.2), for any graded S module M, there is a canonical homomorphism of graded sheaves ( ) α: M Γ ( M). In particular, α: S Γ (O) is a homomorphism of sheaves of graded algebras, which makes Γ ( M) a graded S module, and ( ) an S module homomorphism. Note that α n induces p (M n ) M(n); this is the sheaf homomorphism associated by (3.2.4) to the canonical graded O Y module homomorphism M n OY S M(n). Proposition (3.3.3). Given f Γ(X, S d ), d > 0, X f is the non-vanishing locus of the section α d (f) of the invertible sheaf O X (d). (3.3.4). Suppose now that for every quasi-coherent F on X, the sheaves p (F) and hence Γ (F) are quasi-coherent on Y. In particular, this holds if X is of finite type over Y (I, 9.2.2). Then Γ (F) is defined and quasi-coherent on X. As in (2.6.4), there is a canonical homomorphism ( ) β : Γ (F) F. Proposition (3.3.5). Let M be a quasi-coherent graded S module, F a quasi-coherent sheaf on O X. Then each of the following maps in the identity [see (2.6.5)]: ( ) ( ) M α Γ ( M) β M, Γ (F) α Γ (Γ (F) ) Γ (β) Γ (F) Finiteness conditions. Proposition (3.4.1). Let S be a quasi-coherent sheaf of graded O Y algebras, generated by S 1, and suppose further that S 1 is an O Y module of finite type. Then X = Proj(S) is of finite type over Y [see (2.7.1, (ii))]. (3.4.2). Consider two conditions on a graded S module M: (TF) There exists n such that k n M k is a sheaf of S modules of finite type; (TN) There exists n such that M k = 0 for k n. The terminology of (2.7.2) will be used in this context also. Proposition (3.4.3). [see (2.7.3)] Assume that S 1 is of finite type and generates S. (i) If M satisfies (TF), then M is of finite type. (ii) If M satisfies (TF), then M = 0 if and only if M satisfies (TN). Theorem (3.4.4). Assume that S 1 is of finite type and generates S. For every quasicoherent sheaf of O X modules F, the canonical homomorphism β in (3.3.4) is an isomorphism [see (2.7.5)].

5 Corollary (3.4.5). Under the hypotheses of (3.4.4), every quasi-coherent O X module F is of the form M for some graded S module M [see (2.7.7)]. If F is of finite type, and if Y is quasi-compact and separated, or if its underlying space is Noetherian, then M can be taken to be of finite type [see (2.7.8) the hypotheses on Y serve to imply that X is quasi-compact, by (3.4.1)]. Corollary (3.4.6). Under the hypotheses of (3.4.4), suppose further that Y is quasicompact, and F is of finite type. Then the canonical homomorphism σ : p (p (F(n))) F(n) is surjective for all sufficiently large n. Remarks (3.4.7). For any morphism p: X Y of ringed spaces, and O X module F, the surjectivity of σ : p (p (F)) F amounts to the following: for every x X and every section s of F on a neighborhood V of x, there is a neighborhood U of p(x) in Y, a neighborhood W V p 1 (U) of x, and finitely many sections t i F(p 1 (U)) and a i O X (W ), such that s W = i a i (t i W ). If Y is an affine scheme, and p (F) is quasi-coherent, this is equivalent to F being generated by its global sections on X. Hence for any morphism p: X Y of preschemes, and any quasi-coherent O X module F such that p (F) is quasi-coherent, the following are equivalent: (a) σ : p (p (F)) F is surjective; (b) there exists a quasi-coherent O Y module G such that p (G) F is surjective; (c) for every open affine U Y, F p 1 (U) is generated by its sections on p 1 (U). Corollary (3.4.8). Under the hypotheses of (3.4.4), suppose that Y is quasi-compact and separated, or its underlying space is Noetherian. Let F be a quasi-coherent O X module of finite type. Then for sufficiently large n, F is isomorphic to a quotient of an O X module of the form (p (G))( n), where G is a quasi-coherent O Y module of finite type (depending on n) Functorial behavior. (3.5.1). Let φ: S S be a homomorphism of graded quasi-coherent O Y algebras, and set X = Proj(S), X = Proj(S ), with structure morphisms p: X Y, p : X Y. For each open affine U Y, the homomorphism φ U : Γ(U, S ) = S U S U = Γ(U, S) induces a U-morphism Φ U : G(φ U ) X U, by (2.8.1). For V U, we have G(φ V ) = G(φ U ) p 1 (V ), and Φ V is the restriction of Φ U to G(φ V ). Hence there is an open set G(φ) X such that G(φ) p 1 (U) = G(φ U ) for every affine U, and a morphism Φ: G(φ) X whose restriction to G(φ U ) is Φ U. If every y Y has a neighborhood U such that φ U ((S U ) +) generates (S U ) + [or more generally, such that the radical of the ideal it generates contains (S U ) + ], then G(φ) = X. Proposition (3.5.2). (M [φ] ) = Φ ( M). (i) [see (2.8.7)] If M is a quasi-coherent graded S module, then 5

6 6 (ii) [see (2.8.8)] If M is a quasi-coherent graded S module, there is a canonical fucntorial homomorphism Φ ( M ) (M S S) G(φ). If S 1 generates S, it is an isomorphism. In particular, for each n there is a canonical homomorphism ( ) Φ (O X (n)) O X (n) G(φ). Proposition (3.5.3). Given a morphism ψ : Y Y, and a quasi-coherent graded O Y algebra S, set S = ψ S. Then Proj(S ) = Proj(S) Y Y, and if M is a quasi-coherent graded S module, then ψ (M) = M Y O Y. Corollary (3.5.4). In the setting of (3.5.3), O X (n) = O X (n) Y Y, where X = Proj(S ), X = Proj(S). (3.5.5). Keeping the preceding notation, let Ψ: X X be the canonical morphism, and set M = ψ (M). Assume that S 1 generates S and that X is of finite type over Y ; then the same hold for S, X, Y. Given an O X module F, set F = Ψ (F). By (3.5.4) and (0, 4.3.3), we have F (n) = Ψ (F(n)). Let q : X Y, q : X Y be the structure morphisms. The canonical homomorphism F(n) Ψ (Ψ (F(n))) = Ψ (F (n)) gives rise to q (F(n)) q (Ψ (F (n))) = ψ (q (F (n))). Hence we have a canonical Ψ-homomorphism θ : Γ (F) Γ (F ). Then ( ) yield commutative diagrams F F β F β F Γ (F) θ Γ (F ), Γ ( M) θ Γ ( M ) α M α M M M, where the unlabelled horizontal arrows are the canonical Ψ- or ψ-morphisms. (3.5.6). Now suppose given a morphism g : Y Y, a graded quasi-coherent O Y algebra (resp. O Y algebra) S (resp. S ), and a g-homomorphism of graded algebras u: S S (i.e., a homomorphism u: S g (S ), or equivalently u : g (S) S ). This gives a Y -morphism G(u ) Proj(g (S)) = X Y Y, where X = Proj(S), and G(u ) is open in X = Proj(S ). Composing with the projection of X Y Y on X, we get a morphism v : G(u ) X, denoted v = Proj(u), and commutative diagram G(u ) X Y v g Y.

7 7 To any quasi-coherent graded S module M there corresponds a canonical v-morphism ( ) υ : M (g (M) g (S) S ) G(u ), and if S 1 generates S, then υ is an isomorphism. In particular, we have ( ) υ : O X (n) O X (n) G(u ) Closed subschemes of Proj(S). (3.6.1). Using (3.1.8), the analog of (2.9.1) holds for a homomorphism of graded quasicoherent O Y -alebras φ: S S. Proposition (3.6.2). [see (2.9.2)] Let X = Proj(S). (i) If φ: S S is (TN)-surjective, then the associated morphism Φ = Proj(φ) (3.5.1) is defined on all of Proj(S ) and is a closed immersion into X. If I = ker(φ), the image of Φ is the closed subscheme defined by the ideal sheaf Ĩ O X. (ii) Suppose further that S 0 = O Y, S 1 generates S, and S 1 is of finite type. Let X X be a closed subscheme, defined by a quasi-coherent sheaf of ideals I O X, and let J S be the preimage of Γ (I) under α: S Γ (O X ) (3.3.2). Set S = S/J. Then X is the image of the closed immersion Proj(S ) X associated to the canonical surjection S S. Corollary (3.6.3). (2.9.3)]. In (3.6.2, (i)), if S 1 generates S, then Φ (O X (n)) = O X (n) [see Corollary (3.6.4). Let S be a quasi-coherent sheaf of graded O Y algebras such that S 1 generates S, let u: M S 1 be a surjective homomorphism of quasi-coherent O Y modules, and let u: S OY (M) S be the graded algebra homomorphism that extends u (1.7.4). Then the morphism Proj(u) is a closed immersion of Proj(S) into Proj(S OY (M)) Morphisms from a prescheme to a homogeneous spectrum. (3.7.1). Let q : X Y be a morphism of preschemes, L an invertible O X module, S a graded quasi-coherent O Y algebra; then q (S) is a graded quasi-coherent O X algebra. Suppose given a graded O X algebra homomorphism ψ : q (S) S = n 0 L n, or equivalently, a q-morphism of graded algebras ψ : S q (S ). Now, Proj(S ) = X, by (3.1.7) and (3.1.8, (iii)), so we get an open subset G(ψ) X and a Y -morphism ( ) r L,ψ : G(ψ) Proj(S) = P associated to L and ψ, as in (3.5.6).

8 8 (3.7.2). Let us describe r = r L,ψ more explicitly when Y = Spec(A) is affine, so S = S. First suppose X = Spec(B) affine and L = L, where L is a free B module of rank 1, with generator c, say. Then ψ corresponds to a graded A algebra homomorphism S A B B[c], necessarily of the form (s b) bv(s)c n for s S n, where v : S B is an (ungraded) A algebra homomorphism. Given f S d, set g = v(f). Then r 1 (D + (f)) = D(g), and the restriction r : D(g) D + (f) corresponds to the ring homomorphism S (f) S f B g induced by v. Here G(ψ) is the union of such open sets D(g) X. The generalization to arbitrary X (Y still affine) is as follows. Proposition (3.7.3). have If Y = Spec(A) is affine and S = S, then for every f S d, we ( ) r 1 L,ψ (D +(f)) = X ψ (f) (where ψ (f) Γ(X, L d )) and the restriction X ψ (f) D + (f) = Spec(S (f) ) corresponds (I, 2.2.4) to the algebra homomorphism ( ) ψ f : S (f) Γ(X ψ (f), O X ) given, for s S nd, by ( ) ψ (f)(s/f n ) = (ψ (s) X ψ (f))/(ψ (f) X ψ (f)) n. Note that G(ψ) is the union of the open sets X ψ (f) for f S d, d > 0. We say that r L,ψ is defined everywhere if G(ψ) = X. This property is local with respect to Y. Corollary (3.7.4). Under the hypotheses of (3.7.3), r L,ψ is defined everywhere if and only if for every x X there exists d > 0 and s S d such that t = ψ (s) Γ(X, L n ) satisfies t(x) 0. This condition always holds if ψ is (TN)-surjective. Similarly, the property that r L,ψ is dominant is local on Y, and for Y affine, we have: Corollary (3.7.5). Under the hypotheses of (3.7.3), r L,ψ is dominant if and only if for every n > 0, every s S n such that ψ (s) Γ(X, L n ) is locally nilpotent, is itself nilpotent. Proof: the condition says that if r 1 L,ψ (D +(s)) is empty, then D + (s) is empty [see (2.3.7)]. Proposition (3.7.6). Given a morphism q : X Y, an invertible O X module L, quasicoherent graded O Y algebras S, S, and algebra homomorphisms u: S S, ψ : q (S) n 0 L n, let ψ = ψ q (u). If r L,ψ is defined everywhere, then so is r L,ψ. If u is (TN)- surjective and r L,ψ is dominant, then so is r L,ψ. Conversely, if u is (TN)-injective and r L,ψ is dominant, then so is r L,ψ. Proposition (3.7.7). Let Y be a quasi-compact prescheme, q : X Y a quasi-compact morphism, L an invertible O X module, S a quasi-coherent graded O Y algebra, ψ : q (S) n 0 L n an algebra homomorphism. Suppose S is the inductive limit of a filtered system of quasi-coherent graded O Y algebras (S λ ), and set ψ λ = ψ q (φ λ ), where φ λ : S λ S is the canonical homomorphism. Then r L,ψ is defined everywhere if and only if some r L,ψλ is defined everywhere; in that case r L,ψµ is defined everywhere for all µ λ.

9 Corollary (3.7.8). Under the hypotheses of (3.7.7), if the r L,ψλ are dominant, then so is r L,ψ. The converse holds if the φ λ are injective. Remarks (3.7.9). (i) With the notation of (3.7.1), there is a canonical homomorphism ( ) θ : r L,ψ(O P (n)) L n. defined as in ( ). (ii) Let F be a quasi-coherent O X module. Suppose q quasi-compact and separated, whence q (F L n ) is quasi-coherent on Y. Then M = n F L n is a quasi-coherent graded S module, and M = q (M ) = n q (F L n ) is a quasi-coherent S module via ψ. There is a canonical O X module homomorphism ( ) ξ : r L,ψ( M) F G(ψ) Criteria for immersion into a homogeneous spectrum. (3.8.1). With the notation of (3.7.1), the property that r L,ψ is an (open, closed) immersion is local on Y. Proposition (3.8.2). Under the hypotheses of (3.7.3), r L,ψ is defined everywhere and is an immersion if and only if there exist sections s α S nα (n α > 0) such that, setting f α = ψ (s α ), the following hold: (i) The open sets X fα cover X. (ii) The X fα are affine. (iii) For every α and every t Γ(X fα, O X ), there exists m > 0 and s S mnα such that t = (ψ (s) X fα )/(f α X fα ) m. Moreover, r L,ψ is an open immersion if there exists (s α ) satisfying (i)-(iii) and: (iv) For every m > 0 and s mn α such that ψ (s) X fα = 0, there exists k such that s k αs = 0. Likewise, r L,ψ is a closed immersion if there exists (s α ) satisfying (i)-(iii) and: (v) The open sets D + (s α ) cover P = Proj(S). Corollary (3.8.3). Under the hypotheses of (3.7.6), if r L,ψ is defined everywhere and is an immersion, then so is r L,ψ. If in addition u is (TN)-surjective and r L,ψ is an open (resp. closed) immersion, then so is r L,ψ. Proposition (3.8.4). Assume the hypotheses of (3.7.7) and also that q : X Y is of finite type. Then r L,ψ is defined everywhere and is an immersion if and only if the same holds for some r L,λ, in which case it also holds for r L,µ, for all µ λ. Proposition (3.8.5). Assume that Y is quasi-compact and separated, or that its underlying space is Noetherian. Let q : X Y be a morphism of finite type, L an invertible O X module, S a quasi-coherent graded O Y algebra, ψ : S n 0 L n a graded algebra homomorphism. Then r L,ψ is defined everywhere and is an immersion if and only if there exist n > 0 and a sub-o Y module E S n of finite type such that: 9

10 10 (a) the homomorphism ψ n q (j n ): q (E) L n (where j n : E S n is the inclusion) is surjective; and (b) letting S be the (graded) sub-o Y algebra of S generated by E, j : S S the inclusion, and ψ = ψ q (j ), r L,ψ is defined everywhere and is an immersion. When these conditions hold, they also hold for every quasi-coherent sub-o Y module E E S n, and for the image of E k in S kn.

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