Part III Positivity in Algebraic Geometry

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1 Part III Positivity in Algebraic Geometry Theorems with proof Based on lectures by S. Svaldi Notes taken by Dexter Chua Lent 2018 These notes are not endorsed by the lecturers, and I have modified them (often significantly) after lectures. They are nowhere near accurate representations of what was actually lectured, and in particular, all errors are almost surely mine. This class aims at giving an introduction to the theory of divisors, linear systems and their positivity properties on projective algebraic varieties. The first part of the class will be dedicated to introducing the basic notions and results regarding these objects and special attention will be devoted to discussing examples in the case of curves and surfaces. In the second part, the course will cover classical results from the theory of divisors and linear systems and their applications to the study of the geometry of algebraic varieties. If time allows and based on the interests of the participants, there are a number of more advanced topics that could possibly be covered: Reider s Theorem for surfaces, geometry of linear systems on higher dimensional varieties, multiplier ideal sheaves and invariance of plurigenera, higher dimensional birational geometry. Pre-requisites The minimum requirement for those students wishing to enroll in this class is their knowledge of basic concepts from the Algebraic Geometry Part 3 course, i.e. roughly Chapters 2 and 3 of Hartshorne s Algebraic Geometry. Familiarity with the basic concepts of the geometry of algebraic varieties of dimension 1 and 2 e.g. as covered in the preliminary sections of Chapters 4 and 5 of Hartshorne s Algebraic Geometry would be useful but will not be assumed besides what was already covered in the Michaelmas lectures. Students should have also some familiarity with concepts covered in the Algebraic Topology Part 3 course such as cohomology, duality and characteristic classes. 1

2 Contents III Positivity in Algebraic Geometry (Theorems with proof) Contents 1 Divisors Projective embeddings Weil divisors Cartier divisors Computations of class groups Linear systems Surfaces The intersection product Blow ups Projective varieties The intersection product Ample divisors Nef divisors Kodaira dimension

3 1 Divisors III Positivity in Algebraic Geometry (Theorems with proof) 1 Divisors 1.1 Projective embeddings Theorem. Let A be any ring, and X a scheme over A. (i) If ϕ : X P n is a morphism over A, then ϕ O P n(1) is an invertible sheaf on X, generated by the sections ϕ x 0,..., ϕ x n H 0 (X, ϕ O P n(1)). (ii) If L is an invertible sheaf on X, and if s 0,..., s n H 0 (X, L) which generate L, then there exists a unique morphism ϕ : X P n such that ϕ O(1) = L and ϕ x i = s i. Proof. (i) The pullback of an invertible sheaf is an invertible, and the pullbacks of x 0,..., x n generate ϕ O P n(1). (ii) In short, we map x X to [s 0 (x) : : s n (x)] P n. In more detail, define X si = {p X : s i m p L p }. This is a Zariski open set, and s i is invertible on X si. Thus there is a dual section s i L such that s i s i L L = O X is equal to 1. Define the map X si A n by the map K[A n ] H 0 (X si, O si ) y i s j s i. Since the s i generate, they cannot simultaneously vanish on a point. So X = X si. Identifying A n as the chart of P n where x i 0, this defines the desired map X P n. Proposition. Let K = K, and X a projective variety over K. Let L be an invertible sheaf on X, and s 0,..., s n H 0 (X, L) generating sections. Write V = s 0,..., s n for the linear span. Then the associated map ϕ : X P n is a closed embedding iff (i) For every distinct closed points p q X, there exists s p,q V such that s p,q m p L p but s p,q m q L q. (ii) For every closed point p X, the set {s V s m p L p } spans the vector space m p L p /m 2 pl p. Proof. ( ) Suppose φ is a closed immersion. Then it is injective on points. So suppose p q are (closed) points. Then there is some hyperplane H p,q in P n passing through p but not q. The hyperplane H p,q is the vanishing locus of a global section of O(1). Let s p,q V H 0 (X, L) be the pullback of this section. Then s p,q m p L p and s p,q m q L q. So (i) is satisfied. To see (ii), we restrict to the affine patch containing p, and X is a closed subvariety of A n. The result is then clear since m p L p /m 2 pl p is exactly the span of s 0,..., s n. We used K = K to know what the closed points of P n look like. 3

4 1 Divisors III Positivity in Algebraic Geometry (Theorems with proof) ( ) We first show that ϕ is injective on closed points. For any p q X, write the given s p,q as s p,q = λ i s i = λ i ϕ x i = ϕ λ i x i for some λ i K. So we can take H p,q to be given by the vanishing set of λ i x i, and so it is injective on closed point. It follows that it is also injective on schematic points. Since X is proper, so is ϕ, and in particular ϕ is a homeomorphism onto the image. To show that ϕ is in fact a closed immersion, we need to show that O P n ϕ O X is surjective. As before, it is enough to prove that it holds at the level of stalks over closed points. To show this, we observe that L p is trivial, so m p L p /m 2 pl p = mp /m 2 p (unnaturally). We then apply the following lemma: Lemma. Let f : A B be a local morphism of local rings such that A/m A B/m B is an isomorphism; m A m B /m 2 B is surjective; and B is a finitely-generated A-module. Then f is surjective. To check the first condition, note that we have O p,p n m p,p n = O p,x m p,x = K. Now since m p,p n is generated by x 0,..., x n, the second condition is the same as saying m p,p n m p,x m 2 p,x is surjective. The last part is immediate. Theorem (Serre). Let X be a projective scheme over a Noetherian ring A, L be a very ample invertible sheaf, and F a coherent O X -module. Then there exists a positive integer n 0 = n 0 (F, L) such that for all n n 0, the twist F L n is generated by global sections. Theorem (Serre). Let X be a scheme of finite type over a Noetherian ring A, and L an invertible sheaf on X. Then L is ample iff there exists m > 0 such that L m is very ample. Proof. ( ) Let L m be very ample, and F a coherent sheaf. By Serre s theorem, there exists n 0 such that for all j j 0, the sheafs F L mj, (F L) L mj,..., (F L m 1 ) L mj are all globally generated. So F L n is globally generated for n mj 0. 4

5 1 Divisors III Positivity in Algebraic Geometry (Theorems with proof) ( ) Suppose L is ample. Then L m is globally generated for m sufficiently large. We claim that there exists t 1,..., t n H 0 (X, L N ) such that L Xti are all trivial (i.e. isomorphic to O Xti ), and X = X ti. By compactness, it suffices to show that for each p X, there is some t H 0 (X, L n ) (for some n) such that p X ti and L is trivial on X ti. First of all, since L is locally free by definition, we can find an open affine U containing p such that L U is trivial. Thus, it suffices to produce a section t that vanishes on Y = X U but not at p. Then p X t U and hence L is trivial on X t. Vanishing on Y is the same as belonging to the ideal sheaf I Y. Since I Y is coherent, ampleness implies there is some large n such that I Y L n is generated by global sections. In particular, since I Y L n doesn t vanish at p, we can find some t Γ(X, I Y L N ) such that t m p (I Y L n ) p. Since I Y is a subsheaf of O X, we can view t as a section of L n, and this t works. Now given the X ti, for each fixed i, we let {b ij } generate O Xti as an A-algebra. Then for large n, c ij = t n i b ij extends to a global section c ij Γ(X, L n ) (by clearing denominators). We can pick an n large enough to work for all b ij. Then we use {t n i, c ij} as our generating sections to construct a morphism to P N, and let {x i, x ij } be the corresponding coordinates. Observe that X ti = X implies the t n i already generate L n. Now each x ti gets mapped to U i P N, the vanishing set of x i. The map O Ui ϕ O Xti corresponds to the map A[y i, y ij ] O Xti, where y ij is mapped to c ij /t n i = b ij. So by assumption, this is surjective, and so we have a closed embedding. Proposition. Let L be a sheaf over X (which is itself a projective variety over K). Then the following are equivalent: (i) L is ample. (ii) L m is ample for all m > 0. (iii) L m is ample for some m > 0. Theorem (Serre). Let X be a projective scheme over a Noetherian ring A, and L is very ample on X. Let F be a coherent sheaf. Then (i) For all i 0 and n N, H i (F L n ) is a finitely-generated A-module. (ii) There exists n 0 N such that for all n n 0, H i (F L n ) = 0 for all i > 0. Theorem. Let X be a proper scheme over a Noetherian ring A, and L an invertible sheaf. Then the following are equivalent: (i) L is ample. (ii) For all coherent F on X, there exists n 0 N such that for all n n 0, we have H i (F L n ) = 0. 5

6 1 Divisors III Positivity in Algebraic Geometry (Theorems with proof) Proof. Proving (i) (ii) is the same as the first part of the theorem last time. To prove (ii) (i), fix a point x X, and consider the sequence 0 m x F F F x 0. We twist by L n, where n is sufficiently big, and take cohomology. Then we have a long exact sequence 0 H 0 (m x F(n)) H 0 (F(n)) H 0 (F x (n)) H 1 (m x F(n)) = 0. In particular, the map H 0 (F(n)) H 0 (F x (n)) is surjective. This mean at x, F(n) is globally generated. Then by compactness, there is a single n large enough such that F(n) is globally generated everywhere. 1.2 Weil divisors Theorem (Hartog s lemma). Let X be normal, and f O(X \ V ) for some V 2. Then f O X. Thus, div(f) = 0 implies f O X. 1.3 Cartier divisors Proposition. If X is normal, then div : {rational sections of L} WDiv(X). is well-defined, and two sections have the same image iff they differ by an element of O X. Corollary. If X is normal and proper, then there is a map div{rational sections of L}/K WDiv(X). Proof. Properness implies O X = K. Proposition. O X (D) is a rank 1 quasicoherent O X -module.. Proposition. If D is locally principal at every point x, then O X (D) is an invertible sheaf. Proof. If U X is such that D U = div(f) U, then there is an isomorphism O X U O X (D) U g g/f. Proposition. If D 1, D 2 are Cartier divisors, then (i) O X (D 1 + D 2 ) = O X (D 1 ) O X (D 2 ). (ii) O X ( D) = O X (D). (iii) If f K(X), then O X (div(f)) = O X. Proposition. Let X be a Noetherian, normal, integral scheme. Assume that X is factorial, i.e. every local ring O X,x is a UFD. Then any Weil divisor is Cartier. 6

7 1 Divisors III Positivity in Algebraic Geometry (Theorems with proof) Proof. It is enough to prove the proposition when D is prime and effective. So D X is a codimension 1 irreducible subvariety. For x D If x D, then 1 is a divisor equivalent to D near x. If x D, then I D,x O X,x is a height 1 prime ideal. So I D,x = (f) for f m X,x. Then f is the local equation for D. Theorem. Let X be normal and L an invertible sheaf, s a rational section of L. Then O X (div(s)) is invertible, and there is an isomorphism O X (div(s)) L. Moreover, sending L to divs gives a map Pic(X) Cl(X), which is an isomorphism if X is factorial (and Noetherian and integral). Proof. Given f H 0 (U, O X (div(s))), map it to f s H 0 (U, L). This gives the desired isomorphism. If we have to sections s s, then f = s /s K(X). So div(s) = div(s ) + div(f), and div(f) is principal. So this gives a well-defined map Pic(X) Cl(X). 1.4 Computations of class groups Proposition. Let X be an integral scheme, regular in codimension 1. If Z X is an integral closed subscheme of codimension 1, then we have an exact sequence where n Z is mapped to [nz]. Z Cl(X) Cl(X \ Z) 0, Proof. The map Cl(X) Cl(X \ Z) is given by restriction. If S is a Weil divisor on X \ Z, then S X maps to S under the restriction map. So this map is surjective. Also, that [nz] X\Z is trivial. So the composition of the first two maps vanishes. To check exactness, suppose D is a Weil divisor on X, principal on X \ Z. Then D X\Z = dim(f) X\Z for some f K(X). Then D div(f) is just supported along Z. So it must be of the form nz. Proposition. If Z X has codimension 2, then Cl(X) Cl(X \ Z) is an isomorphism. Proposition. If A is a Noetherian ring, regular in codimension 1, then A is a UFD iff A is normal and Cl(Spec A) = 0 Proof. If A is a UFD, then it is normal, and every prime ideal of height 1 is principally generated. So if D Spec A is Weil and prime, then D = V (f) for some f, and hence (f) = I D. Conversely, if A is normal and Cl(Spec A) = 0, then every Weil divisor is principal. So if I is a height 1 prime ideal, then V (I) = D for some Weil divisor D. Then D is principal. So I = (f) for some f. So A is a Krull Noetherian integral domain with principally generated height 1 prime ideals. So it is a UFD. 7

8 1 Divisors III Positivity in Algebraic Geometry (Theorems with proof) Proposition. Let X be Noetherian and regular in codimension one. Then Proof. We have a projection map Cl(X) = Cl(X A 1 ). pr 1 : Cl(X) Cl(X A 1 ) [D i ] [D i A 1 ] It is an exercise to show that is injective. To show surjectivity, first note that we can the previous exact sequence and the 4-lemma to assume X is affine. We consider what happens when we localize a prime divisor D at the generic point of X. Explicitly, suppose I D is the ideal of D in K[X A 1 ], and let I 0 D be the ideal of K(X)[t] generated b I D under the inclusion K[X A 1 ] = K[X][t] K(X)[t]. If ID 0 = 1, then I D contains some function f K(X). Then D V (f) as a subvariety of X A 1. So D is an irreducible component of V (f), and in particular is of the form D A 1. If not, then ID 0 = (f) for some f K(X)[t], since K(X)[t] is a PID. Then divf is a principal divisor of X A 1 whose localization at the generic point is D. Thus, divf is D plus some other divisors of the form D A 1. So D is linearly equivalent to a sum of divisors of the form D A Linear systems Proposition. Let X be a smooth projective variety over an algebraically closed field. Let D 0 be a divisor on X. (i) For all s H 0 (X, O X (D)), div(s) is an effective divisor linearly equivalent to D. (ii) If D D 0 and D 0, then there is s H 0 (O X (D 0 )) such that div(s) = D (iii) If s, s H 0 (O X (D 0 )) and div(s) = div(s ), then s = λs for some λ K. Proof. (i) Done last time. (ii) If D D 0, then D D 0 = div(f) for some f K(X). Then (f) + D 0 0. So f induces a section s H 0 (O X (D 0 )). Then div(s) = D. ( ) (iii) We have s s K(X) s. So div s. So s s H0 (O ) = K. Theorem (Riemann Roch theorem). If C is a smooth projective curve, then χ(l) = deg(l) + 1 g(c). Proposition. Let D be a Cartier divisor on a projective normal scheme.then D H 1 H 2 for some very ample divisors H i. We can in fact take H i to be effective, and if X is smooth, then we can take H i to be smooth and intersecting transversely. 8

9 1 Divisors III Positivity in Algebraic Geometry (Theorems with proof) Theorem (Bertini). Let X be a smooth projective variety over an algebraically closed field K, and D a very ample divisor. Then there exists a Zariski open set U D such that for all H U, H is smooth on X and if H 1 H 2, then H 1 and H 2 intersect transversely. 9

10 2 Surfaces III Positivity in Algebraic Geometry (Theorems with proof) 2 Surfaces 2.1 The intersection product Proposition. (i) The product D 1 D 2 depends only on the classes of D 1, D 2 in Pic(X). (ii) D 1 D 2 = D 2 D 1. (iii) D 1 D 2 = D 1 D 2 if D 1 and D 2 are curves intersecting transversely. (iv) The intersection product is bilinear. Proof. Only (iv) requires proof. First observe that if H is a very ample divisor represented by a smooth curve, then we have H D = deg H (O H (D)), and this is linear in D. Next, check that D 1 (D 2 +D 3 ) D 1 D 2 D 1 D 3 is symmetric in D 1, D 2, D 3. So (a) Since this vanishes when D 1 is very ample, it also vanishes if D 2 or D 3 is very ample. (b) Thus, if H is very ample, then D ( H) = (D H). (c) Thus, if H is very ample, then ( H) D is linear in D. (d) If D is any divisor, write D = H 1 H 2 for H 1, H 2 very ample and smooth. Then D D = H 1 D H 2 D by (a), and thus is linear in D. Theorem (Riemann Roch for surfaces). Let D Div(X). Then χ(x, O X (D)) = D (D K X) 2 where K X is the canonical divisor. + χ(o X ), Theorem (Adjunction formula). Let X be a smooth surface, and C X a smooth curve. Then (O X (K X ) O X (C)) C = OC (K C ). Proof. Let I C = O X ( C) be the ideal sheaf of C. We then have a short exact sequence on C: 0 O X ( C) C = IC /I 2 C Ω 1 X C Ω 1 C 0, where the left-hand map is given by d. To check this, note that locally on affine charts, if C is cut out by the function f, then smoothness of C implies the kernel of the second map is the span of df. By definition of the canonical divisor, we have Restricting to C, we have O X (K X ) = det(ω 1 X). O X (K X ) C = det(ω 1 X C ) = det(o X ( C) C ) det(ω 1 C) = O X (C) C O C (K C ). 10

11 2 Surfaces III Positivity in Algebraic Geometry (Theorems with proof) Proof of Riemann Roch. We can assume D = H 1 H 2 for very ample line bundles H 1, H 2, which are smoothly irreducible curves that intersect transversely. We have short exact sequences 0 O X (H 1 H 2 ) O X (H 1 ) O H2 (H 1 H2 ) 0 0 O X O X (H 1 ) O H1 (H 1 ) 0 where O H1 (H 1 ) means the restriction of the line bundle O X (H 1 ) to H 1. We can then compute χ(h 1 H 2 ) = χ(o X (H 1 )) χ(h 2, O H2 (H 1 H2 )) = χ(o X ) + χ(h 1, O H1 (H 1 )) χ(h 2, O H2 (H 1 H2 )). The first term appears in our Riemann Roch theorem, so we leave it alone. We then use Riemann Roch for curves to understand the remaining. It tells us χ(h i, O Hi (H 1 )) = deg(o Hi (H 1 )) + 1 g(h i ) = (H i H 1 ) + 1 g(h i ). By definition of genus, we have 2g(H i ) 2 = deg(k Hi ). and the adjunction formula lets us compute deg(k Hi ) by deg(k Hi ) = H i (K X + H i ). Plugging these into the formula and rearranging gives the desired result. Theorem (Hodge index theorem). Let X be a projective surface, and H be a (very) ample divisor on X. Let D be a divisor on X such that D H = 0 but D 0. Then D 2 < 0. Proof. Before we begin the proof, observe that if H is very ample and D is (strictly) effective, then H D > 0, since this is given by the number of intersections between D and any hyperplane in the projective embedding given by H. Now assume for contradiction that D 2 0. If D 2 > 0, fix an n such that H n = D +nh is very ample. Then H n D > 0 by assumption. We use Riemann Roch to learn that χ(x, O X (md)) = m2 D 2 mk X D 2 + χ(o X ). We first consider the H 2 (O X (md)) term in the left-hand side. By Serre duality, we have H 2 (O X (md)) = H 0 (K X md). Now observe that for large m, we have H n (K X md) < 0. 11

12 2 Surfaces III Positivity in Algebraic Geometry (Theorems with proof) Since H n is very ample, it cannot be the case that K X md is effective. So H 0 (K X D) = 0. Thus, for m sufficiently large, we have h 0 (md) h 1 (md) > 0. In particular, md is (strictly) effective for m 0. But then H md > 0 since H is very ample and md is effective. This is a contradiction. If D 2 = 0. Since D is not numerically trivial, there exists a divisor E on X such that D E 0. We define E = (H 2 )E (E H)H. It is then immediate that E H = 0. So D n = nd +E satisfies D n H = 0. On the other hand, (D n) 2 = (E ) 2 + 2nD E > 0 for n large enough. This contradicts the previous part. 2.2 Blow ups Lemma. where m is the multiplicity of C at p. π C = C + me, Proof. Choose local coordinates x, y at p and suppose the curve y = 0 is not tangent to any branch of C at p. Then in the local ring ÔX,p, the equation of C is given as f = f m (x, y) + higher order terms, where f m is a non-zero degree m polynomial. Then by definition, the multiplicity is m. Then on Ū (U P1 ), we have the chart U A 1 where X 0, with coordinates (x, y, Y/X = t). Taking (x, t) as local coordinates, the map to U is given by (x, t) (x, xt). Then ε f = f(x, tx) = x m f m (1, t) + higher order terms = x m h(x, t), with h(0, 0) 0. But then on Ūx 0, the curve x = 0 is just E. So this equation has multiplicity m along E. Proposition. Let X be a smooth projective surface, and x X. Let X = Bl x X π X. Then (i) π Pic(X) Z[E] = Pic( X) (ii) π D π F = D F, π D E = 0, E 2 = 1. (iii) K X = π (K X ) + E. 12

13 2 Surfaces III Positivity in Algebraic Geometry (Theorems with proof) (iv) π is defined on NS(X). Thus, Proof. NS( X) = NS(X) Z[E]. (i) Recall we had the localization sequence Z Pic( X) Pic(X) 1 and there is a right splitting. To show the result, we need to show the left-hand map is injective, or equivalently, me 0. This will follow from the fact that E 2 = 1. (ii) For the first part, it suffices to show that π D π F = D F for D, F very ample, and so we may assume D, F are curves not passing through x. Then their pullbacks is just the pullback of the curve, and so the result is clear. The second part is also clear. Finally, pick a smooth curve C passing through E with multiplicity 1. Then π C = C + E. Then we have 0 = π C E = C E + E 2, But C and E intersect at exactly one point. So C E = 1. (iii) By the adjunction formula, we have (K X + E) E = deg(k P 1) = 2. So we know that K X E = 1. Also, outside of E, K X and K X agree. So we have K X = π (K X ) + me for some m Z. Then computing gives m = 1. 1 = K X E = π (K X ) E + me 2 (iv) We need to show that if D Num 0 (X), then π (D) Num 0 ( X). But this is clear for both things that are pulled back and things that are E. So we are done. Theorem (Elimination of indeterminacy). Let X be a sooth projective surface, Y a projective variety, and ϕ : X Y a rational map. Then there exists a smooth projective surface X and a commutative diagram X X p ϕ q Y where p : X X is a composition of blow ups, and in particular is birational. 13

14 2 Surfaces III Positivity in Algebraic Geometry (Theorems with proof) Proof. We may assume Y = P n, and X P n is non-degenerate. Then ϕ is induced by a linear system V H 0 (X, L). We first show that we may assume the base locus has codimension > 1. If not, every element of V is of the form C + D for some fixed C. Let V be the set of all such D. Then V and V give the same rational map. Indeed, if V has basis f 0,..., f n, and g is the function defining C, then the two maps are, respectively, [f 0 : : f n ] and [f 0 /g : : f n /g], which define the same rational maps. By repeating this process, replacing V with V, we may assume the base locus has codimension > 1. We now want to show that by blowing up, we may remove all points from the base locus. We pick x X in the base locus of D. Blow it up to get X 1 = Bl x X X. Then π D = D 1 + me, where m > 0, and D 1 is a linear system which induces the map ϕ π 1. If D 1 has no basepoints, then we are done. If not, we iterate this procedure. The procedure stops, because 0 D 2 1 = (π 1D 2 + m 2 E 2 ) < D 2. Theorem. Let g : Z X be a birational morphism of surfaces. Then g factors as Z g X p X, where p : X X is a composition of blow ups, and g is an isomorphism. Proof. Apply elimination of indeterminacy to the rational inverse to g to obtain p : X X. There is then a lift of g to X by the universal property, and these are inverses to each otehr. Theorem (Castelnuovo s contractibility criterion). Let X be a smooth projective surface over K = K. If there is a curve C X such that C = P 1 and C 2 = 1, then there exists f : X Y that exhibits X as a blow up of Y at a point with exceptional curve C. Corollary. A smooth projective surface is relatively minimal if and only if it does not contain a ( 1) curve. Proof. The idea is to produce a suitable linear system L, giving a map f : X P n, and then take Y to be the image. Note that f(c) = is the same as requiring O X (L) C = O C. After finding a linear system that satisfies this, we will do some work to show that f is an isomorphism outside of C and has smooth image. Let H be a very ample divisor on X. By Serre s theorem, we may assume H 1 (X, O X (H)) = 0. Let H C = K > 0. Consider divisors of the form H + ic. We can compute deg C (H + ic) C = (H + ic) C = K i. 14

15 2 Surfaces III Positivity in Algebraic Geometry (Theorems with proof) Thus, we know deg C (H + KC) C = 0, and hence O X (H + KC) C = OC. We claim that O X (H + KC) works. To check this, we pick a fairly explicit basis of H 0 (H + KC). Consider the short exact sequence 0 O X (H + (i 1)C) O X (H + ic) O C (H + ic) 0, inducing a long exact sequence 0 H 0 (H + (i 1)C) H 0 (H + ic) H 0 (C, (H + ic) C ) H 1 (H + (i 1)C) H 1 (H + ic) H 1 (C, (H + ic) C ) We know O X (H + ic) C = O P 1(K i). So in the range i = 0,..., K, we have H 1 (C, (H + ic) C ) = 0. Thus, by induction, we find that H 1 (H + ic) = 0 for i = 0,..., K. As a consequence of this, we know that for i = 1,..., K, we have a short exact sequence H 0 (H + (i 1)C) H 0 (H + ic) H 0 (C, (H + ic) C ) = H 0 (O P 1(K i)). Thus, H 0 (H + ic) is spanned by the image of H 0 (H + (i 1)C) plus a lift of a basis of H 0 (O P 1(K i)). For each i > 0, pick a lift y (i) 0,..., y(i) K i of a basis of H0 (O P 1(K i)) to H 0 (H + ic), and take the image in H 0 (H + KC). Note that in local coordinates, if C is cut out by a function g, then the image in H 0 (H + KC) is given by g K i y (i) 0,..., gk i y (i) K i. For i = 0, we pick a basis of H 0 (H), and then map it down to H 0 (H + KC). Taking the union over all i of these elements, we obtain a basis of H 0 (H + KC). Let f be the induced map to P r. For concreteness, list the basis vectors as x 1,..., x r, where x r is a lift of 1 O P 1 to H 0 (H + KC), and x r 1, x r 2 are gy (K 1) 0, gy (K 1) 1. First observe that x 1,..., x r 1 vanish at C. So f(c) = [0 : : 0 : 1] p, and C is indeed contracted to a point. Outside of C, the function g is invertible, so just the image of H 0 (H) is enough to separate points and tangent vectors. So f is an isomorphism outside of C. All the other basis elements of H + KC are needed to make sure the image is smooth, and we only have to check this at the point p. This is done by showing that dim m Y,p /m 2 Y,p 2, which requires some infinitesimal analysis we will not perform. 15

16 3 Projective varieties III Positivity in Algebraic Geometry (Theorems with proof) 3 Projective varieties 3.1 The intersection product Lemma. Assume D 0. Then for all D 2,..., D dim X, we have D D 2... D dim X = 0. Proof. We induct on n. As usual, we can assume that the D i are very ample. Then D D 2 D dim X = D D2 D 3 D2 D dim X D2. Now if D 0 on X, then D D2 0 on D 2. So we are done. Theorem (Severi). Let X be a projective variety over an algebraically closed field. Then N 1 (X) is a finitely-generated torsion free abelian group, hence of the form Z n. Theorem (Asymptotic Riemann Roch). Let X be a projective normal variety over K = K. Let D be a Cartier divisor, and E a Weil divisor on X. Then χ(x, O X (md + E)) is a numerical polynomial in m (i.e. a polynomial with rational coefficients that only takes integral values) of degree at most n = dim X, and χ(x, O X (md + E)) = Dn n! mn + lower order terms. Proof. By induction on dim X, we can assume the theorem holds for normal projective varieties of dimension < n. We fix H on X very ample such that H + D is very ample. Let H H and G H + D be sufficiently general. We then have short exact sequences 0 O X (md + E) O X (md + E + H) O H ((md + E + H) H ) 0 0 O X ((m 1)D + E) O X (md + E + H) O G ((md + E + H) G ) 0. Note that the middle term appears in both equations. So we find that χ(x, O X (md + E)) + χ(h, O H ((md + E + H) H )) Rearranging, we get = χ(x, O X ((m 1)D + E)) + χ(h, O G ((md + E + H) G )) χ(o X (md E)) χ(o X ((m 1)D E)) = χ(g, O G (md + E + H)) χ(h, O H (md + E + H)). By induction (see proposition below) the right-hand side is a numerical polynomial of degree at most n 1 with leading term D n 1 G D n 1 H m n 1 + lower order terms, (n 1)! since D n 1 G is just the (n 1) self-intersection of D along G. But G H = D. So the LHS is D n (n 1)! mn 1 + lower order terms, so we are done. 16

17 3 Projective varieties III Positivity in Algebraic Geometry (Theorems with proof) Proposition. Let X be a normal projective variety, and H a very ample linear system. Then for a general element G H, G is a normal projective variety. Proposition. Let X be a normal projective variety. (i) If H is a very ample Cartier divisor, then h 0 (X, mh) = Hn n! mn + lower order terms for m 0. (ii) If D is any Cartier divisor, then there is some C R >0 such that Proof. h 0 (md) C m n for m 0. (i) By Serre s theorem, H i (O x (mh)) = 0 for i > 0 and m 0. So we apply asymptotic Riemann Roch. (ii) There exists a very ample Cartier divisor H on X such that H + D is also very ample. Then 3.2 Ample divisors h 0 (md) h 0 (m(h + D)). Lemma. Let X, Y be projective schemes. If f : X Y is a finite morphism of schemes, and D is an ample Cartier divisor on Y, then so is f D. Proof. Let F be a coherent sheaf on X. Since f is finite, we have R i f F = 0 for all i > 0. Then H i (F f O X (md)) = H i (f F O Y (md)) = 0 for all i > 0 and m 0. So by Serre s theorem, we know f D is ample. Proposition. Let X be a proper scheme, and L an invertible sheaf. Then L is ample iff L Xred is ample. Proof. ( ) If L induces a closed embedding of X, then map given by L Xred is given by the composition with the closed embedding X red X. ( ) Let J O X be the nilradical. By Noetherianness, there exists n such that J n = 0. Fix F a coherent sheaf. We can filter F using F J F J 2 F J n 1 F J n F = 0. For each j, we have a short exact sequence 0 J j+1 F J j F G j 0. This G i is really a sheaf on the reduced structure, since J acts trivially. Thus H i (G j L m ) for j > 0 and large m. Thus inducting on j 0, we find that for i > 0 and m 0, we have H i (J j F L m ) = 0. 17

18 3 Projective varieties III Positivity in Algebraic Geometry (Theorems with proof) Theorem (Nakai s criterion). Let X be a projective variety. Let D be a Cartier divisor on X. Then D is ample iff for all V X integral proper subvariety (proper means proper scheme, not proper subset), we have (D V ) dim V = D dim V [V ] > 0. Corollary. Let X be a projective variety. Then ampleness is a numerical condition, i.e. for any Cartier divisors D 1, D 2, if D 1 D 2, then D 1 is ample iff D 2 is ample. Corollary. Let X, Y be projective variety. If f : X Y is a surjective finite morphism of schemes, and D is a Cartier divisor on Y. Then D is ample iff f D is ample. Proof. It remains to prove. If f is finite and surjective, then for all V Y, there exists V f 1 (V ) X such that f V : V V is a finite surjective morphism. Then we have (f D) dim V [V ] = deg f V D dim V [V ], which is clear since we only have to prove this for very ample D. Corollary. If X is a projective variety, D a Cartier divisor and O X (D) globally generated, and Φ : X P(H 0 (X, O X (D)) ) the induced map. Then D is ample iff Φ is finite. Proof. ( ) If X Φ(X) is finite, then D = Φ O(1). So this follows from the previous corollary. ( ) If Φ is not finite, then there exists C X such that Φ(C) is a point. Then D [C] = Φ O(1) [C] = 0, by the push-pull formula. So by Nakai s criterion, D is not ample. Proof of Nakai s criterion. ( ) If D is ample, then md is very ample for some m. Then by multilinearity, we may assume D is very ample. So we have a closed embedding Φ : X P(H 0 (D) ). If V X is a closed integral subvariety, then D dim V [V ] = (D V ) dim V. But this is just deg Φ(V ) O(1) > 0. ( ) We proceed by induction on dim X, noting that dim X = 1 is trivial. By induction, for any proper subvariety V, we know that D V is ample. The key of the proof is to show that O X (md) is globally generated for large m. If so, the induced map X P( md ) cannot contract any curve C, or else md C = 0. So this is a finite map, and md is the pullback of the ample divisor O P( md ) (1) along a finite map, hence is ample. 18

19 3 Projective varieties III Positivity in Algebraic Geometry (Theorems with proof) We first reduce to the case where D is effective. As usual, write D H 1 H 2 with H i very ample effective divisors. We have exact sequences 0 O X (md H 1 ) O X (md) O H1 (md) 0 0 O X (md H 1 ) O X ((m 1)D) O H2 ((m 1)D) 0. We know D Hi is ample by induction. So the long exact sequences implies that for all m 0 and j 2, we have So we know that H j (md) = H j (md H 1 ) = H j ((m 1)D). χ(md) = h 0 (md) h 1 (md) + constant for all m 0. On the other hand, since X is an integral subvariety of itself, D n > 0, and so asymptotic Riemann Roch tells us h 0 (md) > 0 for all m 0. Since D is ample iff md is ample, we can assume D is effective. To show that md is globally generated, we observe that it suffices to show that this is true in a neighbourhood of D, since outside of D, the sheaf is automatically globally generated by using the tautological section that vanishes at D with multiplicity m. Moreover, we know md D is very ample, and in particular globally generated for large m by induction (the previous proposition allows us to pass to D red if necessary). Thus, it suffices to show that is surjective. H 0 (O X (md)) H 0 (O D (md)) To show this, we use the short exact sequence 0 O X ((m 1)D) O X (md) O D (md) 0. For i > 0 and large m, we know H i (O D (md)) = 0. So we have surjections H 1 ((m 1)D) H 1 (md) for m large enough. But these are finite-dimensional vector spaces. So for m sufficiently large, this map is an isomorphism. Then H 0 (O X (md)) H 0 (O D (md)) is a surjection by exactness. Proposition. Let D CaDiv Q (X) Then the following are equivalent: (i) cd is an ample integral divisor for some c N >0. (ii) D = c i D i, where c i Q >0 and D i are ample Cartier divisors. (iii) D satisfies Nakai s criterion. subvarieties V X. That is, D dim V [V ] > 0 for all integral Proof. It is easy to see that (i) and (ii) are equivalent. It is also easy to see that (i) and (iii) are equivalent. 19

20 3 Projective varieties III Positivity in Algebraic Geometry (Theorems with proof) Lemma. A positive linear combination of ample divisors is ample. Proof. Let H 1, H 2 be ample. Then for λ 1, λ 2 > 0, we have ( ( ) ) dim V (λ 1 H 1 + λ 2 H 2 ) dim V [V ] = λ p V p 1λdim 2 H p V p 1 Hdim 2 [V ] p Since any restriction of an ample divisor to an integral subscheme is ample, and multiplying with H is the same as restricting to a hyperplane cuts, we know all the terms are positive. Proposition. Ampleness is an open condition. That is, if D is ample and E 1,... E r are Cartier divisors, then for all ε i 1, the divisor D + ε i E i is still ample. Proof. By induction, it suffices to check it in the case n = 1. Take m N such that md ± E 1 is still ample. This is the same as saying D ± 1 m E 1 is still ample. Then for ε 1 < 1 m, we can write ( D + εe 1 = (1 q)d + q D + 1 ) m E 1 for some q < 1. Proposition. Being ample is a numerical property over R, i.e. if D 1, D 2 CaDiv R (X) are such that D 1 D 2, then D 1 is ample iff D 2 is ample. Proof. We already know that this is true over Q by Nakai s criterion. Then for real coefficients, we want to show that if D is ample, E is numerically trivial and t R, then D + te is ample. To do so, pick t 1 < t < t 2 with t i Q, and then find λ, µ > 0 such that λ(d 1 + t 1 E) + µ(d 1 + t 2 E) = D 1 + te. Then we are done by checking Nakai s criterion. Proposition. Let H be an ample R-divisor. Then for all R-divisors E 1,..., E r, for all ε i 1, the divisor H + ε i E i is still ample. 3.3 Nef divisors Proposition. (i) D is nef iff D Xred is nef. (ii) D is nef iff D Xi is nef for all irreducible components X i. (iii) If V X is a proper subscheme, and D is nef, then D V is nef. (iv) If f : X Y is a finite morphism of proper schemes, and D is nef on Y, then f D is nef on X. The converse is true if f is surjective. Theorem (Kleinmann s criterion). Let X be a proper scheme, and D an R- Cartier divisor. Then D is nef iff D dim V [V ] 0 for all proper irreducible subvarieties. 20

21 3 Projective varieties III Positivity in Algebraic Geometry (Theorems with proof) Corollary. Let X be a projective scheme, and D be a nef R-divisor on X, and H be a Cartier divisor on X. (i) If H is ample, then D + εh is also ample for all ε > 0. (ii) If D + εh is ample for all 0 < ε 1, then D is nef. Proof. (i) We may assume H is very ample. By Nakai s criterion this is equivalent to requiring ( ( ) dim V (D + εh) dim V [V ] = )ε p D dim V p H p [V ] > 0. p Since any restriction of a nef divisor to any integral subscheme is also nef, and multiplying with H is the same as restricting to a hyperplane cuts, we know the terms that involve D are non-negative. The H p term is positive. So we are done. (ii) We know (D + εh) C > 0 for all positive ε sufficiently small. Taking ε 0, we know D C 0. Corollary. Nef(X) = Amp(X) and int(nef(x)) = Amp(X). Proof. We know Amp(X) Nef(X) and Amp(X) is open. So this implies Amp(X) int(nef(x)), and thus Amp(X) Nef(X). Conversely, if D int(nef(x)), we fix H ample. Then D th Nef(X) for small t, by definition of interior. Then D = (D th) + th is ample. So Amp(X) int(nef(x)). Proof of Kleinmann s criterion. We may assume that X is an integral projective scheme. The direction is immediate. To prove the other direction, since the criterion is a closed condition, we may assume D Div Q (X). Moreover, by induction, we may assume that D dim V [V ] 0 for all V strictly contained in X, and we have to show that D dim X 0. Suppose not, and D dim X < 0. Fix a very ample Cartier divisor H, and consider the polynomial dim X 1 ( ) dim X P (t) = (D + th) dim X = D dim X + t i H i dim X i D i i=1 + t dim X H dim X. The first term is negative; the last term is positive; and the other terms are non-negative by induction since H is very ample. Then on R >0, this polynomial is increasing. So there exists a unique t such that P (t) = 0. Let t be the root. Then P ( t) = 0. We can also write where P (t) = (D + th) (D + th) dim X 1 = R(t) + tq(t), R(t) = D (D + th) dim X 1, Q(t) = H (D + th) dim X 1. We shall prove that R( t) 0 and Q( t) > 0, which is a contradiction. 21

22 3 Projective varieties III Positivity in Algebraic Geometry (Theorems with proof) We first look at Q(t), which is Q(t) = dim X 1 i=0 ( ) dim X 1 t i H i+1 D dim X i, i which, as we argued, is a sum of non-negative terms and a positive term. To understand R(t), we look at R(t) = D (D + th) dim X 1. Note that so far, we haven t used the assumption that D is nef. If t > t, then (D + th) dim X > 0, and (D + th) dim V [V ] > 0 for a proper integral subvariety, by induction (and binomial expansion). Then by Nakai s criterion, D + th is ample. So the intersection (D + th) dim X 1 is essentially a curve. So we are done by definition of nef. Then take the limit t t. Proposition. Nef(X) = NE(X). Proposition. NE(X) = Nef(X). Theorem (Kleinmann s criterion). If X is a projective scheme and D CaDiv R (X). Then the following are equivalent: (i) D is ample (ii) D NE(X) > 0, i.e. D γ > 0 for all γ NE(X). (iii) S 1 NE(X) S 1 D >0, where S 1 N 1 (X) R is the unit sphere under some choice of norm. Proof. (1) (2): Trivial. (2) (1): If D NE(X) > 0, then D int(nef(x)). (2) (3): Similar. Proposition. Let X be a projective scheme, and D, H NR 1 (X). Assume that H is ample. Then D is ample iff there exists ε > 0 such that D C H C ε. Proof. The statement in the lemma is the same as (D εh) C 0. Theorem (Cone theorem). Let X be a smooth projective variety over C. Then there exists rational curves {C i } i I such that NE(X) = NE KX 0 + i I R + [C i ] where NE KX 0 = {γ NE(X) : K X γ 0}. Further, we need at most countably many C i s, and the accumulation points are all at K X. 22

23 3 Projective varieties III Positivity in Algebraic Geometry (Theorems with proof) 3.4 Kodaira dimension Theorem (Iitaka). Let X be a normal projective variety and L a line bundle on X. Suppose there is an m such that L m 0. Then there exists X, Y, a map ψ : X Y and a birational map U : X X such that for K 0 such that L K 0, we have a commutative diagram ϕ L k X Im(ϕ L K ) U X ψ Y where the right-hand map is also birational. 23

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