# Yuriy Drozd. Intriduction to Algebraic Geometry. Kaiserslautern 1998/99

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1 Yuriy Drozd Intriduction to Algebraic Geometry Kaiserslautern 1998/99

2 CHAPTER 1 Affine Varieties 1.1. Ideals and varieties. Hilbert s Basis Theorem Let K be an algebraically closed field. We denote by A n K (or by A n if K is fixed) the n-dimensional affine space over K, i.e. the set of all n-tuples a = (a 1, a 2,..., a n ) with entries from K. A subset X A n K is called an affine algebraic variety if it coincides with the set of common zeros of a set of polynomials S = { F 1, F 2,..., F m } K[ x 1,..., x n ]. We denote this set by V (S) or V (F 1, F 2,..., F m ). We often omit the word algebraic and simply say affine variety, especially as we almost never deal with other sorts of varieties. If F is a subfield of K, one denotes by X(F) the set of all points of the variety X whose coordinates belong to F. If S consists of a unique polynomial F 0, the variety V (S) = V (F ) is called a hypersurface in A n (a plane curve if n = 2 ; a space surface if n = 3 ). Exercises (1) Prove that the following subsets in A n are affine algebraic varieties: (a) A n ; (b) ; (c) a } for every point a A n. (d) { (t k, t l ) t K } A 2, where k, l are fixed integers. (2) Suppose that F = F k Fs ks, where F i are irreducible polynomials. Put X = V (F ), X i = V (F i ). Show that X = s i=1 X i. (3) Let K = C be the field of complex numbers, R be the field of real numbers. Outline the sets of points X(R) for the plane curves X = V (F ), where F are the following polynomials: (a) x 2 y 2 ; (b) y 2 x 3 ( cuspidal cubic ); (c) y 2 x 3 x 2 ; ( nodal cubic ); (d) y 2 x 3 x ( smooth cubic ). (We write, as usually, (x, y) instead of (x 1, x 2 ), just as in the following exercise we write (x, y, z) instead of (x 1, x 2, x 3 ).) (4) Outline the sets of points X(R) for the space surfaces X = V (F ), where F are the following polynomials: (a) x 2 yz ; (b) xyz ; 1

3 2 1. AFFINE VARIETIES (c) x 2 z 3 ; (d) x 2 + y 2 z 3. We often write x m, where x = (x 1, x 2,..., x n ) and m = (m 1, m 2,..., m n ), for the product x m x mn n. In particular, a polynomial from K[ x ] is written as a finite sum α m x m, where m N n, α m K. m A set of polynomials S defines an ideal S = F 1, F 2,..., F m K[ x 1,..., x n ] consisting of all formal consequences of these polynomials, i.e., of all linear combinations m i=1 H if i, where H i are some polynomials. Certainly, if G S and a V (S), then also G(a) = 0. Hence, if S is another set of polynomials such that S = S, then V (S) = V (S ). That is, indeed, an affine variety is farther defined by an ideal of the polynomial ring. In principle, a question arises, whether every such ideal defines an affine variety. Equivalently, the question is whether each ideal in the ring of polynomial possesses a finite set of generators. It is really so as the following theorem shows. Theorem (Hilbert s Basis Theorem). Suppose that each ideal of a ring A possesses a finite set of generators. Then the same is true for the polynomial ring A[ x 1,..., x n ] for every n. A ring A such that every ideal in A has a finite set of generators is called noetherian. Hence, Hilbert s Basis Theorem claims that a polynomial ring over any noetherian ring is again noetherian. As every ideal of a field K either is 0 or coincides with K, it is always finitely generated (by the empty set in the former and by 1 in the latter case). Therefore, all polynomial rings with coefficients from a field are noetherian. Proof. It is clear that we only have to prove the theorem for n = 1 (then a simple inductive argument works). Let B = A[x], where the ring A is noetherian, and let I be an ideal of B. Denote by I d the set consisting of the leading coefficients of all polynomials of degree d belonging to I and of the zero element of A. Obviously, I d is an ideal in A. Moreover, I d I d+1 : if a is the leading coefficient of a polynomial F, then it is also the leading coefficient of xf. Hence, the union I = d I d is again an ideal in A (check it!). As A is noetherian, I possesses a finite set of generators T = { a 1, a 2,..., a m }. Denote by F k a polynomial from I with the leading coefficient a k, d k = deg F k and by D the maximum of all d k. Each ideal I d for d < D is also finitely generated. Let T d = { b id } be a set of generators for I d and let G id be a polynomial of degree d with the leading coefficient b id. We claim that the (finite) set S = { F 1, F 2,..., F m } { G id d < D } is a set of generators for I.

4 1.1. IDEALS AND VARIETIES. HILBERT S BASIS THEOREM 3 Namely, we will prove that every polynomial F I belongs to S using induction on d = deg F. If d = 0, then F I 0 (as it coincides with its own leading coefficient). Hence, F T 0, so F S. Suppose that the claim is valid for all polynomials of degrees less than d and let F I be any polynomial of degree d. Consider its leading coefficient a. If d < D, a I d, therefore a = i c ib id for some c i A. Then the polynomial F = i c ig id belongs to S, deg F = d and the leading coefficient of F is also a. Thus, deg(f F ) < d. Certainly, F F I, hence, F F S and F = F + (F F ) is also in S. Suppose now that d D. As a I, we have that a = k c ka k for some c k. Put F = k c kx d d k Fk. Again F S and has the same degree and the same leading term as F. Therefore, just as above, F F and thus F belong to S too. This result enable us to define the affine algebraic variety V (I) for every ideal I K[ x 1,..., x n ] as V (S) for some (hence, any) (finite) system of generators of I. Exercises (1) Prove that if X i A n ( i S) are affine varieties, then also i S X i is an affine variety. If S is finite, then also i S X i is an affine variety. Hence, the set of affine varieties can be considered as that of closed subsets of some topology on A n. This topology is called the Zariski topology. Hint : Prove that if X i = V (I i ), then i X i = V ( i I i); if the set S is finite, then i V i = V ( i I i). (2) Find all closed sets in the Zariski topology on the affine line A 1. (3) Show that if C A 2 is an infinite Zariski closed set, then it contains a plane curve. Hint : Use the resultants. (4) Let F be an infinite subfield in K. Prove that A n (F) is dense in A n K in the Zariski topology. (5) Let F be a finite subfield of K consisting of q elements. Find all polynomials F K[ x ] such that F (a) = 0 for all a A n (F). Exercises shows that the Zariski topology is a rather unusual one; in any case, it is non-hausdorff if X is infinite. Nevertheless, it is useful for the purposes of algebraic geometry and in what follows, we always consider an affine variety X A n as a topological space with its Zariski topology, i.e., the topology on X induced by the Zariski topology of A n. Remark. If K = C is the field of complex numbers, the affine space and thus every affine variety can also be considered as topological space with the usual (Euclidean) topology. Though it is very

5 4 1. AFFINE VARIETIES important and widely used in complex algebraic geometry, we will only mention it in some exercises Regular functions and regular mappings Let X = V (S) be an affine variety. A function f : X K is said to be regular if it coincides with the restriction on X of some polynomial function, i.e., a function A n K mapping a point a to F (a), where F K[ x 1,..., x n ]. Obviously, if f and g are two polynomial functions on X, their (pointwise) sum and product are also polynomial functions. Thus, all regular functions form a K-algebra K[X] called the algebra of regular functions or the coordinate algebra of the affine variety X. As the field K is infinite, a polynomial F is completely defined by the corresponding polynomial function. That is why we do not distinguish them and often speak about the restriction of a polynomial, the value of a polynomial, etc. Certainly, the mapping K[ x 1,..., x n ] K[X], putting a polynomial F to the function a F (a), is a homomorphism of algebras and even an epimorphism. Therefore, K[X] K[ x 1,..., x n ]/I(X), where I(X) is the ideal consisting of all polynomials F such that F (a) = 0 for every point a X. This ideal is called the defining ideal of the affine variety X. Proposition (1) For every point a X the evaluation mapping f f(a) is a homomorphism of K-algebras v a : K[X] K. (2) Conversely, given any homomorphism of K-algebras α : K[X] K, there is a unique point a X such that α(f) = f(a) for each f K[X]. Proof. The first claim is obvious. Consider any homomorphism α : K[X] K. Denote by ξ i the restriction on X of the polynomial x i (the i-th coordinate function ). Obviously, the functions ξ i ( i = 1,..., n) generate K[X] as K-algebra. Put a i = α(ξ i ) and a = (a 1, a 2,..., a n ). If F is any polynomial from I(X), then F (a) = α(f (ξ 1, ξ 2,..., ξ n )) as α is a homomorphism of algebras. But under the identification of K[X] with K[ x 1,..., x n ]/I(X), the latter value coincides with the class of F (x 1, x 2,..., x n ), i.e. equals 0. Therefore, a X. Moreover, ξ i (a) = α(ξ i ) by definition, whence f(a) = α(f) as ξ i generate the algebra K[X]. If b is another point such that α(f) = f(b) for all regular functions f, then, in particular, ξ i (b) = α(ξ i ) = a i, i.e. all coordinates of b coincide with those of a, hence, b = a. Let Y be another affine variety and f : Y X a mapping. If a Y, then f(a) is a point of A n, hence, its coordinates f 1 (a),..., f n (a) are defined. In other words, f defines n coordinate mappings f i : Y K. The mapping f is said to be regular or a morphism of affine varieties if all these coordinate mappings are regular functions.

6 1.2. REGULAR FUNCTIONS AND REGULAR MAPPINGS 5 It is obvious that if f : Y X and g : Z Y are regular mappings of affine varieties, their composition f g : Z X is also a regular mapping. As usually, a regular mapping f having a regular inverse f 1 is called an isomorphism of affine varieties. If an isomorphism f : X Y exists, the varieties X and Y are called isomorphic and we write: X Y. Proposition (1) A mapping f : Y X is regular if and only if the function ϕ f : Y K is regular for each regular function ϕ : X K. Moreover, the mapping f : K[X] K[Y ] such that f (ϕ) = ϕ f is a homomorphism of K-algebras. (2) Conversely, each homomorphism of K-algebras K[X] K[Y ] is of the form f for a unique regular mapping f : Y X. Proof. If f(a) = (f 1 (a),..., f n (a)), where f i is the restriction on Y of some polynomial F i and ϕ is the restriction on X of a polynomial G then ϕ f is the restriction on Y of the polynomial G(F 1 (a),..., F n (a)), i.e., is a regular function. Conversely, suppose that ϕ f is a regular function for each ϕ K[X]. Put ϕ = x i, the i-th coordinate function on A n. Then ϕ f(a) is the i-th coordinate of the point f(a). Hence, all these coordinates are regular functions and the mapping f is regular. It is quite obvious that (ϕ+ψ) f = ϕ f +ψ f and (ϕψ) f = (ϕ f)(ψ f), so f is indeed a homomorphism of K-algebras. Let now γ : K[X] K[Y ] be any homomorphism of K-algebras and a Y. Then the composition v a γ, where v a is the evaluation mapping, is a homomorphism K[X] K, thus defines a unique point b X such that v a γ = v b. Hence, there is a unique mapping f : Y X such that v a γ = v f(a) for every a Y. In particular, if f(a) = (f 1 (a),..., f n (a)), then f i (a) = v f(a) (ξ i ) = v a (γ(ξ i )) = γ(ξ i )(a), where ξ i are the coordinate functions on X. As it is true for every point a Y, we have that f i = γ(ξ i ) are regular functions on Y, so f is a regular mapping and γ(ξ i ) = f (ξ i ). As ξ i generate K[X], γ = f. The uniqueness of f is evident. Corollary Affine algebraic varieties X and Y are isomorphic if and only if the algebras K[X] and K[Y ] are isomorph. Moreover, a morphism f : X Y is an isomorphism if and only if so is the homomorphism f. Exercises (1) For every regular function f on an affine variety X, put D(f) = { x X f(x) 0 }. The sets D(f) are called principal open sets (of the variety X ). Prove that the principal open sets form a base of the Zariski topology, i.e., every open set is a union of principal open sets. (2) Prove that every regular mapping is continuous (in the Zariski topology).

7 6 1. AFFINE VARIETIES (3) An affine transformation of A n is a mapping A n A n of the form a Aa + b, where A is an invertible n n matrix and b is a fixed vector. Show that such a transformation is an automorphism of A n (i.e., an isomorphism to itself). (4) Show that the only automorphisms of the affine line A 1 are the affine transformations. Is it still true for n > 1? (5) Consider the plane curves given by the following equations: (a) x 2 y ; (b) xy ; (c) xy 1 ; (d) x 2 y 3. Prove that they are pairwise non-isomorph. Which of them is isomorphic to the affine line? (6) Let X be the plane curve defined by the equation x 2 y 3, f : A 1 X be the regular mapping such that f(λ) = (λ 3, λ 2 ) for each λ K. Prove that f is bijective, but its inverse is not regular. (7) Suppose that char K = p, a positive prime number. Show that the mapping Φ : A n A n such that Φ (a 1, a 2,..., a n ) = (a p 1, a p 2,..., a p n) is regular and bijective, but its inverse is not regular. This mapping is called the Frobenius mapping. (8) In the situation of the preceding exercise, suppose that X = X(S) for some set S F[ x ], where F is the prime subfield of K. Show that Φ(X) = X, where Φ is the Frobenius mapping Hilbert s Nullstellensatz Above we have defined the correspondence between the ideals I of the polynomial ring K[ x 1,..., x n ] and the affine varieties X A n K : to every ideal I corresponds the variety V (I) of its zeros and to every variety X corresponds the ideal I(X) of polynomials vanishing on X. It is clear that V (I(X)) = X: if a point a does not belong to X, then, by definition, there is a polynomial F vanishing on X (hence, lying in I(X) ) but not vanishing at a; thus, a / V (I(X)). On the other hand, simple examples show that I(V (I)) I can happen. For instance, if I = F 2 for some polynomial F, then F I(V (I)) but F / I. Exercise Suppose that I = F. Find I(V (I)) using the decomposition of F into a product of irreducible polynomials (remind that such a decomposition is unique up to permutation and constant multipliers). The last example can be easily generalized. Namely, denote by I the set of all polynomials F such that F k I for some integer k. This set is called the root of the ideal I. Exercise Check that I is again an ideal.

8 1.3. HILBERT S NULLSTELLENSATZ 7 Obviously, I I(V (I)). A remarkable theorem by Hilbert shows that these two ideals indeed coincide. Theorem (Hilbert s Nullstellensatz). If the field K is algebraically closed, then I(V (I)) = I for every ideal I K[ x 1,..., x n ]. An ideal I of a ring A is called a radical ideal if I = I. In particular, Hilbert Nullstellensatz claims that an ideal I K[ x ] is the defining ideal of an affine variety if and only if it is a radical ideal. First note the following special case of this theorem. Corollary V (I) = if and only if I = K[ x 1,..., x n ]. Indeed, V (I) = means that all polynomials vanish on V (I). In particular, 1 I(V (I)). But it means that 1 I as 1 k = 1. Then certainly I contains all polynomials. The converse is evident. The following trick shows that Hilbert s Nullstellensatz is indeed a consequence of this special case. Proposition (Rabinovich s Lemma). If Corollary is valid, then Theorem is valid too. Proof. Let F I(V (I)). Consider the ideal J K[ x 1,..., x n+1 ] generated by all polynomials from I and by x n+1 F 1. Obviously, V (J) =. Hence, 1 J, i.e. m (1.3.1) 1 = H i F i + H m+1 (x n+1 F 1) i=1 for some polynomials H i K[ x 1,..., x n+1 ] and some polynomials F i I. The equality (1.3.1) is a formal equality of polynomials, so we can replace in it the variables x i by any values taken from any K-algebra. Replacing x n+1 by 1/F, we get: m 1 = H i (x 1,..., x n, 1/F )F i (x 1,..., x n ). i=1 Multiplying this equality by the common denominator, which is F k for some integer k, we get: m F k = G i F i I, i=1 where G i stands for F k H i (x 1,..., x n, 1/F ). We are going now to prove Corollary (which is also often called Nullstellensatz ). Moreover, we shall give an equivalent formulation of it, which will be valid for any field K, not only for algebraically closed one. (And in the remainder of this section, as well as in the next one, we do not suppose the field K being algebraically closed.) First make the following simple remarks.

9 8 1. AFFINE VARIETIES Proposition Let I 1 I 2 I 3... be an increasing chain of ideals of a noetherian ring (e.g. of K[ x 1,..., x n ]). Then it stabilizes, i.e., there is a number r such that I r = I s for all s > r. Proof. As we have remarked before, the union I = i I i is again an ideal. As the ring is noetherian, I = a 1,..., a m for some finite set. Each of a k belongs to some ideal I ik. Then we can put r = max k i k : obviously, I r = I = I s for all s > r. Corollary For every proper ideal I A of a noetherian ring A, there is a maximal ideal containing I. Remind that a maximal ideal is a proper ideal J A there are no proper ideals J with J J. such that Proof. If I is not maximal, there is a proper ideal I 1 I. If I 1 is not maximal, there is a proper ideal I 2 I 1, etc. Hence, if there is no maximal ideal containing I, we get an increasing chain of ideals which never stabilizes. It contradicts Proposition Remark. Indeed, the last corollary is valid for any ring, no matter whether it is noetherian or not, but its proof requires some transfinite set-theoretical tools like Zorn Lemma or something equivalent. We will never use it for non-noetherian rings. Proposition If 0 is the unique proper ideal of a ring A, then A is a field. Proof. Let a 0 be an element of A, I = a. As I 0, we have that I = A. In particular, 1 I, i.e., there is an element b A such that ab = 1; so a is invertible. Corollary A proper ideal I A is maximal if and only if A/I is a field. Proof. I is maximal if and only if there are no proper ideals in A/I except of 0. Now we are ready to reformulate Corollary in the following way: Theorem If I is a maximal ideal of the polynomial ring K[ x ], where K is any field, then the field K[ x ]/I is an algebraic extension of K. Show that this theorem really implies Corollary Indeed, let I be a proper ideal from K[ x ], where K is algebraically closed, and J be a maximal ideal containing I. As K has no proper algebraic extensions, then K[ x ]/J = K. Hence, we obtain a homomorphism K[ x ] K with the kernel J I or, the same, a homomorphism K[ x ]/I K. Then Proposition shows that V (I).

10 1.4. INTEGRAL DEPENDENCE 9 We shall reformulate Theorem once more. Note that the factor-algebra K[ x ]/I for every ideal I is a finitely generated K- algebra. In view of Corollary 1.3.9, we see that Theorem is equivalent to the following one: Theorem If a finitely generated K-algebra A is a field, it is an algebraic extension of K. The last theorem will be proved in the next section using rather powerful and important tools called integral dependence and Noether normalization Integral dependence In this section we do not suppose the field K to be algebraically closed. Definition Let A B be an extension of rings. (1) An element b B is called integral over A if F (b) = 0 for some polynomial F A[x] with the leading coefficient 1. (2) The ring B is called an integral extension of A if every element of B is integral over A, If A is a field, integral coincides with algebraic, as we can always divide any non-zero polynomial by its leading coefficient. Indeed, we shall see that many features of integral extensions of rings are similar to those of algebraic extensions of fields. Before studying this notion more detailed, we show how to use it for the proof of Hilbert s Nullstellensatz. First make the following simple observation. Proposition Suppose that an integral extension B of a ring A is a field. Then A is also a field. Proof. Let a be a non-zero element of A, b = a 1 its inverse in the field B. As the latter is integral over A, there are such elements c i A that b m + c 1 b m c m = 0. Multiplying this equality by a m 1, we get: b = c 1 c m a m 1 A, so a is invertible in A. The following result plays the decisive role in the proof of Hilbert s Nullstellensatz, as well as in the dimension theory of algebraic varieties. Theorem (Noether s Normalization Lemma). If B is a finitely generated K-algebra, then there is a subalgebra A B isomorphic to a polynomial algebra K[ x 1,..., x d ] and such that B is an integral extension of A. The last theorem immediately implies Nullstellensatz. Indeed, suppose that B is a field. Then A is also a field by Proposition 1.4.2, hence, A = K and B is an algebraic extension of K.

11 10 1. AFFINE VARIETIES To prove Noether s Normalization Lemma (thus, Hilbert s Nullstellensatz), we need some elementary properties of integral extensions, as well as of modules over noetherian rings. Remind the following definition. Definition A module over a ring A (or an A-module) is an abelian group M together with a multiplication law A M M, (a, v) av, such that the following conditions hold: (1) a(bv) = (ab)v for all a, b A and v M. (2) 1v = v for every v M. (3) (a + b)v = av + bv for all a, b A and v M. (4) a(u + v) = au + av for all a A and u, v M. Note that if A is a field, this notion coincides with that of the vector space over A. Certainly, any extension B of a ring A can be considered as an A-module, as well as any ideal of the ring A. One can also define the notions of submodule, factor-module, etc., in the usual way and we shall use them freely, as well as their elementary properties, which are the same as for abelian groups or vector spaces. In particular, an ideal of A is just a submodule of A considered as a module over itself. Definitions Let M be a module over a ring A. (1) A subset S M is called a generating set of the module M if for every v M there are elements a i A and u i S such that v = i a iu i. (2) A module is called finitely generated if it has a finite generating set. (3) For every subset S M denote by S, or S A if it is necessary to precise the ring, the submodule of M generated by S. i.e., the set of all linear combinations i a iu i, where a i run through A and u i run through S. (4) A module M is called noetherian if every submodule N M is finitely generated, i.e., has a finite generating set. In particular, the ring A is noetherian if and only if it is noetherian when considered as a module over itself. Proposition (1) Every submodule and factor-module of a noetherian module is noetherian. (2) If a submodule N of a module M and the factor-module M/N are both noetherian, then M is also noetherian. (3) If the ring A is noetherian, then every finitely generated A- module is noetherian too. Proof. Let M be an A-module, N its submodule and L = M/N. 1. It is evident that if M is noetherian, N is noetherian as well. Consider any submodule L L. It is of the form N /N for some

12 1.4. INTEGRAL DEPENDENCE 11 submodule N such that N N. As M is noetherian, N has a finite generating set { u 1, u 2,..., u r }. Then the set of the classes { u 1 + N,..., u r + N } is generating for L. Hence, L is noetherian. 2. Suppose that both N and L are noetherian. Let M be any submodule of M. Then M N has a finite generating set { u 1, u 2,..., u r }. The factor-module M /(M N), isomorphic to the submodule (M + N)/N of M/N, also has a finite generating set { w 1, w 2,..., w t }. Let w i = v i + (M N). We show that the set { v 1, v 2,..., v t, u 1, u 2,..., u r } is generating for M. Indeed, consider any element v M and its class w = v + (M N) in M /(M N). Then w = i a iw i for some a i A. Put v = i a iv i. The class of the element v v in the factor-module M /(M N) is zero, i.e., v v M N. Therefore, v v = j b ju j for some b j A, whence v = i a iv i + j b ju j. 3. Let now the ring A be noetherian. Consider any finite generating set S = { u 1, u 2,..., u r } of the module M. We prove that M is noetherian using the induction by r. If r = 1, the mapping ϕ : A M such that ϕ(a) = au 1 is an epimorphism, whence M A/ Ker ϕ is noetherian. Suppose that the claim is valid for the modules having r 1 generators. Put N = u 1, u 2,..., u r 1. Then N is noetherian and { u r + N } is a generating set for M/N. Thus, M/N is also noetherian and M is noetherian as well. Now we use these facts to establish some basic properties of integral extensions. We also use the following notions. Definitions Let M be an A-module. (1) For any subset S M, call the annihilator of S in A the set Ann A (S) = { a A au = 0 for all u S }. (2) For any subset T A, call the annihilator of T in M the set Ann M (T ) = { u M au = 0 for all a T }. (3) The module M is called faithful if Ann A (M) = 0. Proposition Let A B be an extension of rings, b B. The following conditions are equivalent: (1) The element b B is integral over A. (2) The subring A[ b ] is finitely generated as A-module. (3) There is a finitely generated A-submodule M B such that bm M and 1 M. (4) There is a finitely generated A-submodule M B such that bm M and Ann B (M) = 0. Proof. 1 2 : If b m + a 1 b m a m = 0, where a i A, then { 1, b,..., b m 1 } is a generating set of A[ b ] as of A-module. 2 3 : One can take A[ b ] for M. 3 4 is trivial.

13 12 1. AFFINE VARIETIES 4 1 : Let { u 1, u 2,..., u m } be a generating set of M. Then bu j = i a iju i for some a ij A ( j = 1,..., m ). These equalities can be written in the matrix form as (bi A)u = 0, where A = (a ij ), I is the m m identity matrix and u is the column (u 1, u 2,..., u m ). Multiplying the last equality by the adjoint matrix (bi A), one gets det(bi A)u = 0 or det(bi A)u i = 0 for all i. Then det(bi A)M = 0, whence det(bi A) = 0. But det(bi A) is of the form b m + c 1 b m c m with c i A. Hence, b is integral over A. Corollary Let A B be an extension of rings. (1) The set of all elements from B which are integral over A is a subring of B. This subring is called the integral closure of A in B. (2) If B is integral over A, C B is an extension of B and an element c C is integral over B, then c is integral over A as well. In particular, if B is integral over A and C is integral over B, then C is also integral over A. Proof. 1. Let b, c B be both integral over A. Find finitely generated A-submodules M, N B such that bm M, cn N and both M and N contain 1. Consider the set MN = { i u iv i u i M, v i N }. One can easily check that it is also a finitely generated A-submodule and 1 MN. Moreover, both bmn MN and cmn MN, whence both (b + c)mn MN and (bc)mn MN. Hence, b + c and bc are integral over A. 2. Let c m + b 1 c m b m = 0, where b i B. Just as above, one can find a finitely generated A-submodule M B such that b i M M for all i = 1,..., m and 1 M. Put N = m 1 i=0 ci M. It is a finitely generated A-submodule in C containing 1 and cn N. Hence, c is integral over A. To prove Noether s Normalization Lemma, we also need the following simple fact about polynomial algebras. Lemma Let F K[ x 1,..., x n ] be a polynomial of positive degree. There is an automorphism ϕ of the polynomial algebra K[ x 1,..., x n ] such that d 1 (1.4.1) ϕ(f ) = λx d n + G i x i n, where G i K[ x 1,..., x n 1 ] and λ 0 is an element of K. Proof. Let k be the maximal integer such that x k i occurs in F for some i, t = k + 1. Consider the automorphism ϕ defined as i=1

14 1.5. GEOMETRY AND ALGEBRA 13 follows: ϕ(x i ) = x i + x ti n for i < n ; ϕ(x n ) = x n. Then, for any m = (m 1, m 2,..., m n ), ϕ(x m ) = x ν(m) n ν(m) = m n + m 1 t + m 2 t m n 1 t n 1 + H, where and H only contains x n in the degrees less than ν(m). If this monomial occurs in F, then all m i < t. Therefore, the values ν(m) are different for different monomials occurring in F, thus, ϕ(f ) is of the form (1.4.1), where d is the maximal value of ν(m). Proof of Noether s Normalization Lemma. Let B = K[ b ] be a finitely generated K-algebra, where b = (b 1, b 2,..., b n ). There are epimorphisms f : K[ x ] B (for instance one mapping x i to b i ). Consider one of them. Then B K[ x ]/I, where I = Ker f. If I = 0, B K[ x ]. Suppose that I contains a polynomial F of positive degree. By Lemma , there is an automorphism ϕ of K[ x ] such that ϕ(f ) is of the form (1.4.1). Replacing f by f ϕ, we may suppose that F itself is of this form. As the images f(x i ) generate the K-algebra B, we may also suppose that f(x i ) = b i. Hence, λb d n + g 1 b d 1 n + + g d = 0, where g i = G i (b 1, b 2,..., b n 1 ). As λ is invertible, the element b n is integral over the subring B = K[ b 1,..., b n 1 ]. Now a simple induction (using Lemma 1.4.9(2) ) accomplishes the proof. Exercises (1) Find an example of a finitely generated module containing a submodule which is not finitely generated. Hint: Consider the polynomial ring in infinitely many variables. (2) Suppose that the ring extension B A is of finite type, i.e. B = A[ b 1,..., b n ] for some b i B. Prove that if every b i is integral over A, then B is finitely generated as A-module and, hence, is integral over A. (3) Prove that if the field K is infinite, the automorphism ϕ in Lemma can be chosen linear, i.e., such that ϕ(x j ) = i α ijx i, where A = (α ij ) is an invertible n n matrix over K. Hint: Find an n-tuple a A n K such that F d(a) 0, where F d is the sum of all terms of degree d from F, and an invertible matrix A such that a is its last column Geometry and algebra Again we suppose K to be an algebraically closed field. First we establish some consequences of Hilbert Nullstellensatz.

15 14 1. AFFINE VARIETIES Proposition A K-algebra A is isomorphic to a coordinate algebra of an affine algebraic variety if and only if it is finitely generated and reduced, i.e., has no non-zero nilpotent elements. In what follows, finitely generated reduced K-algebras are called affine algebras (over K ). Proof. The only if claim is obvious from the definition. Suppose now A = K[ a 1,..., a n ] to be an affine algebra. Consider the homomorphism ϕ : K[ x ] A mapping F to F (a 1, a 2,..., a n ). It is an epimorphism, hence, A K[ x ]/I, where I = Ker ϕ. Moreover, I = I. Indeed, if F I, then ϕ(f k ) = (ϕ(f )) k = 0 for some k, whence ϕ(f ) = 0 as A is reduced, so F I. By Hilbert Nullstellensatz, then I = I(X), where X = V (I), and A K[ X ]. Let X A n be an affine variety, A = K[ x ]/I(X) be its coordinate algebra. We show that both the variety X and its Zariski topology are completely defined by the algebra A. For every subset Y X, put I(Y ) = { a A a(y) = 0 for all y Y }. Obviously, I(Y ) is a radical ideal in A. If Y = { x } consists of a single point, we write m x instead of I({ x }). Conversely, for every subset S A, put V (S) = { x X a(x) = 0 for all a S }. It is a closed set in the Zariski topology, i.e., is also an affine variety, namely, V (S) = V (I S), where S consists of (some) preimages in K[ x ] of the functions a S. Certainly, if X = A n, we get the old definitions of Section 1.1. Moreover, we can generalize Hilbert Nullstellensatz to this situation as follows. Corollary (1) V (I(Z)) = Z for every Zariski closed subset Z X. (2) I(V (I)) = I for every ideal I A ; thus, if I is a radical ideal, then I(V (I)) = I. In particular, V (I) = if and only if I = A. Proof. Exercise. Thus, we get a 1-1 correspondence between Zariski closed subsets of X and radical ideals in A. Moreover, it immediately follows from the definition that K[ Z ] = K[ X ]/I(Z) for every closed Z X. Proposition (1) For every point x X, the ideal m x is maximal. (2) Conversely, for every maximal ideal m A there is a unique point x X such that m = m x. Proof. 1. Consider the evaluation homomorphism v x : A K ( v x (a) = a(x) ). Obviously, it is an epimorphism and m x = Ker v x. Hence, A/m x K is a field and m x is a maximal ideal.

16 1.5. GEOMETRY AND ALGEBRA As m A, there is a point x X such that a(x) = 0 for all a m. Hence, m m x and m = m x as it is a maximal ideal. The uniqueness of x is evident. Thus, we can (and often will) identify an affine variety X with the set Max A of maximal ideals of its coordinate algebra A. The latter is called the maximal spectrum of the ring A. Moreover, the Zariski topology on X can be obtained in a purely algebraic way as follows: Proposition Let Z X be a Zariski closed subset, I = I(Z). Then x Z if and only if m x I. In other words, Zariski closed subsets of X correspond to the subsets of Max A of the form { m m I }, where I runs through radical ideals of A. Proof is evident. Definitions Let X be a topological space. (1) X is called noetherian if every decreasing chain of its closed subsets Z 1 Z 2 Z 3... stabilizes, i.e., there is an integer r such that Z s = Z r for all s > r. (2) X is called irreducible if it is non-empty and Y Z X for any proper closed subsets Y, Z X. Equivalently, X is irreducible if and only if any non-empty open subset U X is dense in X, i.e., U U for any other non-empty open U X. Proposition (1) Any affine algebraic variety is a noetherian topological space. (2) An affine algebraic variety is irreducible if and only if its coordinate algebra is integral, i.e., is non-zero and contains no non-zero zero divisors. Proof. 1 follows from Proposition 1.3.6, as any decreasing chain of closed subsets Z 1 Z 2 Z 3... defines the increasing chain of ideals in the coordinate ring: I 1 I 2 I 3..., where I i = I(Z i ). The latter stabilizes: there is some r such that I s = I r for s > r. Then Z s = V (I s ) = V (I r ) = Z r. 2. Let X be a non-empty affine variety, A its coordinate algebra. Suppose that A is integral and Y, Z X are proper closed subsets. Put I = I(Y ), J = I(Z). Then I 0 and J 0. Let a I and b J be non-zero. Then ab 0 and ab I(Y Z). Hence, I(Y Z) 0 and Y Z X, i.e., X is irreducible. Suppose now that X is irreducible and a, b A are non-zero elements. Then Y = V (a) and Z = V (b) are proper closed subsets, thus, V (ab) = Y Z X. Hence, ab 0 and A is integral.

17 16 1. AFFINE VARIETIES Corollary A closed subset Z X is irreducible if and only if the corresponding ideal I(Z) K[ X ] is prime, i.e., is a proper ideal such that if a and b do not belong to it, its product also does not belong to it. Certainly, every subset of a noetherian space is noetherian in the induced topology. For noetherian spaces we can often use the so called noetherian induction : to prove some proposition, check first that it holds for the empty set and then prove that it holds for X whenever it holds for every proper closed subset Y X. Then our proposition is valid for any noetherian space. As an example, we prove the following result. Theorem Let X be a noetherian topological space. Then there are irreducible closed subsets X 1, X 2,..., X s X such that X = s i=1 X i and X i X j for i j. Moreover, these X i are unique: if X = r i=1 Y i, where Y i are irreducible closed subsets and Y i Y j for i j, then r = s and there is a substitution σ such that X i = Y σ(i) for all i. The closed subsets X i are called the irreducible components (or simply components) of X and the equality X = s i=1 X i is called the irreducible decomposition of X. Proof. First prove the existence of such a decomposition. If X =, the claim is obvious. Suppose that it is valid for any proper closed subset of X. If X is irreducible itself, we put s = 1, X 1 = X. Let X = Y Z for two proper closed subsets Y and Z. Then, by the supposition, Y = k i=1 X i and Z = s i=k+1 X i, where all X i are irreducible closed subsets. Hence, X = s i=1 X i. If X i X j for some i j, we can cross out X i from this decomposition. After a finite number of such crossings, we get a decomposition of the necessary kind. Now we prove the uniqueness. Let X = s i=1 X i = r i=1 Y i be two irreducible decompositions. Then, for each i, X i = r j=1 (X i Y j ). As X i is irreducible, X i Y j for some j. Just in the same way, Y j X k for some k, whence X i X k. Therefore, i = k, so X i = Y j. Obviously, such a number j is unique; moreover, different i give different j. Hence, s = r and the mapping i j defines a substitution σ such that X i = Y σ(i) for all i. Using the 1-1 correspondence between radical ideals in an affine algebra and closed subsets of the corresponding variety, we can reformulate Theorem in the following way. Corollary For any radical ideal I of an affine algebra, there are prime ideals P 1, P 2,..., P s such that I = s i=1 P i and P i P j for i j. Moreover, these P i are unique: if I = r i=1 Q i, where Q i are prime ideals and Q i Q j for i j, then r = s and there is

18 1.6. STRUCTURE SHEAF. RINGS OF FRACTIONS 17 a substitution σ such that P i = Q σ(i) for all i. The prime ideals P i are called the prime components of the radical ideal I and the equality I = s i=1 P i is called the prime decomposition of I. Exercise Prove that Corollary is valid for radical ideals of an arbitrary noetherian ring. Remark. There is a more refined version of Corollary concerning all ideals of a noetherian ring (in particular, of an affine algebra), where prime ideals are replaced by the so called primary ones, but we do not need this refinement. Exercises (1) Prove that, for every radical ideal I of an affine algebra A, I = m Max A, m I m. (2) Find an example showing that the preceding assertion can be wrong for arbitrary noetherian rings. Hint: You may consider the ring of formal power series in one variable. (3) Let γ : A B be a homomorphism of affine algebras and m be a maximal ideal of B. Prove that γ 1 (m) is a maximal ideal of A. (4) Find an example showing that the preceding assertion can be wrong for arbitrary noetherian rings. (5) Prove that any noetherian topological space is quasi-compact. (It means that every open covering of such a space contains a finite subcovering.) (6) Prove that irreducible components of a hypersurface V (F ) are just the hypersurfaces V (F i ), where F i run through the prime divisors of F. (7) Find the irreducible components of the following affine varieties in A 3 C : (a) X = V (x 2 + yz, x 2 + y 2 + z 2 1) ; (b) X = V (x 2 yz, x 3 z 2 ). (8) Let f : Y X be a morphism of affine varieties. (a) Show that f is surjective if and only if f is a closed embedding, i.e., induces an isomorphism of Y onto a closed subvariety of X. (b) Show that f is injective if and only if f is dominant, i.e., its image is dense in X Structure sheaf. Rings of fractions Remind the notion of a sheaf on a topological space. Definition A sheaf F on a topological space X consists of sets F(U), given for every open subset U X, and of mappings

19 18 1. AFFINE VARIETIES FV U : F(U) F(V ), given for every pair V U of open subsets, such that the following conditions hold: (1) FU U is the identity mapping for every U. (2) FW U = F W V F V U for every triple W V U of open sets. (3) Given any open covering U = i U i of an open set U and any elements f i F(U i ) such that F U i U i U j (f i ) = F U j U i U j (f j ) for all i, j, there is a unique element f F(U) such that f i = FU U i (f) for all i. The elements of F(U) are called the sections of the sheaf F over the open set U. The mappings FV U are called the restriction mappings. If all F(U) are groups (rings, algebras, etc.) and all FV U are homomorphisms of groups (resp., rings, algebras, etc.), then F is called a sheaf of groups (resp., rings, algebras, etc.). For every affine algebraic variety X with the coordinate algebra A we define its structure sheaf O X (or O if X is fixed) in the following way. The set O(U) consists of all functions f : U K satisfying the following condition: For every point x U, there is a neighbourhood V U and two functions a, b A such that, for all y V, b(y) 0 and f(y) = a(y)/b(y). The mapping OV U maps every function f F(U) to its restriction on V. Exercise Verify that O X is indeed a sheaf of K-algebras. The functions from O X (U) are called the regular functions on U and the structure sheaf O X is also called the sheaf of regular functions. Usually, it is not so easy to calculate the algebra O(U). Nevertheless, in some cases it can be done. First of all it is so for the global sections. Proposition O X (X) = K[ X ]. Proof. Suppose that f O(X). Then there is an open covering X = i U i and regular functions a i, b i such that b i (x) 0 and f(x) = a i (x)/b i (x) for all i and for all x U i. As X is quasi-compact and principal open sets form a base of the Zariski topology (cf. Exercise 1.2.4(1) ), we can suppose that this covering is finite and each U i is a principle open set D(g i ) = { x X g i (x) 0 }. As b i (y) 0 for every y D(g i ), i.e., b i (x) = 0 implies g i (x) = 0, Hilbert Nullstellensatz gives that gi k = b i c i for some k and some regular function c i. Therefore, f = a i c i /gi k on U i = D(g i ) = D(gi k ), so we may suppose that already U i = D(b i ). Then U i U j = D(b i b j ). As a i /b i = a j /b j on this intersection, we have that a i b j = a j b i on D(b i b j ) or, the same a i b i b 2 j = a j b j b 2 i everywhere. But f = a i /b i = a i b i /b 2 i on U i, hence,

20 1.6. STRUCTURE SHEAF. RINGS OF FRACTIONS 19 replacing a i by a i b i and b i by b 2 i, we may suppose that a i b j = a j b i everywhere. Then b i f = b i a j /b j = a i on each U j, i.e., everywhere. Note now that X = i D(b i), thus, V ({ b i }) =. By Hilbert Nullstellensatz, there are regular functions h i such that i h ib i = 1, whence f = i h ib i f = i h ia i is a regular function on X. Almost the same can be done for principle open sets, but before we need some algebraic preliminaries, namely, the notion of rings of fractions. Consider an arbitrary ring A. A subset S A is called multiplicative if 1 S and st S for every s, t S. Given a multiplicative subset S A, construct a new ring as follows: (1) Consider the set of pairs A S and the equivalence relation on it: (a, s) (b, t) if and only if there is an element r S such that atr = bsr. Denote by A[S 1 ] the set of the equivalence classes of this relation and by a/s the class of the pair (a, s) in A[S 1 ]. (2) For two elements, a/s and b/t of A[S 1 ], put a/s + b/t = (at + bs)/st and (a/s)(b/t) = ab/st. Exercises (1) Verify that is indeed an equivalence relation on A S. (2) Verify that the definitions of sum and product do not depend on the choice of the pairs (a, s) and (b, t) in their classes. (3) Verify that A[S 1 ] with these definitions of sums and products becomes a ring. The ring A[S 1 ] is called the ring of fractions of A with respect to the multiplicative subset S. If S consists of all non-zero-divisors of A, the ring of fractions A[S 1 ] is called the full ring of fractions of A. Certainly, if A is integral, the full ring of fractions is just the field of fractions of A. Exercises (1) Check that the mapping ρ S : A A[S 1 ] such that ρ S (a) = a/1 is a homomorphism of rings and Ker ρ S = { a A as = 0 for some s S }. In particular, A[S 1 ] is a zero ring if and only if 0 S ; ρ S is an embedding if and only if S does not contain any zero divisors. (In the last case, we usually identify A with its image in A[S 1 ] and write a for a/1.) (2) Let T be another multiplicative subset in A, T/1 = { t/1 t T } its image in A[S 1 ]. Prove that A[S 1 ][(T/1) 1 ] A[(ST ) 1 ], where ST = { st s S, t T }. (3) Prove that if S contains no zero divisors, A[S 1 ] is canonically isomorphic to a subring of the full ring of fractions. (We will usually identify them.) In particular, if A is integral and

21 20 1. AFFINE VARIETIES 0 / S, the ring A[S 1 ] can be considered as a subring of the field of fractions of A. If g is an element of A, S = { g k k N }, the ring of fractions A[S 1 ] is also denoted by A[ g 1 ] and the mapping ρ S is denoted by ρ g. Exercise Let X be an affine algebraic variety, A = K[ X ]. The aim of this exercise is to prove that, for each principle open subset U = D(g), O X (U) A[g 1 ] and, under their identification, the restriction OU X coincides with ρ g. We follow the proof of Proposition (1) Verify that every element of A[g 1 ] can be considered as a regular function on U and different elements of A[g 1 ] define different functions. Hence, A[g 1 ] can be identified with a subring of O X (U). Check that, under this identification, ρ g coincides with OU X. (2) Verify that if U = i U i, is an open covering, there are principle open sets D(g i ) U i such that U is a finite union of some of D(g i ). Thus, if a function f : U K is regular, there is a finite set { g 1, g 2,..., g m } such that U = i U i, where U i = D(g i ), and f(x) = a i (x)/b i (x) for every x U i, where a i, b i A and b i (x) 0 for every x U i. (3) Let f be any regular function on U ; U i = D(g i ), a i and b i are defined as above. Check that, changing the elements a i, b i, g i, one may suppose that b i = g i. (4) Considering the restriction of f onto D(b i b j ), check that one may suppose that a i b j = a j b i, whence b i f = a i on U. (5) Prove that g k = i h ib i for some integer k and some h i A, whence f A[g 1 ].

22 CHAPTER 2 Projective and Abstract Varieties 2.1. Projective varieties and homogeneous ideals Remind that the n-dimensional projective space P n K over the filed K 1 (or simply P n if K is fixed) is, by definition, the set of equivalence classes (A n+1 \{ 0 })/, where (a 0, a 1,..., a n ) (b 0, b 1,..., b n ) means that a i = λb i for all i and some non-zero λ K. The equivalence class of (a 0, a 1,..., a n ) in P n is denoted by (a 0 : a 1 : : a n ) ; the elements a i are called the homogeneous coordinates of the point a = (a 0 : a 1 : : a n ) P n. Again we are going to define a projective algebraic variety as the set of common zeros of some polynomials. However, as the homogeneous coordinates of a point are only defined up to a common multiple, we cannot consider arbitrary polynomials and have to restrict ourselves by homogeneous ones, i.e., such polynomials F that all monomials occurring in F are of the same degree. Of course, if F is homogeneous and F (a 0, a 1,..., a n ) = 0, then also F (λa 0, λa 1,..., λa n ) = 0, i.e., we may say that F (a) = 0 for a point a of the projective space. Exercise Let F be an arbitrary polynomial, F d denote its homogeneous component of degree d, i.e., the sum of all monomials of degree d occurring in F. Suppose that F (λa 0, λa 1,..., λa n ) = 0 for every non-zero λ K. Prove that F d (a 0, a 1,..., a n ) = 0 for all d. A subset X P n K is called a projective algebraic variety if it coincides with the set P V (S) of common zeros of a set S of homogeneous polynomials. Again we often omit the word algebraic and simply say projective variety. If F is a subfield of K, one denotes again by X(F) the set of all points of the variety X whose coordinates belong to F. If S consists of a single polynomial F, we call P V (F ) a (projective) hypersurface (plane curve if n = 1, space surface if n = 2 ). An ideal I K[ x 0, x 1,..., x n ] is called homogeneous if, for every F I, all homogeneous components of F also belong to I. In other words, I = d I d, where I d denotes the set of all homogeneous polynomials of degree d belonging to I (including 0 ). 1 Just as before, we usually suppose this field being algebraically closed. 21

23 22 2. PROJECTIVE AND ABSTRACT VARIETIES Exercises (1) Show that an ideal I K[ x ] is homogeneous if and only if it has a set of generators consisting of homogeneous polynomials. (2) Show that any divisor of a homogeneous polynomial is again homogeneous. In particular, a homogeneous polynomial is irreducible if and only if it has no proper homogeneous divisors. (3) Prove that if an ideal I is homogeneous, its radical I is homogeneous too. One can easily see, just as in the affine case, that any intersection and any finite union of projective varieties in P n is again a projective variety. Hence, we can define the Zariski topology on P n taking projective varieties for its closed sets. We always consider projective space and all its subsets (in particular, projective varieties) with this topology. It is obvious that if I = S, where S is a set of homogeneous polynomials, then F (a) = 0 for every F I and a P V (S). Moreover, P V (S) = P V (S ) for every set of homogeneous generators of the ideal I. That is why we also denote P V (S) by P V (I). On the other hand, for every subset X P n, we can define the homogeneous ideal I(X) as { F K[ x ] F (a) = 0 for all a X }. (Note that this ideal is always homogeneous in view of Exercise ) It is quite obvious that P V (I(X)) = X if and only if X is a projective variety and that I(X) is always a radical ideal. Nevertheless, there are some proper homogeneous ideals I such that P V (I) =. This is the case, for instance, for the ideal I + = x 0, x 1,..., x n. (This ideal consists of all polynomials with zero constant term. One can easily see that any proper homogeneous ideal is contained in I +.) The following version of Hilbert Nullstellensatz shows that this is, in some sense, the only exception. Theorem (Projective Hilbert Nullstellensatz). Let I K[ x ] be a proper homogeneous ideal. Then (1) P V (I) = if and only if I = I +, or, the same, I k + I for some k. (2) If P V (I), then I(P V (I)) = I. Proof. Consider the affine variety V (I) A n+1. (It is called the (affine) cone over the projective variety P V (I).) It always contains 0 as all polynomials from I have zero constant term. If P V (I) =, then V (I) = { 0 }, whence I(V (I)) = I = I +. On the other hand, if P V (I), then, obviously, I(P V (I)) = I(V (I)) = I, in view of Hilbert Nullstellensatz. Corollary There is a 1-1 correspondence between projective varieties in P n and radical homogeneous ideals in K[ x 0, x 1,..., x n ].

24 2.1. PROJECTIVE VARIETIES AND HOMOGENEOUS IDEALS 23 One call a proper homogeneous ideal I K[ x ] essential if I I + ; thus, essential ideals define non-empty projective varieties. Denote by A n i the subset of P n consisting of all points a = (a 0 : a 1 : : a n ) such that a i 0. Such points can be uniquely presented in the following way: a = (a 0 /a i : : 1 : : a n /a i ), where 1 is at the i-th place. Hence, we may identify A n i with the n-dimensional affine space and we will always do it. Certainly, P n = n i=0 An i and A n i are open in the Zariski topology of P n. One calls them the canonical affine covering of P n. Proposition The Zariski topology of A n i as an affine space coincides with that induced from P n. In other words, if X is a closed subset of P n, then X A n i is closed in A n i, and every closed subset of A n i is of the form X A n i for some closed subset of P n. Proof. Let P i be the polynomial ring in the variables t j for 0 j n, j i. We consider P i as the coordinate algebra of A n i in the obvious way. We also put t i = 1. For every homogeneous polynomial F K[ x 0, x 1,..., x n ] of degree d, put F (i) = F (t 0, t 1,..., t n ) P i. On the other hand, for every polynomial G P i of degree d, put G = x d i G(x 0 /x i,..., x n /x i ) (of course, x i /x i should be omitted here). G is always a homogeneous polynomial of degree d from K[ x ]. For every set S K[ x ] of homogeneous polynomials, put S (i) = { F (i) F S } and for every subset T P i put T = { G G T }. Consider a point a = (a 0 : a 1 : : a n ) A n i. As a i 0, F (a) = 0 if and only if F (i) (a 0 /a i,..., a n /a i ) = 0. Hence, for every set S of homogeneous polynomials, P V (S) A n i = V (S (i) ) is a closed subset of A n i. On the other hand, if b = (b 0,..., ˇb i,..., b n ) is a point of A n i, then G(b) = 0 if and only if G (b 0,..., 1,..., b n ) = 0 ( 1 on the i-th place). Hence, for every subset T P i, V (T ) = P V (T ) A n i. Remark. As P n = m i=0 An i is an open covering, a subset X P n is closed (open) if and only if X A n i is closed (resp., open) in A n i for each i = 0,..., n. Moreover, for any closed subset Y A n i, Y = Y A n i, where Y is its closure in P n, and Y is open in Y. In particular, if X P n is a projective variety, then X i = X A n i are affine varieties, which form an open covering of X. This covering is also called the canonical affine covering of X. Example Consider the projective plane curve ( projective conic ) Q = P V (x x x 0 x 2 ). We calculate its affine parts Q i = Q A 2 i ( affine conics ). For A 2 0, put x = x 1 /x 0, y = x 2 /x 0 ; then Q 0 = V (x 2 + 2y + 1) ( parabola ). For A 2 1, put x = x 0 /x 1, y = x 2 /x 1 ; then Q 1 = V (x 2 + 2xy + 1) ( hyperbola ). At last, for A 2 2, put x = x 0 /x 2, y = x 1 /x 2 ; then Q 2 = V (x 2 + y 2 + 2y) ( ellipse, or even circle ).

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