Lectures on Grothendieck Duality II: Derived Hom Tensor adjointness. Local duality.


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1 Lectures on Grothendieck Duality II: Derived Hom Tensor adjointness. Local duality. Joseph Lipman Purdue University Department of Mathematics February 16, 2009 Joseph Lipman (Purdue University) II: Hom Tensor adjunction. Local duality. February 16, / 20
2 Outline 1 Leftderived functors. Tensor and Tor. 2 Hom Tensor adjunction. 3 Abstract local duality. 4 Concrete local duality. 5 Residues and duality for power series rings. Joseph Lipman (Purdue University) II: Hom Tensor adjunction. Local duality. February 16, / 20
3 1. Derived functors Q A : K(A) D(A) denotes the canonical functor from the homotopy category of an abelian category A to its derived category. Let A 1, A 2 be abelian categories, and set Q i := Q Ai. Let γ : K(A 1 ) K(A 2 ) be a functor. A rightderived functor (Rγ, ζ) of γ consists of a functor Rγ : D(A 1 ) D(A 2 ) and a functorial map ζ : Q 2 γ RγQ 1 such that every functorial map Q 2 γ Γ where Γ: K(A 1 ) D(A 2 ) takes quasiisomorphisms to isomorphisms, factors uniquely as Q 2 γ ζ RγQ 1 Γ. In other words, in the category whose objects are functorial maps from Q 2 γ to variable Γ as above, the map ζ(e): Q 2 γ RγQ 1 is an initial object, and thus it is unique up to canonical isomorphism. Joseph Lipman (Purdue University) II: Hom Tensor adjunction. Local duality. February 16, / 20
4 Dually: A leftderived functor (Rγ, ξ) of γ consists of a functor Lγ : D(A 1 ) D(A 2 ) and a functorial map ξ : LγQ 1 Q 2 γ such that every functorial map Γ Q 2 γ where Γ: K(A 1 ) D(A 2 ) takes quasiisomorphisms to isomorphisms, factors uniquely as Γ LγQ 1 ξ Q2 γ. Here ξ is a final object in the appropriate category of functorial maps. Joseph Lipman (Purdue University) II: Hom Tensor adjunction. Local duality. February 16, / 20
5 Tensor product We ve already seen some rightderived functors, RΓ I ( ) and RHom(, ). Describe next an important example of a leftderived functor. The tensor product C R D of two Rcomplexes is such that (C R D) n = i+j=n C i R D j, the differential d n : (C R D) n (C R D) n+1 being determined by d n (x y) = d i C x y + ( 1)i x d j D y (x C i, y D j ). Fixing D, we get a functor γ D := R D : K(R) K(R), that, together with θ := the identity map of C[1] R D = (C R D)[1], is a functor. There is an isomorphism ρ: γ C (D):= C R D D R C = γ C D taking x y to ( 1) ij y x. There is a then a unique functor (γ C, θ ) such that ρ is functorial. The map θ : γ C (D[1]) γ C (D)[1] is not the identity: its restriction to C i R D j is multiplication by ( 1) i. Joseph Lipman (Purdue University) II: Hom Tensor adjunction. Local duality. February 16, / 20
6 qflat resolutions One gets a leftderived functor = R D of γ D as follows: An Rcomplex F is qflat if for every exact Rcomplex E (i.e., H i E = 0 for all i), F R E is exact too. Equivalently: the functor F R preserves quasiisomorphism. (By the exactness of the homology sequence of a triangle, a map of complexes is a quasiisomorphism if and only if its cone is exact, and tensoring with F commutes with forming cones.) For example, any boundedabove (i.e., vanishing above some degree) flat complex is qflat. Every Rcomplex C has a qflat resolution, i.e., there is a qflat complex F equipped with a quasiisomorphism F C. This can be constructed as a lim of boundedabove flat resolutions of truncations of C. For example, a flat resolution of an Rmodule M F 2 F 1 F 0 M 0 can be viewed as a qflat resolution of M (as a complex). Joseph Lipman (Purdue University) II: Hom Tensor adjunction. Local duality. February 16, / 20
7 Leftderived tensor product After choosing for each C a qflat resolution F C C, one shows there exists a leftderived functor = R D of γ D with C = R D = F C R D If F D D is a qflat resolution, there are natural D(R)isomorphisms C R F D F C R F D F C R D, so any of these complexes could be used to define C = R D. Using F C R F D one can, as before, make C = R D into a functor of both variables C and D. As such, it has a initialobject property as above, but with respect to twovariable functors. Taking homology produces the (hyper)tor functors Tor i (C, D) = H i (C = R D). Joseph Lipman (Purdue University) II: Hom Tensor adjunction. Local duality. February 16, / 20
8 2. Hom Tensor adjunction Relations between Ext and Tor e.g., as we ll see, Local Duality are neatly encapsulated by a derivedcategory upgrade of the basic adjoint associativity relation between Hom and. For Rmodules E, F, G, adjoint associativity is the isomorphism Hom R (E R F, G) Hom R ( E, HomR (F, G) ) that takes φ: E R F G to φ : E Hom R (F, G) where [φ (e)](f ) = φ(e f ) (e E, f F ). More generally, with ϕ: R S a homomorphism of commutative rings, E, F, Scomplexes and G an Rcomplex, an isomorphism of Scomplexes Hom R (E S F, G) Hom S( E, Hom R (F, G) ) (adj) that in degree n takes a family ( φ ij : E i S F j G i+j+n) to the family ( φ i : E i Hom i+n R (F, G)) with φ i (e) = ( φ ij (e): F j G i+j+n) where [φ ij(e)](f ) = φ ij (e f ) (e E i, f F j ). Joseph Lipman (Purdue University) II: Hom Tensor adjunction. Local duality. February 16, / 20
9 Derived adjoint associativity With ϕ: R S as before, let ϕ : D(S) D(R) denote the obvious restriction of scalars functor. For a fixed Scomplex E, the functor Hom R (E, G) from Rcomplexes G to Scomplexes has a rightderived functor from D(R) to D(S) (gotten via qinjective resolution of G), denoted RHom ϕ(e, G). If we replace G in (adj) by a qinjective resolution, and F by a qflat one, then the Scomplex Hom R (F, G) is easily seen to become qinjective; and consequently (adj) gives a D(S)isomorphism α(e, F, G): RHom ϕ(e = S F, G) RHom ( S E, RHom ϕ (F, G) ) The map α is functorial. Showing this requires some additional grinding. Joseph Lipman (Purdue University) II: Hom Tensor adjunction. Local duality. February 16, / 20
10 Derived Hom Tensor adjunction α does not depend on the choices of resolutions made above: it is canonically characterized by commutativity, for all E, F and G, of the following otherwise natural D(S)diagram (where H stands for Hom ): H R (E F, G) RH R (ϕ (E F ), G) RH R (ϕ (E = F ), G) (adj) α H S( E, H R (F, G) ) RH S( E, H R (F, G) ) RH ( S E, RH R (ϕ F, G) ) Application of the functor H 0 to α yields a functorial isomorphism Thus: Hom D(R) ( ϕ (E = S F ), G ) Hom D(S) ( E, RHom ϕ (F, G) ), For fixed F D(S), there is a natural adjunction between the functors ϕ ( = S F ): D(S) D(R) and RHom R (ϕ F, ): D(R) D(S). Joseph Lipman (Purdue University) II: Hom Tensor adjunction. Local duality. February 16, / 20
11 3. Abstract local duality Recall briefly the connection between RΓ I and Koszul complexes. R is a commutative noetherian ring; := R. t = (t 1,..., t m ) is a sequence in R, generating the ideal I := tr. For t R, let K(t) be the complex that in degrees 0 and 1 is the usual map from R to the localization R t, and that vanishes elsewhere. For any Rcomplex C, define the stable Koszul complex K(t):= K(t 1 ) K(t m ), K(t, C ):= K(t) C. Since the complex K(t) is flat and bounded, hence qflat, K(t, ) takes quasiisomorphisms to quasiisomorphisms and so may and will be regarded as a functor from D(R) to D(R). Given a qinjective resolution C E C we have for E = E j C (j Z), whence a D(R)map Γ I E = ker ( K 0 (t, E) = E m i=1 E ti = K 1 (t, E) ), δ(c ): RΓ I C = Γ I E C K(t, E C ) = K(t, C ). Joseph Lipman (Purdue University) II: Hom Tensor adjunction. Local duality. February 16, / 20
12 RΓ I and Koszul, continued The following proposition is a key to many properties of Γ I. (Details in 3 of Lectures on Local Cohomology... ) Proposition The D(R)map δ(c) is a functorial isomorphism RΓ I C K(t, C ). Since K(t, C) = K(t, R) C and K(t, R) = RΓ I R is qflat, therefore: Corollary There is a functorial D(R) isomorphism Taking homology, one gets: RΓ I C (RΓ I R) = C. H i I (C) = Hi RΓ I C = Tor i (RΓ I R, C) (i Z). Joseph Lipman (Purdue University) II: Hom Tensor adjunction. Local duality. February 16, / 20
13 Local duality Let J be an Sideal. Let ϕ J # : D(R) D(S) be the functor ϕ # J (G):= RHom ϕ(rγ J S, G) = RHom S( RΓJ S, RHom ϕ(s, G) ) ( G D(R)), the isomorphism being derived by setting E = RΓ J S and F = S in the derived adjoint associativity isomorphism α(e, F, G): RHom ϕ(e = S F, G) RHom S( E, RHom ϕ (F, G) ). For E D(S) and G D(R), one has then functorial D(S)isomorphisms RHom ϕ(rγ J E, G) RHom ϕ(e = S RΓ J S, G) ( α RHom S E, ϕ # J G ). Application of the functor H 0 ϕ produces the local duality isomorphism Hom D(R) (ϕ RΓ J E, G) Hom D(S) (E, ϕ # J G), an adjunction between the functors ϕ RΓ J and ϕ # J. Joseph Lipman (Purdue University) II: Hom Tensor adjunction. Local duality. February 16, / 20
14 4. Concrete local duality Henceforth, all rings are noetherian as well as commutative. Concrete versions of local duality convey more information about ϕ J #. Suppose, for example, that S is modulefinite over R, and let G D c (R), i.e., each homology module of G D(R) is finitely generated. Suppose also that Ext i R (S, G) is a finitelygenerated Rmodule for all i Z, i.e., RHom R (ϕ S, G) D c (R). (This holds, e.g., if H i G = 0 for all i 0.) Then RHom ϕ(s, G) D c (S), since, as is easily seen, ϕ RHom ϕ(s, G) = RHom R (ϕ S, G) D c (R). Now GreenleesMay duality (= Grothendieck duality for the natural map Spec(Ŝ) Spec(S), with Ŝ the Jadic completion of S), gives RHom S( RΓJ S, F ) ) = F S Ŝ ( F Dc (S) ). In particular: ϕ # J G = RHom S( RΓJ S, RHom ϕ(s, G) ) = RHom ϕ (S, G) S Ŝ. Joseph Lipman (Purdue University) II: Hom Tensor adjunction. Local duality. February 16, / 20
15 Concrete local duality, continued More in particular, for S = R and ϕ = id (the identity map) one gets id # J G = G R ˆR ( G Dc (R) ). Specialize further to where R is local, ϕ = id, J = m, the maximal ideal of R, and G D c (R) is a normalized dualizing complex (exists if R is a homomorphic image of a Gorenstein local ring), so that in D(R), I := RΓ m G is an Rinjective hull of the residue field R/m. Then there is a natural isomorphism RHom R (RΓ me, I ) = RHom R (RΓ me, RΓ m G) = RHom R (RΓ me, G) Substitution into the local duality isomorphism gives, for all E D(R), RHom R (RΓ me, I ) RHom R (E, id# J G) = RHom R (E, G R ˆR). For E D c (R) this is just classical local duality, modulo Matlis duality. Joseph Lipman (Purdue University) II: Hom Tensor adjunction. Local duality. February 16, / 20
16 More familiar local duality Applying homology H i one gets the duality isomorphism Hom R (H i me, I ) Ext i R (E, G R ˆR). Suppose R CohenMacaulay, i.e., there s an mprimary ideal generated by an Rregular sequence of length d := dim(r). Then H i mr = 0 for i d. Since ˆR is Rflat, the preceding isomorphism now yields, for i d, 0 = Ext i R (R, G R ˆR) = H i RHom (R, G R ˆR) = H i (G R ˆR) = (H i G) R ˆR. Hence H i G = 0, so there is a derivedcategory isomorphism G = ω[d ] where ω := H d G, a canonical module of R. Thus, when R is CohenMacaulay local duality takes the familiar form Hom R (H i me, I ) Ext d i R (E, ˆω). Joseph Lipman (Purdue University) II: Hom Tensor adjunction. Local duality. February 16, / 20
17 5. Residues and duality for power series rings Another situation in which ϕ J # can be described concretely is when ϕ is the inclusion of R into a powerseries ring S := R[[t]]:= R[[t 1,..., t m ]], and J is the ideal ts = (t 1,..., t m )S. There exist an Smodule ˆΩ S/R and an Rderivation d : S ˆΩ S/R such that (dt 1,..., dt m ) is a free Sbasis of ˆΩ S/R, characterized by the universal property that for any finitelygenerated Smodule M and Rderivation D : S M there is a unique Slinear map δ : ˆΩ S/R M such that D = δd. Let ˆΩ m (m > 0) be the mth exterior power of ˆΩ S/R, a free rankone Smodule with basis dt 1 dt 2 dt m. Then (fact) there is a canonical functorial isomorphism ϕ # J G G ˆΩ m [m] ( G Dc (R) ). Joseph Lipman (Purdue University) II: Hom Tensor adjunction. Local duality. February 16, / 20
18 Residue map There is a natural surjection π : (ˆΩ m ) t1 t 2 t m = K m (t, ˆΩ m ) H m K(t, ˆΩ m ) = H m J ˆΩ m For ν ˆΩ m and nonnegative integers n 1,..., n m, set [ ] ( ) ν ν t n 1 1,..., := π tnm m t n 1 1. tnm m Theorem There is a canonical (i.e., depending only on the topological Ralgebra S) residue map res S/R : H m J ˆΩ m R, such that [ ] dt1 dt res m S/R t n 1 1,..., = tnm m { 1 if n 1 = = n m = 1, 0 otherwise. Joseph Lipman (Purdue University) II: Hom Tensor adjunction. Local duality. February 16, / 20
19 Canonical local duality As a concrete realization of the abstract local duality theorem, one has, in the preceding situation, an affine version of Serre duality: Theorem There is, for Smodules E, a canonical functorial isomorphism Hom R (H m J E, R) Hom S (E, ˆΩ m ) that for E = ˆΩ m takes res S/R to the identity map of ˆΩ m. In other words: The functor Hom R (H m J E, R) of Smodules E is represented by (ˆΩ m, res S/R ). Proofs of the foregoing statements are in Lectures..., 5. Joseph Lipman (Purdue University) II: Hom Tensor adjunction. Local duality. February 16, / 20
20 Wrapup It has been illustrated that duality theory is a (gold) coin with two faces, the abstract and the concrete. Typically, concrete theorems are more striking, and harder to prove directly than their abstract counterparts; but passing from abstract to concrete is not easy. Indeed, it is one of the most challenging aspects of the area. Joseph Lipman (Purdue University) II: Hom Tensor adjunction. Local duality. February 16, / 20
Lectures on Grothendieck Duality. II: Derived Hom Tensor adjointness. Local duality.
Lectures on Grothendieck Duality II: Derived Hom Tensor adjointness. Local duality. Joseph Lipman February 16, 2009 Contents 1 Leftderived functors. Tensor and Tor. 1 2 HomTensor adjunction. 3 3 Abstract
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